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CONFIDENTIAL. A Division C 







OF FICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE . 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Washington, D. C. 



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MONTHLY INFORMATION 
BULLETIN. 



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NUMBER 1—1923. 



1 JANUARY, 1923. 



DISTRIBUTION: 

In general: Bureaus of the Navy Department; all force commanders; all commanding 
efficers of capital ships, the larger patrols,, destroyers, and submarines. 



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WAgTCNGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 

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CONFIDENTIAL. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION BULLETIN. 

NUMBER 1—1923—1 JANUARY, 1923. 

FOR CONVENIENCE IN ROUTING. 





Officer. 


Initials. 


Date received. 


Date forwarded. 




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First Lieutenant 










Navigating Officer 










Gunnery Officer . . 










Communication Officer . 










Engineer Officer 










Medical Officer 










Supply Officer 








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INDEX. 



I 

I 

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GREAT BRITAIN: Page 

Policy with respect to America 1 

Importance of merchant marine to Navy 1 

Engineer officer reduction 3 

Naval candidates in general election 4 

JAPAN: 

Organization of fleet 4 

Propaganda in Shantung 5 

Construction of submarines stopped 6 

Naval gunnery training , 6 

War vessels to be scrapped 8 

Naval reductions 8 

Reduction of naval personnel 9 

Allowances for retiring officers 10 

General notes regarding naval activities 10 

FRANCE: 

Pilotless plane tests . , 11 

ITALY: 

Political situation 12 

Some early results of Fascisti regime 14 

Military aspects of Fascisti movement 15 

BRAZIL: 

Relations with the United States 15 

Relationship between Brazilian and American Navies i_ 18 

CHILE: 

Attempts at Mexican propaganda 20 

CHINA: 

Japanese propaganda in China 23 

GERMANY: 

Reparation airship 24 

Range Anders, general information 24 

Suggested measures toward stabilization of the mark 25 

Naval attaches-* 30 

Experiments with magnetic cable 31 

Shipping 32 

RUSSIA: 

Aeronautics 3S 

(IH) '" 



IV 

SPAIN: Page . 

Report on Melilla disaster 3S 

SWEDEN: 

New building program 39 

TURKEY: 

The Greek retreat 40 

TABLES: 

Personnel, Great Britain, Japan 52 

United States Navy 54 

Naval programs 55 

Values of foreign currencies 56 






INDEX 



Page. 

Great Britain 1 

Japan , 4 

France 1 .11 

Italy 12 

Other countries: 

Brazil 15 

Chile j_--r .-i \ .20 

China 23 

Germany • 24 

Russia 38 

Spain 38 

Sweden 39 

Turkey , 40 

Miscellaneous: 52 

(V) 



Attention of the service is particularly invited to the following articles 
which appear in this month's Bulletin: 

BRAZIL '. Page. 

Relationship between Brazilian and American Navies IS 

TURKEY: 

The Greek retreat 40 

(VI) 

I 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

POLICY WITH RESPECT TO AMERICA. 
9 November, 1922. 

The following extract from an extended preelection address made 
in London by Lord Curzon, minister for foreign affairs, 8 November, 
1922, is of special interest as representing, not only the views of the 
speaker, but the policy of the British Government with respect to 
the United States : 

Of the United States I need only speak in a sentence — not because the im- 
portance of the matter is not supreme, but because our friendship with Amer- 
ica, consolidated by the wise action of Lord Balfour at Washington, supported 
as he was by our excellent ambassador, Sir Auckland Geddes, is a tradition 
and principle of British politics [cheers], a principle from which no Govern- 
ment would dream of departing. There has never been a time when there 
has been a closer feeling and more sympathetic understanding between the 
statesmen of our two countries than at present. 

As to our debt, we have frankly accepted the obligation — we shall pay. [Hear, 
hear.] We are paying, and a great and substantial payment will be made in 
this very month of November. We have arranged for the funding of the debt 
and the payment of the interest and sinking fund. At the close of the present 
year the new chancellor of the exchequer is going to America to conduct the 
negotiations which were to have been initiated by his predecessor, Sir Robert 
Home. 

As to the participation of America in the policies and aspirations of Europe, 
it is for her to offer, not for us to suggest. She has got interests not merely 
political, commercial, and financial, but moral, sentimental, and humanitarian 
in many of the great European problems, by which we are at present distracted. 
We can never forget the part, both idealistic and practical, which she took in 
the war, and whenever she is willing to give her assistance in the reestabhsh- 
ment of equilibrium and the conclusions of peace, we will welcome it. [Cheers.] 
She can do a great deal in that respect, but she must do it at her own time 
and in her own way. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

IMPORTANCE OF MERCHANT MARINE TO NAVY. 
8 November, 1922. 

The f ollowing article is quoted as of interest in connection with 
the development of the British mercantile marine, with a view of 

(1) 



its becoming more directly and intimately affiliated with the Eoyal 

Navy : 

The battleship is not obsolete. If it had not been for the Grand Fleet at 
Scapa Flow the Tenth Cruiser Squadron could not have carried out the 
blockade. Therefore the time is not ripe for scrapping our battleships. 

This statement was made by Admiral Sir R. G. O. Tupper at the conclusion 
of a lecture on " The blockade of Germany," which he delivered at the Royal 
United Service Institution, London. 

Admiral Tupper also referred to the large number of foreigners in the 
British merchant service, and said that our ships should be manned by 
British sailors. 

" I ask you," he said, " to do all you can to keep our merchant service up to 
its present standard, and to do away with all foreigners in the merchant 
service. In my humble opinion the merchant service should be manned en- 
tirely by British sailors. The Royal Navy personnel has been reduced to 
123,000. In the merchant service there are 284,000. Of these, 65,000 are 
foreigners and 75,000 lascars. There are 113.000 in our fishing fleet. We 
must interest our boys in the sea. No one wishes to forward a knowledge of 
the air more than I do, but I hope that in the pursuit of that knowledge the 
needs of the navy will not be lost sight of. because on it the safety of the 
Empire must still depend. I want to see the bonds between our navy, our 
merchant navy, and our fishing fleet more closely knit." 

In his lecture on the blockade Admiral Tupper described the dangers and 
difficulties of the operations with graphic detail. The blockade was at first 
carried on by older class cruisers, but it was soon found that these were quite 
unsuited for the work. In one terrific gale off the Shetlands the Crescent 
was nearly lost. The bridge was carried away, and it was with great diffi- 
culty she got back to port. It was decided to use merchant cruisers with 
merchant crews and naval officers in command. The holds were specially 
fitted to carry a large supply of coal, and they could keep at sea for 42 days 
or more at a stretch. These ships, the largest of which was the Alsatian, were 
all camouflaged and divided into separate patrols, which operated between 
Iceland and the Shetlands. Iceland tried hard to send hides, fish, and grease 
to enemy countries, and a strict watch had to be kept. 

" The vessels would patrol 30 miles apart, and as the men on the crow's 
nests could see 15 miles, a thorough lookout was assured. 

" We worked by Lloyd's list a good deal," said Admiral Tupper. " We used 
to pick out a list of suspects. Then it was our brains versus theirs. I am 
proud to state that hardly one ship ordered to be intercepted got through. 

" Directly a ship was sighted she was chased and ordered to stop. Then an 
examining officer and an armed guard boarded her and made a search for 
arms and contraband goods. Some of the artifices resorted to by ships were 
highly ingenious. Hollow masts, double decks, and double bulkheads were 
used to conceal arms. Rubber, which was of great service to the enemy, was 
disguised as coffee beans, and in some ships rubber was found painted to 
represent onions and other vegetables. 

" Tf a ship was found to be all right she Mas allowed to proceed on tier way. 
Tf, on the other hand, she was found to he running contraband, the armerl 
guard remained on board and made the captain put into Lerwick or Kirkwall. 
One extraordinary thing about the naval operations of the enemy was that 
they made a practice of firing at the boats of torpedoed merchantmen, but they 
never attacked the boats of a man-of-war." 



3 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

ENGINEER OFFICER REDUCTION. 
31 October, 1922. 

The special reduction scheme introduced in May, 1922, to remove 
the surplus of officers in the engineer branch of the Royal Navy prac- 
tically has been completed so far as engineer officers are concerned. 

The following extract from an article in the Times Trade Supple- 
ment of 28 October, 1922, is quoted as of interest in indicating the 
composition of the present and proposed engineer officers of the 
British Navy : 

A significant feature of the retrenchment scheme, so far as engineer officers 
were concerned, was its restrictions to those of the old scheme of direct entry 
and training. As regards the service in general, no distinction was made 
between specialist and nonspecialist officers, in deciding whether applications 
to retire were to be permitted, but it was specifically announced that "(E) 
officers and officers specializing in (E). of whom there is no surplus, are 
excluded from this scheme." These officers, of course, are those who entered 
as cadets and were trained together at Osborne and Dartmouth with the officers 
for other branches. On volunteering to specialize as engineers, they were 
appointed to a course of training at the Royal Naval College, Keyham, which 
is now commanded by an engineer-captain. R. N., and a selected number were 
subsequently appointed to an advanced course at the Royal Naval College. 
Greenwich. 

It will not be until June, 1923, that the earliest of these new scheme-engineer 
officers will be eligible for promotion to commander (E). The first of them 
was promoted in June, 1920, to lieutenant commander (E), and in accordance 
with a revision of the promotion zones recently announced, three years is the 
minimum to be completed, in the ordinary course, before advancement. So 
far, some 22 of them have attained the rank of lieutenant commander (E), 
of whom only 8 are employed in sea-going ships. The machinery of several 
small craft in the fleet is now under the charge of these officers, but not that 
of the larger battleships or battle cruisers, in which engineer commanders of 
the old school continue to serve as chiefs, though it is only a matter of time 
before Osborne-trained officers supersede the latter. Meanwhile, the other 
lieutenant commanders (E) are successfully filling important shore appoint- 
ments in the dockyards, the private shipyards, and the Admiralty and else- 
where. 

The prospects, therefore, of the younger engineer officers are very good. Not 
only is there no surplus among their own ranks, but the clearance of the 
higher lists makes possible a normal flow of promotion thereto. Moreover, the 
changes in administration which are contemplated will increase opportunities 
for service and distinction in the branch, especially when the electrical installa- 
tions of large ships, now in charge of the torpedo lieutenants, are transferred 
to the engineer officers. 
246G6— 23 2 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

NAVAL CANDIDATES IN GENERAL ELECTION. 
8 November, 1922. 

In connection with the general election, the folloAving rules were 
issued by the Admiralty : 

Officers or men wishing to stand as candidates must get Admiralty permission. 

The candidate may then be granted leave to see ins nominators and for the 
election. 

The candidate may address meetings and otherwise prosecute his candidature, 
but not in uniform. 

If elected, an officer goes to half pay, subject to retirement for nonservice. 
A rating may take full discharge or go to the Royal Fleet Reserve for two 
years, during which he may either take discharge, or. subject to approval, 
revert. 

Officers or men assisting in political campaigns are not to wear uniform. 

Men in uniform may attend meetings and ask questions. 



JAPAN. 

ORGANIZATION OF FLEET. 
24 November, 1922. 

According to the Japanese press, the Japanese Fleet organization 
as finally decided upon to take effect from 1 December. 1922, is as 
follows : 

FIRST FLEET. 

First division (4 battleships) : Naf/ato, Mutsu, Ise, Hyug'a. 

Third division (3 light cruisers) : Oi, Kuma, Tama. 

First torpedo division : Flagship Tatsuta with four destroyer 
flotillas. 

First submarine division: Flagship OMkumd with two submarine 
flotillas. 

• • SECOND FLEET. 

Second division (3 battle cruisers) : Konr/o, 11-iyei, Kirishima. 

Fourth division (3 light cruisers) : Nar/ara, Eura, hi int. 

Second torpedo division: Flagship KitCugami with three destroyer 
flotillas. 

Second submarine division: Flagship Yahagi with two submarine 
flotillas. 

Beginning next spring the aviation depot ship Hosho will be at- 
tached to the first fleet and the aviation depot ship Wakamiya to the 
second fleet. 



JAPAN. 

JAPANESE PROPAGANDA IN SHANTUNG. 

31 October, 1922. 

Source: Japanese Press. 

(The Tsinan Jill Pao is a Japanese-owned newspaper published in the Chi- 
nese language at Tsinan fu. It is circulated and read largely by Chinese uni- 
versity students and by the educated Chinese people.) 

THE AMERICAN DOCTRINE OF JUSTICE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

Under the above title the Tsingtao Supplement of the Tsinan Jih 
Pao offers the following diatribe against the Americans : 

Since the Great War justice and righteousness have become the basis of inter- 
national dealings. Theoretically, this sounds very fine, but as a matter of fact 
we can not help inquiring how it works out in practice. Let us take the United 
States as an example. 

With reference to this American doctrine, we have the right to ask and the 
Americans have the duty to answer the following questions : 

/. Internal. — How can the Americans reconcile their custom of lynching with 
their doctrine of justice and righteousness? 

2. External. — In international affairs the Americans discriminate against the 
yellow race, denying them the privileges of becoming naturalized American citi- 
zens, keeping them from developing agriculture on American soil, and enforcing 
regulations aiming to get rid of the Chinese and the Japanese. What is such 
conduct based upon? 

3. The Washington Conference. — Unequal treatment of different countries 
was clearly revealed through their contracts for warships and strategic posi- 
tions. What principle is this? 

One day while I was in Washington a negro came to see me ; he brought sev- 
eral books with the title, " Groans Addressed to all the Nations Participating in 
the Washington Conference." The books were newly published pamphlets, with 
photographs of the burning of negroes by the whites. These illegal punishments 
are inflicted on innocent negroes. Moreover, American law considers the 
negroes as having equal rights with the whites. But what is the attitude of the 
white Americans? They not only do not stop these practices as illegal, but 
actually justify them. Is this justice? I thoroughly believe that what the 
negro said was true, and sympathize with him. The last part of this pamphlet 
gave illustrations and evidence of unlawful activities on the part of Americans 
in Haiti. It read: 

" CRUELTY OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI. 

" The following incidents were witnessed by citizens of the Republic of Haiti : 

" 1. The National Bank of Haiti, with an American corporation under con- 
trol in New York, interferes with the powers of the President of the Republic 
in order to violate its sovereignty. 

" 2. Woodrow Wilson, when President of the United States, sent a few dele- 
gates to Haiti, compelling the latter to make an agreement with the United 
States. 

" 3. On July 29, 1915, American troops illegally invaded Haiti. 



6 

"4. On August 12, 1915, the Americans obliged the people of Haiti to elecl 
Dartiguenave as their President in order to carry out the American policy of 
annexing the entire country of Haiti. 

" 5. Two days after the election the American commander proposed another 
treaty with Haiti. 

" 6. On August 13, 1915, the American commander demanded the ratification 
of this treaty. 

"7. On the 24th of the same month an American admiral occupied the custom- 
house of Haiti and dismissed the native officials. 

" 8. On September 13, 1915, this admiral occupied Port au Prince, the national 
capital, and immediately proclaimed martial law." 

The citizens of that country said that for a long time their Government had 
been at the mercy of the United States. The United States had occupied their 
country, seized their customhouse, and the admiral had confiscated the money 
of their national bank. In a word, the injustice of the Americans beggarel 
description. 



JAPAN. 

CONSTRUCTION OF SUBMARINES STOPPED. 
16 November, 1922. 

Orders have been given by the Japanese Navy Department stop- 
ping all work on submarines Nos. 53, 51^, 55, 56, 60, 61, and 63. 
These submarines are not to be built, at least for the present. 
The reason for the above action is not known. 



JAPAN. 

NAVAL GUNNERY TRAINING. 

15 November, 1922. 

The following information concerning Japanese naval gunnery 
training is stated to be a translation of a foreign report : 

The men selected to discharge important functions (such as pointers and 
gun captains — literally "head of gun") are trained at the Naval Artillery 
School at Yokosuka. Naturally, also, practical instruction is given on board 
ship, but this applies more particularly to anything relating to the guns, their 
mounting on board, and accessories. 

At the Naval Artillery School the following courses of lectures are given : 
(1) Theoretic-practical course, ordinary or elementary, attended by seamen of 
the first and second class; (2) higher theoretic-practical course, attended by 
seamen of the first class and petty officers; (3) special theoretic-practical 
course attended by petty officers. The students of the ordinary course ai'e 
selected from among the younger seamen by means of competitions or exami- 
nations; those for the higher course from men who have concluded the ordi- 
nary course and done well therein (mostly petty officers) ; and those for the 
special course from ratings who have gone through the higher course success- 
fully and who, moreover, show a pronounced aptitude for gunnery. 

With regard to the actual training of this body of men t is impossible to 
obtain precise and detailed information. The practical training of the gun 



pointer is divided into the two following branches: («) Management of the gun 
and firing from the ship; {In practical course of descriptive (V) artillery. 
Range takers must learn the practical management of their respective optical 
instruments. The model most in use is that of the Armstrong firm. In the 
establishments of the Japanese Navy there has been seen an apparatus of 
Japanese manufacture, apparently, which did not differ very greatly from the 
Ban' & Stroud type. 

The fundamental instruction is imparled in the Yokosuka School; the prac- 
tical instruction afterwards in a ship. 

In the Yokosuka school the guns which are used for practical instruction are 
assembled in a shed similar in construction to the armored battery of a ship. 
This shed faces the sea, and is covered in such a manner as to permit exercises 
to take place in all conditions of weather; In the upper part, above the buttery 
proper, there is an installation of range finders, where the students receive 
instruction. Divided into groups of three for each apparatus, they measure 
tbe ranges of the ships, mostly destroyers, which carry out evolutions all day 
in the Bay of Yokosuka for this and other purposes of training. The measure- 
ment of the ranges is checked, also the time occupied in taking them, and for 
this purpose the instructors stand, watch in hand, registering the number of 
measurements taken in a given interval. The ranges are then counted aloud 
by the seamen of the vai'ious groups. This system serves to encourage a spirit 
of emulation among the range takers. 

The ordinary course at Y'okosuka lasts six months. The gun pointers and 
range takers then undergo an examination to determine I heir individual pro- 
ficiency. To those who especially distinguish themselves in this examination 
the medal for merit and special prizes are awarded, as well as certificates, 
diplomas, and honorable mentions. 

There are other specialist branches in the Japanese Navy, namely, torpedo, 
aviation, and, perhaps temporarily, submarines, together with advanced navi- 
gation, celestial astronomy, and hydrography. In the higher college there are 
also staff courses. When, four years after entering the naval school at 
Etajima, the midshipmen are promoted to acting sublieutenants, becoming 
lieutenants they must go through the artillery and torpedo courses in the 
respective schools at Yokosuka. 

The artillery course is of three kinds — elementary or ordinary, higher, and 
special. The first is obligatory for acting sublieutenants and for the sub- 
lieutenants, and lasts not more than a year. The higher course is attended 
by sublieutenants selected from those who have already undergone the ele- 
mentary course. The special course is attended by lieutenants and commanders 
selected, at their own request, by merit on the basis of results achieved in 
the higher course. 

The training of gunners on board ship is divided into two parts — training by 
unit and collective training. 

Every year the navy department publishes the regulations relating to the 
two branches of training. The execution of the department's program is 
entrusted respectively to the commanders of the ships and the admirals com- 
manding the squadrons. In the training by unit is comprised all that refers 
to the individual instruction of gun pointers and range takers. The collective 
exercises consist specially in battle firing, in which all ships of a squadron 
or division take part, according to the method chosen, absolutely on his own 
initiative, by the commanding officer of the squadron. In addition to battle 
firing, subcaliber and other practice is carried out. The frequency of the prac- 
tices, the ranges, and other details are left entirely to the discretion of the 
officer commanding the ship or the squadron. 



8 

JAPAN. 

WAR VESSELS TO BE SCRAPPED. 

21 October, 1922. 
Source: Vernacular. Press. 

According to the Japanese press about 190.000 tons of ships of 
the Japanese Navy will be scrapped as the result of the Washington 
Conference, reducing the Japanese Navy by next spring to as 
follows : 

Tons. 

Capital ships 301, 320 

Cruisers _ 86, 870 

Destroyers -. 70. 000 

Submarines '_ 21,000 

Coast defense : 

First class 73, 0S3 

Second class 25, 832 

and some depot ships, mine layers, special service ships, etc. 

The naval policy of these days of economy and limitation will 
naturally be for improvement of inner working order aiming at 
attainment of highest efficiency in all branches, which is vital in 
the maintenance of a high-powered fleet. Therefore sufficient funds 
must be allotted for movements and action of fleets, even at the 
cost of reduction of expenses in other items. Since all new ships 
are oil burners, which is more expensive than coal-burning vessels, 
and the increased expenditures for. improvements of the air service, 
the naval budget can not be cut as much as desired. 

The navy department is desirous of having only the newer ships 
in the standing fleet, the older vessels to be placed in the reserve 
fleet. They also wished to assign the new cruisers to patrolling 
services but as they are oil burners, and as it is necessary to 
economize, the older coal-burning vessels will be continued on this 
duty. Other vessels, old and less useful, will be placed out of com- 
mission, such as third-class destroyers and the torpedo boats. 



JAPAN. 

NAVAL REDUCTIONS. 

11 November, 1922. 



The following article, which appeared in the London Times of 
November 10, in addition to imparting information of interest to the 
British, was no doubt inspired by the British Government with a 
view to bringing it to the attention of Americans, with a view of 
expediting further scrapping operations in the United States Navy. 
in advance of the ratification of the treaty by France and Italy, and 



9 

the general exchange of ratifications. There have been frequent 
allusions to this matter, and particularly to Secretary Denby's an- 
nounced policy in this matter, by British naval officers, and others: 

Active steps have been taken by the Japanese naval authorities to give effect 
to the Washington treaty. 

The heavy armament (12-inch) and the turrets of the battleships Kashima, 
Ikoma, and Knrama have been dismantled and two of the newest battleships, 
the Kaga and the Tosa>, are to be used for target practice, before they are 
broken up, at the naval stations of Yokosuka and Kure. All the capital ships 
to be scrapped have been relegated to the fourth reserve fleet and preparations 
are practically completed for the work of demolition on the majority of them. 
Port Arthur will no longer be used as a naval base after December 1, and after 
April 1, 1923 the status of the Maizuru naval station is to be reduced. 



JAPAN. 

REDUCTION OF NAVAL PERSONNEL. 

21 October, 1922. 

Source: Vernacular Press. 

In conjunction with reduction due to armament limitation the 
Japanese Navy proposes to reduce its personnel something like as 
follows : 

(■a) Various organizations on land will be reduced about from 10 
to 15 per cent. 

(i&) On sea, with exception of fleets, number will be reduced as 
much as possible. 

With these reductions it will be as follows : 

After re- 
Present, duction. 

Officers 6,100 5,300 

Special and warrant officers • 2,480 1.800 

Petty officers and men 74,200 55,000 

(About a 25 per cent reduction.) 

The problem found most embarrassing due to personnel reduction 
is the case of students in various naval schools. Having called large 
numbers of them in anticipation of requirements following the com- 
pletion of the 8-8 fleet, and now having given up in favor of the 
8-6 fleet, half of them will be excessive. They can not be forced 
to quit the schools; therefore the excessive number will have to be 
dropped after commissioned and during promotion up to lieutenant 
commander. The number of students to be admitted to the Naval 
Academy will therefore be much reduced hereafter; for instance, 
about 80 will be admitted during the coming year, 100 next year, 
and 120 in the year following, etc. 

A large number of officers will be retired in December. 



10 

JAPAN. 

ALLOWANCES FOR RETIRING OFFICERS. 
20 October, 1922. 

According to the Japanese press, army ami navy officers and petty 
officers, who are to be retired on account of the armament limitation, 
will receive allowances from the Government about as follows: 

Admirals to receive approximately 2 years and 3 months salary. 

Vice admirals to receive approximately 2 years and I months 
salary. 

Rear admirals to receive approximately 2 years and 4 months 
salary. 

Captains to receive approximately 2 years and 5 months salary. 

Commanders to receive approximately 2 years and 6 months salary. 

Lieutenant commanders to receive approximately 2 years and 9 
months salary. 

Lieutenants to receive approximately 2 years and 10 months salary. 

In other words, highest limit, yen 17,000 for admirals and lowest, 
yen 500 or yen 600 for petty officers. 

The allowances will be six months' pay in cash and the remainder 
in GoA^ernment bonds, and will be given to those placed in reserve 
during the period 5 August, 1922, to 31 December. 1923. Special 
favor will be given in cases of petty officers and men that were 
retired before 5 August, 1922. wherebv thev also will receive the 
regular allowance. 



JAPAN. 

GENERAL NOTES REGARDING NAVAL ACTIVITIES. 
18 November, 1922. 

Source: Personal Observations of a Correspondent. 

The Japanese are not wasting any time. Besides their very large 
program of cruisers they are constantly laying down new subma- 
rines, many more than they are publishing figures for. They sent 
a mission of submarine experts over to Europe this summer chiefly 
to inspect British, French, and Italian engines, which seem to show 
either that they haven't yet succeeded in producing a satisfactory 
Diesel submarine motor themselves, or that their resources are not 
adequate to cope with the big demand for such machinery. They 
are now building boats of 1,500 tons, a whole series of them, and it 
is known for a fact that plans have been gotten out forlarger ones, up 
to 2,200 or 2,500 tons, but it is not sure whether any of these latter 
have been actually commenced. 



11 

FRANCE. 

PILOTLESS PLANE TESTS. 
28 November, 1922. 

1. Folio wing the recent pilotless-plane experiments in America, 
carried out with complete success by the Army Air Service, similar 
flights Avere realized at Etampes (Seine-et-Oise) yesterday by the 
French chdlian aeronautic experts. By Hertzian waves a biplane 
fitted with a 300 horsepower motor was made not only to fly, but 
also to turn, loop, rise, descend, and do various stunts with nobody, 
on board. 

'2. The " automatic pilot " in wireless-directed airplanes is a small 
wireless receiver, and it is operated from a wooden hut with a wire- 
less wave-emitting machine resembling a miniature piano. From 
the hut the operator can not see the machine he is " piloting,' 1 and 
watchers yesterday often lost sight of the plane, as heavy mist was 
prevailing. 

3. Both the take-off and the landing of the machine were perfect, 
and throughout the flight the plane was under absolute control. 
The plane carries a newly invented automatic stabilizing apparatus 
and has special electric and wireless fittings; otherwise it is the 
ordinary biplane. 

4. The experiments in America for the wireless control of air- 
planes took place on November 15 last. Several flights of more than 
90 miles were made without a hitch and hundreds of take-off tests 
were made without a single crash. The report of the Army Air 
Service officials who supervised the experiments said : 

The automatic pilot may be mounted on any type of plane, and in bumpy 
weather will hold the plane much steadier than a human pilot and carry it 
absolutely true to course, regardless of fog or other adverse weather condi- 
tions. 

The apparatus can be described as a gyroscope which serves for brains and 
bellows or pneumatics similar to those in a player piano, which take the place 
of the muscles of an aviator. 

5. The experiments show the possibility of sending bomb-laden 
planes without pilot at targets in the air or on the ground with 
astonishing accuracy. 

ITALY. 

POLITICAL SITUATION. 
1 November, 1922. 
Source: Press and Observers. 

1. The events leading up to the recent fall of the Facta ministry 
and the appointment of the Mussolini ministry are as follows: 

A national Fascisti congress was held in Naples, October 24. The 
Fascisti leader, Benito Mussolini, bitterly attacked the existing gov- 
•_>4<;o>c>— 23 3 



12 

eminent for incompetency and threatened the taking over of the Gov- 
ernment of Italy by peaceful methods or by force. About 30,000 
Fascisti attended the Naples congress, drawn from all parts of Italy. 
The estimated strength of the Fascisti following in all of Italy is 
about 600,000. The Fascisti "Army " numbers 200,000 of these. 

The result of the Naples congress seems to have been that the 
march on Rome would take place to back up its leader's defi uttered 
at the congress, and the concentration of the Fascisti for the march 
began, coming from all parts of Italy, but the largest numbers came 
from the north. It would seem that this concentration was orderly, 
well organized, and paid at least for subsistence. Transportation 
was probably commandeered. 

October 27 the Facta Government resigned. The King asked Signor 
Facta to remain in temporary control pending the formation of :i 
compromise government. Mussolini declined to take part in a gov- 
ernment with the Liberal Democrats who have been practically in 
control of Italian politics for the last 50 years. 

October 29 the Fascisti squads began to arrive in the vicinity of 
Rome. Most of them were in some sort of uniform and nearly all 
wearing the black shirt, which seems to be the badge of the organiza- 
tion. They were practically all armed with some sort of weapon. 
A large number were in possession of modern military rifles and 
ammunition; a great many were armed with ordinary shotguns. 
Nearly every man carried some sort of a revolver as well as a knife 
stuck in his belt. Those not armed with firearms carried clubs. No 
artillery was noticed, but a sprinkling of up-to-date machine guns 
with ammunition was in evidence. 

The cabinet (Facta ad interim), when the situation seemed men- 
acing, declared a st'ate of siege and Rome was put in the state of 
defense by the military authorities, going so far as to close certain 
gates, establishing lookouts, and putting up barbed-wire defenses. 
Railway tracks were also removed by order of the military. 

These events took place during the day of the 29th, and that 
evening the King refused to sign or sanction the state of siege procla- 
mation of the cabinet and ordered that the city return to normal 
status. The Fascisti entered Rome unopposed and, in fact, were 
made welcome, and their lodging and subsistence were arranged for. 
They were given school buildings for barracks and army cameons 
were assigned to supply them with food, etc. 

The local governments of many of the northern cities during this 
period had been taken over by the Fascisti, and in only one or two 
cities was any blood shed. In one five Fascisti were killed. 

The King's action immediately gave him tremendous popularity 
with the Fascisti and their continual cheer was '-' House of kSavov " 



13 

and "Long- Live the King." In its earlier utterances the Fascisti 
Party had come out with a strong republican tendency. 

As far as can be learned, Mussolini at this time was in Milan, 
which is his residence and the headquarters for his newspaper II 
Popolo d'ltalia, a very popular paper at this time. He kept in close 
touch with D'Aiinunzio. His agents in Home kept him in touch with 
affairs in the capital, and the question of a compromise ministry at 
this time fell through. According to the press the King telegraphed 
Mussolini to come to Rome and form a ministry. Mussolini accepted 
and arrived in Rome the forenoon of October 30, saw the King, and 
the following ministry is the result: 

Benito Mussolini, president of the council and minister of in- 
terior (minister for foreign affairs ad interim). 

Gen. Armando Diaz, war. 

Admr. Paolo Thaon de Revel, navy. 

Hon. Luigi Federzoni, colonies. 

Hon. Alclo Oviglio, justice. 

Hon. Alberto de Stefani, finance. 

Hon. Vincenzo Tangorra, treasury. 

Prof. Giovanni Gentile, schools. 

Hon. Gabriello Carnazza, public works. 

Hon. Giuseppe de Capitani, agriculture. 

Hon. Teofilo Rossi, industry and commerce. 

Hon. Stefano Cavazzoni, labor. 

Hon. Colonna di Cesaro, posts and telegraphs. 

Hon. Giovanni Giuriati, liberated provinces. 

The political groups (excluding Socialists and Communists) are 
represented in the cabinet : Fascists, 4 ministers and 9 undersecre- 
taries; Popolari (clericals), 2 ministers and 4 undersecretaries; 
Democrats, 2 ministers and 2 undersecretaries ; Nationals, 1 minister 
and 2 undersecretaries ; Liberals of the Left, 1 minister and 1 under- 
secretary. 

On October 31 the Fascisti held a parade in Rome, proceeding 
first to the tomb of the Unknown Soldier and then marched to the 
King's Palace, where they were reviewed by the King, General Diaz, 
and Admiral Thaon de Revel, the new ministers of war and marine, 
respectively. The president of the cabinet, Honorable Mussolini, led 
the parade. The Fascisti army then marched to the station, where 
50 trains were ready to entrain them to their respective homes. 

The parade was orderly, well organized, and apparently " well 
in hand." In the parade the, arms mentioned in previous paragraphs 
were carried much in evidence. The personnel of the forces was very 
young in age, though there was considerable sprinkling of older men. 
The general complexion of the Fascisti forces would seem to be the 
sons of the middle classes and distinctly not of the working classes. 



u 

For such a large influx of Fascisti into Rome and considering their 
previous reputation for violence against the Communists and Social- 
ists, the demonstrations in Rome were comparatively free from 
excesses. 



ITALY. 

SOME EARLY RESULTS OF FASCISTI REGIME. 
7 November, 1922. 

1. Since the Mussolini ministry has come into office as a result of 
the victorious Fascista insurrection, Italy is fast returning to a 
normal condition as far as civil strife is concerned. The demobili- 
zation of the Fascisti and Nationalists has been for the most part 
orderly and very rapid. Some sporadic incidents occurred, however, 
when the Fascisti arrived in their home towns. For the most part 
these were caused by ambushes and sniping on the part of the Com- 
munists who could no longer act in the open. As stated in Italy there 
have also been conflicts between Fascist! and Nationalist militias. 

2. Several important newspapers of Italy, which had to suspend 
publication on account of Fascisti occupying or destroying their 
offices, have not yet resumed publication. 

3. Mussolini's attitude toward the freedom of the press has caused 
considerable excitement throughout the country. In a statement to 
representatives of the press he said that freedom of the press would 
be allowed so far as the press was worthy of it. In view of the fact 
that he himself has always been a newspaper man, and of late has 
benefited considerably by the free use of the press, this caused some 
hard feeling. The newspaper men saw that it meant that his Gov- 
ernment could decide what the papers would be allowed to print. 
Mussolini later stated that he would allow the freedom of the press 
within legal limits. In view of the fact that there are laws in Italy 
against propaganda tending to instill class hatred, the decision as 
to what is legal or illegal is still vested in the Government. It there- 
fore appears that Mussolini will keep a certain control over the press 
of the entire country. It is further claimed that the newspapers men- 
tioned above could have been published by now if the Fascisti had not 
blocked their attempts at getting started again. 

ITALY. 

MILITARY ASPECTS OF FASCISTI MOVEMENT. 
11 November, 1922. 

. 1. One of Italy's chief problems at the present moment and one 
which is studied carefully by the Government and followed with in- 
tense interest by the people at large is the manner in which the 



15 

Fascista organization can best be employed, now that it has accom- 
plished its great objective of absorbing the State of Italy in the 
Fascista State. The Fascista organization, it is generally granted, is 
too efficient and too resourceful to be wasted by disintegration at a 
time when the force and strength it contains can, if properly directed, 
be put to great use for the welfare of the country. Its quality of 
instilling patriotism into the nation and the place it has obtained 
as a labor organization alone would warrant its continuation as a 
vital element of national life. The Fascisti have also carried on 
a forceful and fruitful crusade against immorality of several sorts, 
such as the illegal sale and use of cocaine, and the showing of immoral 
moving pictures, while in some localities they have passed motions 
against extravagance, such as the wearing of jewelry. 

^. The possibilities of employing the Fascist military activities 
iu the organization of the nation's army are not being overlooked. 
Mussolini, General Diaz, and the principal leaders of the Fascisti are 
thinking hard on this subject, and it is probable that the outcome 
will be that Fascism will be put to considerable use in premilitary or 
postmilitary instruction. The premier and the minister of war have 
already discussed this matter, but as yet it is believed no definite plan 
has been Avorked out. Some persons think that the Fascisti local 
organizations will be more or less absorbed or subsidized by the Gov- 
ernment as an auxiliary association to physically and morally prepare 
boys for military service and keep furloughed men in condition. 
Others believe that the Fascist local clubs will be used in developing 
a volunteer army in connection with the regular army, while others 
go so far as to foresee the possibility of the regular army becoming 
merely a cadre of officers and noncommissioned officers whose privates 
would be volunteer Fascisti instead of drafted men. 



BRAZIL. 

RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. 
25 November, 1922. 

Brazil has been in European leading strings for a long time and 
is most anxious to free herself from these ties by which she is bound 
principally to England, France, and Belgium. Brazilians appre- 
ciate the great natural wealth of their country, doubt their own 
ability to develop and use this wealth and dread its appropriation 
by foreigners under the guise of assistance. Although they do not 
regard Americans as without sin in this respect, they yet feel that 
our sense of fairplay and our general policy of noninterference will 
guarantee them more just treatment from us than from Europeans, 



16 

The more-deeply thinking Brazilian, too, states that Europe with 
its centuries-okl inheritance of hatreds and covetousness is widely 
apart from the healthy, vigorous ambitions of the countries of the 
Western Hemisphere, which countries should, for the preservation 
of their ideals, draw more closely together and be less entangled with 
Europe. 

So, American people, institutions and projects are looked upon 
favorably at this time by Brazil and. if a generous hand of friend- 
ship is extended while this feeling obtains, we can bind a large and 
prospectively great country to us in close bonds of friendship which 
will extend to all lines of intercouse. We are Brazil's best customer 
for her great export — coffee — and her prosperity is closely linked 
to ours. 

That this fact of Brazil's turning toward us is well appreciated 
abroad is shown by the visit of a committee of the British Parlia- 
ment in October of this year. The committee was composed of men 
of high type and the burden of their addresses to Brazil was "Don't 
drop the friends who have helped you to build up your great coun- 
try." This committee was selected just after the announcement of 
the choice of an American naval mission and was unequestionably 
partly a result of that choice. 

In affairs of government Brazil can be understood only if one 
bears in mind the fact that, although a Republic in name. Brazil is, 
in reality, an oligarchy, ruled by a few men, and, in actual practice, 
comes close to being a one-man government. The presidents of the 
various States of the Union form a Camarilla which really picks out 
the nominee for President of the Union and the Government nomi- 
nees are certain of election. 

Brazil has just been through the most bitter political campaign 
experience in her career as a republic. The opposition candidate 
worked on the armed classes — army and navy — to stir up a revolt 
against the Government, but the small outbreaks which occurred 
were fiascos and put down within 48 hours. 

The new President. Arturo Bernardes. is an unknown quantity. 
He has not served in the Federal Government. His achievement has 
been his term as president of his State, Miras Geraes, where he 
showed marked financial ability, being an able governor and reduc- 
ing the State debt. He has never been out of Brazil. Foreigners 
fear him as they believe lie will be antiforeigner, but Brazilians say: 
"Wait and give him a chance: he will be just." 

Coming to naval matters, there has been much agitation and some 
activity in naval circles in the past two years. President Epitacio 
Pessoa, President from 1919 to 1922, believed that Brazil's most im- 
perative need was economic improvements — irrigation projects, har- 
bor improvements, and railroad building. So he denied the army 



17 

and navy money that it might be spent for the objects mentioned. 
In a speech aboard the Minas Geraes a few months ago he stated 
that lie had taken this action because he believed it necessary, not 
because he wished to starve the national defenses. He hoped to do 
what little he could for the army and navy in the little time left him. 
What he did w 7 as to secure an appropriation of about 13^ million 
dollars (a large sum for Brazil at the present time) for purchase 
of new units and to contract for a foreign naval mission. 

As far back as 1906 the question of a foreign naval mission was 
mooted by the Brazilian naval authorities, but the opposition of the 
older officers thwarted the idea. The securing of a French military 
mission for the Brazilian Army in 1919 (still operating) stimulated 
the idea for the navy, and finally President Pessoa took the decisive 
step. 

The British ambassador worked very hard to have a British mis- 
sion selected. The press of Rio de Janeiro was impartial in favoring 
either British or Americans. The president's admiration for Bear 
Admiral Yogelgesang had much to do with the decision, but credit 
must also be given the chain of officers, including Admiral Yogelge- 
sang himself, who, since 1914, have worked with the Brazilian Navy, 
particularly in their war college, and gained the respect of Brazilian 
officers. 

The detailing of young Brazilian officers to our fleet created a 
very favorable sentiment toward us among the younger officers, but, 
as seniority is a force of overwhelming power in the Brazilian Navy, 
this sentiment did not have any appreciable effect in the selection. 

In Washington I was asked by many officers : " What do the Brazili- 
ans expect the mission to> accomplish ? " Were I to try to answer in 
one word I should say, " Miracles ! " The younger officers, particu- 
larly, have an unbounded faith that the mission will be able to " touch 
the dead body of naval credit and make it spring into life." They 
believe that the Brazilian lawmakers will respect the recommenda- 
tions of a foreign mission where they ignore those of Brazilian offi- 
cers. Older officers are more moderate in their expectations. They 
say that one great need is to instill an esprit de corps into the navy 
and to make them realize the real mission of the navy. Hitherto the 
armed forces have been looked upon as the supporters of those in 
office against the Brazilian people and not a force for the defense of 
Brazil as a whole against outside menace. 

One canker in the naval body politic is the low rate of pay. This 
causes a great part of the officer personnel to enter into various busi- 
ness affairs to augment their incomes. The distraction is a loss, 
naturally, to their value as naval officers. 

There is much red tape and considerable lost motion in the Brazil- 
ian Navy and this the mission should be able to lessen by proper 



18 

reorganization. There will be opposition to the mission from some 
of the higher-ranking officers, hut others will help them, ami, if the 
directing powers (president and minister) are hack of the mission, 
they can make the path smoother by removing obstructions. This 
is what happened in the case of the French mission and Brazilian 
Army. It is known that President Bernardes felt slighted because 
he was not consulted regarding the contract for the mission, but it 
was learned that he would help them in their work. 

I was asked by one officer in Washington what good it would do 
us to associate with Brazil and have their friendship. My reply is 
Brazil is an enormous country with a bright future. She is half 
of South America and has about half the population of the continent. 
She has about 4,000 miles of coast line and many excellent harbors. 
In case of war in the western Atlantic her harbors and resources 
will be of great value to us. Furthermore, there are at least two 
American countries which are trying to consolidate Latin-America 
against us. With Brazil on our side we can checkmate that policy. 
And a friend never comes amiss when days of trouble arrive. 

A word here as to the type of men who are sent to Brazil on the 
various commercial missions which are sent from time to time. 
When the British send such missions they are, as a rule, composed 
of men of culture, broad knowledge, and prominence in their chosen 
line of work. This is less often true of American representatives 
and makes a bad impression on Brazilian officials. 



BRAZIL. 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAZILIAN AND AMERICAN NAVIES. 

1 December, 1922. 

Brazil is a vast country containing much natural wealth and needs 
only the advent of sufficient population to supply labor and suffi- 
cient financial assistance to develop her resources in order to become 
one of the great nations of the world. She is in much the same 
status as were the United States in 1850, but, in these days of scien- 
tific advances, progress can be made faster than was possible half 
century ago and, granted sufficient population, it will not take Brazil 
70 years to reach the stage of development now occupied by the 
United States. Brazil is a country whose friendship and whose 
trade are well worth gaining. 

In Brazil the armed classes — that is, the army and navy — occupy 
a much more prominent position in the political life of the country 
than is the case in the United States. Naval officers may, and do, 
hold position in State and Federal Government without prejudice 



19 

to their status as naval officers. Officers are consulted, too, by the 
administration to a greater degree than in the United States. 

So any sentiment which is held in the navy is quite likely to find 
reflection in the administration of the republic. Thus if the bonds 
of respect and friendship which exist between the Navies of the two 
countries can be strengthened, there is likely to be a more immediate 
effect upon the political relations of the countries than would be the 
case in the countries where the armed classes have less influence in 
the Government. 

The Brazilian Navy has been neglected, financially, for a good 
number of years, but the leading spirits of Brazil have been aroused 
to the low material state of their navy and substantial measures are 
now being taken to begin the rebuilding of their naval defenses of 
all types except capital ships. 

It is idle to assume that all this material would be ordered from 
the United States. It has always been Brazil's habit to distribute 
her orders among various countries, but, if our relations are close, 
we can be sure of supplying some of the material, and what is of 
equal importance, we can induce Brazil to order units of such design 
that they will be suitable for working with ours in the case of a 
war which would bring Brazil in; this would be a factor of great 
importance, which would be further emphasized if Brazilian per- 
sonnel has been given training along American lines. 

In any war, Brazil could help us by supplying certain indis- 
pensable commodities, coffee, manganese, for example. In a war in 
the Atlantic, the privilege of using her 4,000 miles of coast and 
the various good harbors she possesses would be highly valuable. 

Brazil has made great strides in development in the past 15 years 
and now stands rather at a crossroad. Her past development has 
been bound up with European connections, but Brazil does not desire 
to continue those connections on the old basis. The purchase and 
nationalization of many of the Brazilian railroads is one indication 
of this. Brazilians are turning more toward the United 'States. 
The thinking Brazilian feels that our ideals are closer to his than are 
Europe's, and seeing the sorry mess Europe has been in for the past 
eight years he feels a desire to be clear of it all and to find and 
follow the route by which the United States has risen to so strong 
and independent a position. 

Brazilians are sending their sons to college and scientific schools 
in the United States more than ever before. They are adopting 
American social customs, such as athletics and freeing their women 
from the narrow social restrictions of the past. In fact the younger 
generation, especially in the capital, is very similiar in its habits and 
ideas to their American counterparts. 
24666—23 4 



20 

The moment is opportune for drawing to us the sympathies and 
friendship of what will in a not far distant future, be a great people, 
and the American Navy bj^ its greater facilities for contact has the 
opportunity to be a principal agent in this rapproachement. The 
younger Brazilian naval officers who have served in United States 
ships are enthusiastic in their liking for our ways and the desire to 
make their service like ours. It is a pity the practice of permitting 
such service has ceased. 

A few words about the psychology of the Brazilian naval officer 
may not come amiss. Due to the political history of the country, 
the army and navy have never developed a purely national viewpoint. 
There is too much the feeling that the armed forces exist solely for 
maintaining the authority of those in political office and not for 
national defense. The appointment of naval officers as ministers 
lias rather accentuated this idea, too, and has encouraged the forma- 
tion of cliques in the service. This, in turn, has operated against the 
development of a healthy esprit de corps. There has been suspicion 
of one another, based on intriguing for influence and power. 

Added to this, the low pay of the navy has caused many officers to 
engage in commercial enterprises. The circumstance that virtually 
the entire navy remains in Eio de Janeiro favors such ventures, and 
this diversion of interest is naturally harmful to the naval interests. 
American naval officers can give substantial help to Brazil by helping 
Brazilian officers gain a more healthy point of view of their service. 
The younger Brazilian officers are usually alert and keen on the 
service, but slow promotion and long subjection to the example of 
older officers takes the edge off their enthusiasm. 

In our attitude there must be neither selfishness nor an attitude of 
superiority. All Latin-America resents our former paternal inter- 
pretation of the Monroe Doctrine. We must join the Brazilians as 
equals, whose superior resources have given us greater experience 
which we can impart to them, and if we expect them to stand ready 
to aid us in a time of need, there is an equal obligation on us to give 
Brazil our moral support in any just contention to which she may 
be party. 

CHILE. 

ATTEMPTS AT MEXICAN PROPAGANDA. 
10 November, 1922. 

During the past two weeks much comment and considerable amuse- 
ment has been caused in official and political circles in Chile, due to 
the fiasco of the latest attempts at Mexican propaganda. 

As has been previously reported for the past six months the Mexi- 
can minister has been carrying on a most extensive propaganda cam- 



21 

paign here in Chile, and generally at the expense of the United 
States; he even having several times overreached the accepted bounds 
of diplomatic usage and courtesy in his attacks. But his latest at- 
tempt seems to have reacted very much on himself and the Mexican 
Government and people in general. Two months ago he extensively 
advertised in the public press that the Mexican representatives to the 
Brazilian Centennary at Rio Janeiro, including the two Mexican 
warships, the military cadets of Mexico, and the band, were to visit 
Chile after the exercises at Rio Janeiro were finished. Full and 
elaborate plans were made for this visit; he even having gone so far 
as to obtain an option on coal and other supplies for the two warships 
carrying the delegation when they arrived at Valparaiso. 

For various reasons, of which I am informed one was that the 
ships were so small and unseaworthy it was not considered safe to 
send them through the Straits of Magellan, the minister was forced 
to abandon his project of having the Mexican squadron and the mili- 
tary cadets come to Chile. It was then announced that the chief of 
the general staff of the Mexican Army, Gen. Perez Trevino, and the 
minister of public instruction, Professor Vasconcelos, would arrive 
by the Transandine route and spend two weeks in the country. 

This modified program was carried out to the extent that these 
two prominent Mexicans did arrive, but the extensively advertised 
program for their entertainment was suddenly curtailed and their 
stay in the country shortened. The reason for the sudden ending 
of their visit was that as soon as' the minister of public instruction 
arrived, he immediately, in his first address, antagonized the Chilean 
Government and people in general, and the Chilean Army in particu- 
lar. The gist of his remarks which created such a sensation was to 
the effect that armies and navies were generally useless, and as he 
passed through the streets of Santiago, it amused him greatly to see 
so many soldiers in evidence. I understand that he even went 
further than this and his speech was generally of an anarchistic, 
Bolshevistic, character. He was scheduled to make another address 
the following day in the auditorium of the University of Chile, but 
the Government forbade the holding of this conference. The students 
of the university, nevertheless, drove the guards away from the doors 
in the entrance to the auditorium, established themselves in it, and 
then sent a committee or deputation to the hotel and asked the pro- 
fessor to come and make his address to them anyway. This the 
minister was foolish enough to do. 

Naturally, this incident only tended to incense more and more the 
Chilean Government, and it was intimated to the Mexican minister 
to Chile that it would be best to terminate the visit of the distin- 
guished Mexicans as soon as possible. 



22 

At this time the chief of the general staff of the Mexican Army 
was making a visit of inspection in southern Chile, and he was 
politely invited to return to Santiago by the Chilean Army au- 
thorities. 

Then another incident occurred which only added more excitement 
to the matter and was the cause of many amusing comments. 
Amongst the numerous apologies made for the indiscreet remarks of 
the Mexican statesman, which appeared in the public press, there 
was a letter written by a prominent Mexican business man, resident 
in the city, and published in El Mercurio. In this letter the Mexican 
gentleman tries to explain the indiscreet utterances made by the 
Mexican minister of public instruction, by claiming that no offense 
was meant to the Chilean Army, because it is not similar to the 
Mexican Army which is made up of more or less unscrupulous ad- 
venturers. A translation of his letter is as follows : 

The Director of El Mercurio : 

Dear Sir : I have read in your newspaper of the 4th inst. the article com- 
menting on the antimilitarism of Mr. Vasconcelos, and in my capacity as a 
Mexican I beg of you to accept my sincere congratulations on the soundness 
of your criticism. That which is stated in the article in reference is the un- 
diluted truth of the matter, but a great mistake has been made in conceding 
so much importance to the origin of this controversy. 

Vasconcelos' opinions, since his entering the Madero cabinet, are considered 
so insignificant in the opinion of Mexico that I am sure they do not even 
merit the criticism which has been accredited them for their lack of tact in 
the matter under discussion. 

Certainly the ideas which the minister ought not to have mentioned here are 
in the minds of an immense majority in my country, because there, as in al- 
most all of the Spanish American Republics, with the exception of Chile, 
Argentina, and perhaps another, militarism is the worst of evils, because in 
those lands a military man is anyone who is audacious enough and unscrupu- 
lous enough to be one. It is just as easy to rise from a day laborer to a 
colonel as vice versa, and these are the people, with neither morals nor sci- 
entific, professional preparation, who generally make up the crowd erroneously 
called "Army." 

The Chilean Army, as is stated in the Mercurio, is just the opposite, and 
therefore, there is no possible comparison between the two, which fact would 
partly justify the condemnatory speech of Mr. Vasconcelos were he not a 
minister and visiting in this good land where he has received such distinguished 
attentions. 

Therefore, Chileans, and particularly military Chileans, please excuse my 
countryman's error, and believe me that the Mexicans in general, with the 
greatest of pleasure, would be enthusiastic military patriots for Chile. 

If in your estimation, Mr. Director, this letter is worthy of being published, 
I would much appreciate your deference in having it published. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Jose Dorantes Hinojosa, 

Mexican (from Vera Cruz). 



23 

The position in which this left the chief of the general staff of the 
Mexican Army, who I am reliably informed a few years ago was 
an itinerant photographer, can easily be imagined. 

As soon as possible after this incident the official Mexican party 
left the country and returned to Buenos Aires. 

The situation in which the Mexican minister to Chile now finds 
himself, in view of the very extensive advertising which he had done 
previous to the arrival of this party, is most embarrassing and may 
result in his resigning his post. 



CHINA. 

JAPANESE PROPAGANDA IN CHINA. 

6 October, 1922. 
Source: Japanese Press. 

" What we have said is that if the Chinese will try to manage their 
own financial affairs it will not be entirely impossible. As to the 
management of the railways, the Powers should give China their 
moral support and await the ultimate result. True, this ultimate re- 
sult may not be as good as if the foreigners and the Chinese had 
cooperated. The Chinese, however, are developing a national con- 
sciousness which the foreigners should respect, even if the final re- 
sults are not entirely satisfactory. Mr. Lamont said that the estab- 
lishment of the consortium would save China, but the students have 
refused to accept such an organization. This shows the trend of 
thought among the Chinese. So long as it does not affect the peace 
of the world, the natural thing is to let the Chinese go their own way. 
Moreover, the Paris and the Washington Conferences showed that 
no power had any aggressive designs on Chinese territory ; and even 
if any one of them had it certainly would not succeed. 

"The only safe policy to pursue in China is that of ' laissez faire.' 
But the English and the Americans are always trying to interfere 
in China's internal affairs under the pretext of saving China. The 
Chinese do not wish to have anything to do with the new consortium, 
because they fear that the consortium would seize the right of man- 
aging the railways. If the foreigners insist on interfering in China's 
internal affairs then the Chinese will very likely do their best to 
manage their own roads. 

" If the consortium can really do away with the spheres of influ- 
ence of the foreign powers and thus save China from being parti- 
tioned, can stave off foreign control, and can help to secure a good 
central government, it will be appreciated by all the Chinese. If the 
Chinese, however, do not develop any national consciousness, but 
simply rely upon the consortium to avert partition and allow it to 



24 

make loans, as it pleases, then not only China's finances, but the whole 
nation will come under international control, of which control the 
leaders will be England and the United States." 

Note. — Lately the Japanese-owned papers have been carrying on 
considerable propaganda relating to — 

1. The extension of the Shantung Eailwaj^ and the building of the 
Chefoo-Weihsien line and the Kaomi-Hsuchowfu line. 

2. An attack on the consortium on the ground that by means of 
loans it will try to secure control of the railways. 



GERMANY. 

REPARATION AIRSHIP. 
9 November, 1922. 



An article appeared in the morning edition of the Berlin daily, 
Vossische Zeitung, November 8, stating that the keel of the repara- 
tion airship now under construction at Friedrichshafen for the 
United States Navy has been laid, but that the ship can hardly be 
finished before August of next year. The article stated that it will 
take this long owing to certain elements of construction, made to 
meet the wishes of the American experts sent to Germany to be 
present at the factory during the construction. It was stated that 
the question of the motors has not yet been decided — whether these 
would be new Maybach motors as desired by the Navy Department 
or motors left over from the war. When finished, the ship will first 
proceed to Spain, stopping at the coast to refuel, and then make the 
trans-Atlantic crossing to an American harbor. It is estimated that 
the flight from Friedrichshafen to the port of destination will require 
approximately 70 hours. 



GERMANY. 

RANGE FINDERS, GENERAL INFORMATION. 
23 November, 1922. 

A representative of the firm of Carl Zeiss has stated that the Brit- 
ish Navy is now making arrangements with the firm of Barr & Stroud 
for the manufacture of sufficient range finders (1 meter base, stereo- 
scopic principle) to equip all vessels of the British fleet for use against 
aircraft. As the firm of Barr & Stroud has up to the present time 
not manufactured range finders based on this principle, the firm of 
Carl Zeiss is somewhat skeptical about their ability to manufacture a 
perfect instrument, 



25 

The French Navy desired to receive from Germany sufficient 
stereoscopic range finders to equip the cruisers which were turned 
over to France under the terms of the treaty of Versailles, as these 
were lacking on the ships as delivered. This action on the part of 
France resulted from the fact that five French concerns were asked 
to bid on stereoscopic range finders for the equipment of these vessels. 
The director of Carl Zeiss stated that the instruments as delivered 
by these concerns were of such inferior quality that the French de- 
cided to demand stereoscopic range finders from the German Govern- 
ment as the only method of obtaining same. When questioned re- 
garding these deliveries, the director of Carl Zeiss stated that he did 
not expect that his concern would make such deliveries, as they had no 
desire to furnish equipment for the French Navy. This latter state- 
ment may be taken with a certain amount of reservation, as the firm 
of Carl Zeiss has established a subsidiary company in Holland, 
known as the Nederlandische Instrumente Gesellschaft, which con- 
cern is manufacturing optical instruments for naval use and would 
probably sell to any or all bidders. In this connection it is interest- 
ing to note that one of the French concerns which had been asked to 
bid on stereoscopic range finders approached Carl Zeiss for the con- 
struction drawings, but the French offer was refused by Zeiss. The 
managing director of Carl Zeiss stated further that the French and 
British Navies had both come to the conclusion that the stereoscopic 
range finder was the only type that could be used successfully against 
aircraft. He believed that as the stereoscopic principle was essential 
for some classes of instruments, they would probably come to the 
stereoscopic range finder for all work in order to avoid the necessity 
of two different types of instruments on the same vessel. 



GERMANY. 



SUGGESTED MEASURES TOWARD STABILIZATION OF THE 

MARK, 

7 November, 1922. 

Source: Committee of Foreign Financial Experts, Headed by Prdf. Gustav 
Cassel, of Sweden, and Including American and British Members. 

1. We are thoroughly convinced of the urgent necessity of stabil- 
izing the German mark at once. This stabilization is one of the 
main conditions necessary to save Germany from the threatening 
complete collapse. It is just as important in the interest of the 
creditors, whose claims otherwise would lose their value. In case 
certain concessions are made by these creditors, as we explain below, 
a stabilization is possible. This must be attained principally, how- 
ever, by Germany's own efforts and with the aid of its own power 
and energetic action of its own Government. Under present con- 



26 

ditions it is hopeless to expect foreign aid to stabilize the mark as 
the most important foundation is a constructive policy in Germany, 
even if dangers are connected therewith. A different method is not 
open. 

2. In reply to the question whether a stabilization is possible under 
present conditions, we answer: No. First, principally because of 
the internal effects of the German finance policy during and after 
the war; secondly, because of external reasons, especially because of 
the burdens arising frqm the Versailles peace treaty. 

Below we shall discuss the internal measures which are necessary 
to adopt. 

3. With reference to external burdens we believe that so long as 
Germany is not freed for some time from the payments arising from 
the Versailles peace treaty, every attempt to stabilize the mark 
would fail and result in a useless squandering of Germany's last 
reserves. Such an exoneration therefore is an indispensable pre- 
liminary condition. 

The length of the period during which payments must not be 
made will depend on the possibility of gaining a surplus in Ger- 
many's budget. The important point is that payments should first 
then be recommenced if they are taken from an actual surplus and not 
from a new inflation. We believe that this period must at present be 
set at at least two years. This postponement of payments must in- 
clude deliveries in kind as well as gold payments. 

4. Every stabilization plan will only be a temporary one so long 
as a final, prompt, and thorough adjustment of the reparations 
problem has not been reached. In the meantime we believe 
that in view of the danger in waiting even a short time, an emer- 
gency stabilization must precede the final adjustment of this ques- 
tion. 

5. If the above proposed freedom from payment is granted, then 
the success of a plan of stabilization would not depend on a foreign 
loan but on producing conditions in Germany and the German 
budget, as well as on the final adjustment of the reparations problem 
being made as soon as possible. 

Nevertheless the support of an international consortium would 
have a great effect on the public. We believe that while these plans 
for the stabilization of the mark are being executed, negotiations 
should be simultaneously commenced with regard to such assist- 
ance — perhaps in the form of credits — and that a committee of bank- 
ers should be immediately called together to discuss the foundation 
of a consortium to cooperate in the execution of the stabilization 
plan proposed below. 

We desire to state explicitly that before the reparations problem 
has been finally adjusted on a reasonable basis, credits from a foreign 



27 

consortium will only be granted Germany in very small amounts and 
only to support Germany's own measures. A large foreign credit 
can only then be expected, if those who grant the credits can clearly 
foresee the situation which will exist when the moratorium has 
expired. Without such security the proper basis for a loan is 
lacking. 

6. The permanent result of a stabilization of the mark depends on 
the budget being balanced. On the other hand the stabilization of 
the mark is also a necessary preliminary condition to secure this 
balance. 

The German ministry of finance has assured us that in case the 
mark stabilizes and in case the budget is freed from the present 
extraordinary expenditures, it would soon be possible to balance the 
ordinary receipts and expenditures. The present money exchange 
conditions makes it impossible to gain a clear view of the budget. 
We do not see any reasons for doubting the possibilities that this 
opinion is correct. 

Greatest economy in Government expenditures and greatest energy 
in collecting taxes are of deciding importance. Investing capital in 
public works can not be made from current receipts, but must be 
covered by internal loans. Nevertheless it is neither necessary nor 
possible to absolutely prevent every increase of the floating debt; 
and after the mark shall have been stabilized it would be possible 
for a short time to permit an increase to such an extent as is neces- 
sary in order to minimize the present difficulties. 

7. We discovered that the chief objection of many experts against 
every stabilization plan without extensive foreign assistance, was 
based on an unfavorable criticism of the trade balance. At present 
there are no bases for a proper study of the statistics. Many con- 
tradicting figures have been placed at our disposal and we doubt 
whether any of them are especially reliable. In order to gain any 
picture of the extent of the present deficit of the trade balance, we 
were required to use a different method of calculation. 

On the debit side of her payment balance, Germany had to adjust 
the trade balance deficit, her payments arising from the Versailles 
peace treaty, and the flight of capital. In lieu thereof there stood 
at Germany's disposal only limited " invisible exports," foreign 
credits, and foreign purchases of marks and mark values. These 
two sides of the payment balance must have been adjusted in some 
way during the current year. If the trade balance had actually 
been passive to the extent believed by some people, the purchase of 
mark values by foreigners would then necessarily have reached a 
height which exceeds every possibility. 



28 

We came to the conclusion, therefore, that the present German 
. passive trade balance can not be so great and that in case the pay- 
ment balance is freed from the payments arising from the Versailles 
peace treaty and the coal imports required to replace the deliveries 
of reparations coal, an adjustment of the payment balance must be 
possible. 

We do not consider the condition of the trade balance as a decid- 
ing obstacle against stabilization. Furthermore a sound money 
value is in itself an effective medicine for an unfavorable trade 
balance and awakes power which becomes effective in producing 
an adjustment. 

We must admit, however, that several conditions are necessary to 
readjust the German trade balance without which the practical ex- 
ecution of our plan would be endangered; viz, giving Germany the 
same rights as other powers in international trade with regard to 
the collection of revenues on imports of luxuries and giving her most 
favored-nation rights with regard to her exports. Foreign countries 
would be much more ready to change the present limitations, if, 
through the stabilization of the mark German competition in foreign 
markets would again take on a normal character. 

8. From the above we conclude that under the conditions which we 
demand it would be possible to stabilize the mark with the assistance 
of Germany's own efforts. Nevertheless we still add that several 
technical conditions — the large gold reserve, the scarcity of money, 
the difference between the external depreciation on the one part and 
the extent of inflation in Germany and the internal depreciation — 
make it easier to overcome the situation. With an exchange rate of 
3,500 marks to the dollar, the gold on deposit in the Eeichsbank is 
equal to twice the value of the paper marks in circulation. That is 
a condition that has never existed heretofore. No other money sys- 
tem has ever collapsed with an untouched potential reserve of such 
extent. 

9. We would consider it incautious to attempt our proposed stabili- 
zation plan any other way than to take a low value for the mark, and 
this value may be considerably higher than the prevailing one. It is 
impossible to say at present what rate of exchange should be decided 
upon. The last sharp depreciation was principally a result of the 
collapse of confidence, and, in case the above-mentioned measures are 
applied, a great improvement will immediately take place. 

In explanation of our opinion, we desire to state that based on the 
conditions prevailing at the time that this report is being written 
(7,000 marks to the dollar) an exchange rate of 3,000 to 3,500 marks 
per dollar would probably be the correct rate. 

One must keep in mind, however, that with such a rate of exchange 
a considerable increase of the paper money circulation by degrees 



29 

will be necessary to such extent as the business life of the country 
returns to normal conditions. The final rate of exchange must be 
determined by considering the internal purchasing power of the mark 
on the one hand and the exchange value in foreign currency on the 
other hand, after the plan in the second part of our report shall have 
been put in operation and the principal guiding points have been 
published beforehand. 

Naturally a new uniform value equal to several times the value of 
the stabilized paper mark must be adopted after the stabilization 
has been completely executed, in the interest of easing business rela- 
tions. 

PRINCIPLES FOR STABILIZING THE MARK. 

1. In consideration for the granting of a postponement of all pay- 
ments arising from the Versailles peace treaty for the period of two 
years, the German Government should give the Reparations Com- 
mission the following positive guarantees: 

(a) An independent exchange department will be established in 
Berlin as a special organ within the organization of the Reichsbank, 
which would receive an appropriate share of the gold reserve of the 
Reichsbank for its disposal. 

(b) So long as a part of this gold is still free, the exchange de- 
partment will purchase paper marks at an established rate, this rate 
to be determined by the principles explained in the first part of our 
report. 

(c) The total amount of the floating debt shall not exceed a certain 
sum. Government needs of credit in excess of this sum to be obtained 
from funded loans. 

No change shall be made in these principles without the approval 
of the Reparations Commission. Furthermore the Reparations Com- 
mission on the one hand and the German Government on the other 
hand would be charged with protecting the deposits of the exchange 
department from interference. 

2. After the approval of the Reparations Commission shall have 
been received for the foregoing, the following steps would be in 
order : 

(a) Invite an international finance consortium to cooperate in the 
financial reconstruction program. 

(b) Established currency reserve of the necessary amount on the 
basis of the gold placed at the disposal of the exchange department, 
simultaneously with the credits which are granted from time to time 
on the basis of appropriate securities by the international con- 
sortium. 

(<?) The rescission of all currency ordinances and the granting of 
free and unlimited traffic in currencies and foreign stocks and bonds. 



30 

3. The exchange department would buy and sell foreign currency 
on demand (according to principles of traffic in gold currencies) 
according to market conditions, for paper marks at official exchange 
rates and at first would not be permitted to give more than 5 per cent 
more for the latter rate than the money rate. 

4. The Reichsbank discounts rate would have to be sufficiently 
increased and expensive money would have to be maintained so long 
until stabilization is secure ; on the other hand, commercial exchange 
would have to be freely discounted and bank credits granted on all 
ordinary securities for legitimate trade requirements. 

5. In order to be able to receive the highest possible amount of 
unused currencies from the German people for its currency reserves 
under conditions that produce the necessary confidence. 

(a) The exchange department would issue gold treasury notes 
(redeemable in gold) , guaranteed by the Reichsbank, to run from one 
to two years, with an appropriate rate of interest, in consideration 
for species, etc. 

(&) The exchange department would pay cash for currencies and 
sell them again at fixed times with appropriate margins for the in- 
dividual expirations. 

6. As an increase in the paper money in circulation is necessary 
for the business requirements of the country, paper money would be 
issued, so far as possible, after normal conditions again prevailed, 
through — 

(a) Discounting commercial credits and granting bank credits to 
commerce by the Reichsbank, and 

(b) Sale of marks by the exchange department for foreign cur- 
rencies; and in addition Federal treasury notes, but to the lowest 
possible extent and not to exceed a period of 6 months, which would 
be issued to cover the deficit in the budget during the transition 
period before the budget shall have been balanced. 



GERMANY. 
NAVAL ATTACHES. 

21 November, 1922. 



It is understood that the interallied naval control commission in 
Berlin will be dissolved in the beginning of the year 1923, and that 
at this time the British Government will send a naval attache, to 
the embassy at Berlin. Commander Wells, at present British naval 
attache at The Hague, has been selected for this post. 

Germany apparently does not intend to send naval attaches to 
their various embassies. The principal reason for this is apparently 



31 

lack of money as extraordinary allowances would have to be granted 
to such attaches with a consequent depletion of the allowances for 
other purposes, as they can not reasonably expect to have their 
budget increased. 

GERMANY. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH MAGNETIC CABLE. 
18 November, 1922. 

The following report is a translation of an article appearing in 
a magazine by August Engelhardt, of Berlin, on the subject of the 
" Magnetic cable " : 

From October 19 to 21 the " Gesellschaft fur Elektrische Apparate, Berlin- 
Marienfelde " (Electrical Apparatus Co.), assisted by the North German Lloyd 
of Bremerhaven, carried out a series of successful trial trips for the purpose 
of demonstrating the practical application of a new method of ship navigation 
to a large and interested circle. The method in question was an improvement 
on the fairly well-known " electric channel pilot," through the introduction of 
an optical indicator in addition to the already proposed acoustic method. This 
novelty is based on a development by Siemens & Halske. 

The channel pilot serves to indicate a designated route absolutely inde- 
pendent of conditions of visibility or weather, being based, as wireless teleg- 
raphy, on the dispersion of electromagnetic waves in space. By means of this 
system ships can be piloted through the very thickest fog, along the most 
complicated routes, and into the most difficult harbor entrances. 

The new method is based in short on the following principles : A one-strand 
cable, fastened at numerous points, is laid on the harbor bottom along the 
channel which is to be indicated. The beginning of the cable is connected with 
the pole of an alternating current generator, the opposite pole of which is in 
the ground. The far end of the cable is also in the ground so that the alter- 
nating current passing through the cable is closed through the ocean bottom 
and the salt water. The cable current and the divided return current generate 
a magnetic field whose lines of force run in a vertical plane to the direction 
of the cable. For the sake of greater simplicity, we will assume that the 
magnetic lines of force encompass the cable in concentric circles. The further 
distant we are from the side of the cable, the less strength there is to the 
magnetic field. Therefore this close dependence of the strength of the field 
on the distance between ship and magnetic cable governs the navigation along 
the cable. 

. For the purpose of navigation, a coil having 100 turns (through which the 
magnetic lines of force pass) is placed on the starboard side of the ship. These 
lines of force induce a weak alternating current in the coil, of the frequency 
of the cable current. This, however, is much too weak to give any indica- 
tion. This current must first be strengthened many times through the well- 
known reinforcer with high vacuum-cathode tubes. This makes a distinct 
sound in an ordinary telephone if a proper frequency is selected. The human 
ear is not capable of distinguishing slight differences in tone, and is altogether 
useless in this respect when tired. Therefore, in order to dispense with the 
necessity of the helmsman wearing a head receiver during the entire period in 
which the vessel is entering or leaving a harbor, it is far preferable to have 



32 

an optical indication. The reinforced current is unidirected in special connec- 
tion in a tube. The negative half waves are suppressed and only the positive 
ones are left — that is, a rapid succession of continuous current impulses which 
are caused by the indicator of a galvanometer. In the apparatus used in 
Bremerhaven, a magnetic field was used which in strength was 10,000 times 
smaller than that of the magnetic earth field. The cable used was 5.5 sm. 
long and the magnetic current was evident up to 500 m. to the side of the 
cable. The distance of the ship from the cable can be gauged by the strength 
of the tone or optical indication. If one approaches the cable from the sea 
and there are no other aids at disposition, then the telephone is to be used 
and the ship is to be steered in such a way that the tone strength increases 
continuously. As soon as the cable is reached then the optical indication is 
used. A further advantage can be gained by attaching coils both at starboard 
and port and by doubling the entire indicating apparatus. (In so doing the two 
galvanometers are joined together in one box.) If the cable is situated to star- 
board, then the starboard coil is nearer to it than the port coil — in the first 
instance a stronger current is indicated — the starboard indicator is more defi- 
nite than the port indicator. A galvanometer influenced by both reinforcers 
deflects to the left. This indicator is to be observed only by the helmsman, 
who must make every effort to keep the middle course in accordance with the 
ordinary compass system of steering. The indications are always much stronger 
toward starboard. If the ship deflects slightly from the cable toward port, 
then the ship must be steered to starboard again or the side of the stronger 
signals in order to again regain the cable. 

In practice, a magnetic cable will be designated for the incoming 
ships and one for the outgoing, running, for instance, 400 meters 
parallel to each other. Each cable should be distinctly indicated. 
This is done by introducing the alternating current in definite 
Morse rhythm. It is well to have the indications of one cable corre- 
spond to the pauses in the other. In this way the alternating cur- 
rent generator can supply both cables at the same time. 

Seaward the cables end in distended forks and the ships coming 
from sea toward the harbor will naturally strike both forks. It is 
advantageous to have underwater sounders on each end of the cable 
which give the same signals as the cables appertaining thereto. The 
incoming ships, therefore, steer onto the sounders and in this way 
get into the magnetic field of the cable. 



GERMANY. 

■0 

SHIPPING. 
2 November, 1922. 



Pessimism characterizes nearly every utterance, public and private, 
of the German shipowner and operator. Quoted propagandist 
speeches and prepared articles protest to the world the irreparable 
damage which has been done to German shipping by the war and 
the treaty of Versailles, declaim the impossible economic situation of 
Germany to-day, and bewail the handicaps which surround German 



33 

shipping on every hand. Yet the great shipping companies at Ham- 
burg and Bremen are launching new vessels, and the modern ship- 
building works at all the North Sea and Baltic ports continue to 
lay down new keels. During a period in which the United States 
produces approximately 200,000 tons of new shipping a total ton- 
nage approximating 1,250,000 is brought out by the stricken German 
interests — the while hundreds of thousands of tons and other flags 
are lying idle in the great world ports. Such developments give 
rise to thought and merit some inquirjr. 

GERMANY'S LOSS OF TONNAGE. 

It is not gainsaid that German shipping of itself was ruined as 
the result of the war. With a gross registered tonnage of about 
5,500,000 in 1914, and losses of 2,700,000 tons as the result of war- 
time operations and of 2,900,000 tons as the result of the provisions 
of the treaty of Versailles, Germany's tonnage immediately after 
the war registered the wretched total of 400,000- — wretched in the 
eyes of a nation once second in world shipping circles. And of this 
total it must be admitted that the greater part was composed of aged 
vessels, due for scrapping, and of small coastal vessels plying local 
North Sea and Baltic ports. There was not one ship expressly de- 
signed for overseas traffic. 

Such a state of affairs, while illustrating the severity of the treaty 
provisions, rather emphasizes the present situation — a gross tonnage 
of over 2,000,000 tons to-day — by striking contrast. How is it pos- 
sible that a nation with a miserable remnant of a grand merchant 
marine — a few leaky bottoms designed years ago for limited inland 
seas trade — a nation popularly supposed to be ruined financially, 
in the doldrums economically, has to-day a merchant marine eighth 
in size among nations, bidding fair to exceed in a few months its 
Dutch, Norwegian, Italian, and French rivals, and with even a lesser 
rate of increase than that shown during the past two years, threaten- 
ing to overtake that of Japan and to rank third only to America 
and Great Britain? 

DISPERSAL OF GREAT OCEAN LINERS. 

How Germany's former ships were taken and disposed of to the 
profit of competing flags may best be illustrated by a glance at the 
following tabulation showing the disposition of 32 of the largest 
vessels, some of which were among the largest and most palatial ocean 
liners afloat: 

Name of ships. 
( 'anadian Pacific : Tonnage. 

Tirpitz {Empress of Australia) 21,400 

Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm (Empress of India) 17,099- 

Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria (Empress of Scotland) 24,581 



34 

Tonnage. 

Cunard Line: Imperator {Berengaria) 52,022 

Contpagnie Generale Transatlantique : 

Scharnhorst (La Bourdonnais) . 8,388 

Goeben (Roussillon) 8, 800 

Greek Line : 

Bremen (Constantinople) 11, 540 

Cleveland (King Alexander) 16,960 

Italian Government: 

Konig Albert (Ferdinando Pallasciano) 10,643 

Moltke (Pessaro) 12, 235 

Royal Mail: Miinchen (Ohio) 18,000 

United American Lines : 

Prinz Eitel Friedrich (Mount Clay) 8,170 

J. H. Burchard (Reliance) (sale) 19,582 

William Oswald (Resolute) (sale) 19,563 

United States Shipping Board : 

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Agamemnon) 19,361 

Amerika (America) 22, 622 

Friedrich der Grosse (City of Honolulu) 10, 6S8 

Grosser Kurfurst (City of Los Angeles) 12,642 

George Washington (George Washington) 23, 788 

Vaterland (Leviathan) 54, 281 

* Barbarossa (Mercury) : 10, 980 

* Kronprinzessin Cecilie (Mount Vernon) 18,372 

'^Pennsylvania (Nansemond) 13, 322 

* Bulgaria (Philippines) 11, 440 

Prinzess Alice (President Arthur) 10,421 

* Prinzess Irene (Pocahontas) 10,352 

Hamburg (President Fillmore) 10, 532 

* Prasident Grand (President Grant) _ 18,072 

Neclcar (Susquehanna) 9, 835 

White Star Line : 

Berlin (Arabic) :___ 17,324 

Columbus (Homeric) 33, 526 

Bismarck (Majestic) 56, 000 

The above-named vessels total an aggregate tonnage of 612,351. 
Their names alone give an idea of the prestige and reputation carried 
before the war and their loss was a serious blow, a blow which 
possibly in some allied circles was felt, or at least hoped, to be in- 
superable. It is interesting to note that those vessels marked (*) 
are not in service, according to present information, and all are 
allotted to the American merchant marine. The regret of a great 
German shipping owner can well be understood by a review of the 
above list. The loss of such vessels as the Vaterland (Leviathan) , 
the Imperator (Berengaria), and the new-built Bismarck, now the 
Majestic, giants of the deep, the ultimate of ship construction, may 
well have been staggering. 

•But the present status of German shipping no longer, it would 
seem to the unprejudiced observer, justifies pessimism. The eco- 
nomic situation of the German Empire may be hopeless, the Ger- 



35 

man mark may sound bottomless depths, but among the varied 
industries and pursuits of Germany it may be held that German 
shipping has profited and is profiting in an almost unbelievable 
way in the present European confusion. 

GERMANY'S SHIPPING NOW AS COMPARED TO THAT OF 
AMERICA AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

According to Lloyd's latest classification the tonnage figures for 
Germany, America, and Great Britain are as follows : 



Number of 
vessels. 



Tonnage. 



Germany 

United States 

United Kingdom. 



1,533 
3,765 
8,430 



1,785,767 

1 13,576,640 

19,088,636 



1 Seagoing. 

Ranking between Germany and the United States are France, 
Italy, Japan, Holland, and Norway. 

At the present writing a report has been published which leads to 
the belief that on September 30, 1922, the German merchant marine 
amounted to a total of 2,013,500 gross registered tons. This latter 
figure includes the following vessels added to the merchant navy 
during the month of September alone : 

Vessels launched. 

Name. Tonnage . 

Diana 2,000 

Robert Koppen 4, 000 

Else Zelck 2, 000 

Due&seldorf 8,200 

Werra 11.000 

Dendera . 6, 500 

Vessels completed. 

Sachsen _-_ 12, 200 

Feodosia . 5, 400 

Altair _ - 6, 000 

Sierra Nevada , 4, 100 

Friederun 4, 100 

Nord Sclilesivig 4. 300 

Antares 6,000 

Freiburg 1. 800 

Hans Hemsott S. 800 

Arcadia 2. 000 

Sonnenfelde 1, 400 

CONSTRUCTION OF MOTOR SHIPS. 

A glimpse at a table showing the German program with particular 
reference to motor ships may be of interest. The table in question 



36 

shows the number of vessels and amount of tonnage, with horse- 
power, under construction in the month of August, 1922: 



Num- 
ber. 



8 
10 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 



25 



Bllilcl.T. 



Deutsche Werft, Hamburg 

A. G. Krupp, Kiel 

Howaldtwerke, Kiel 

A. G. Weser, Bremen 

Blohm & Voss, Hamburg 

Tecklenborg A. G., Geestemunde. 



Owner. 



Hapag. 



Hugo Stinnes, A. G . 

Hamburg Siid 

Hansa Line 

Hapag 

Hansa Line 



Gross 
tonnage. 



48,000 
01,000 

0,000 
14,000 

9,000 
28,000 

9,000 



175,000 



Engine 
horse- 
power. 



20,000 
26,000 
2,800 
5,000 
3,200 
12,000 
3,000 



72,000 



ACTIVITY OF GERMAN SHIPBUILDING PLANTS. 

One of the significant features of the foregoing array of surpris- 
ing figures is the fact that the entire output listed is turned out of 
the German shipbuilding works themselves. While the shipbuild- 
ing industry is not apparently a necessary adjunct of a successful 
shipping industry it is undoubtedly of vast assistance to the ship- 
ping interests of a country, if additions and repairs can be locally 
obtained. This has apparently been realized by the Hamburg- Amer- 
ican Line, which after many years of patronage of British ship 
manufacturers before the war had begun to use its home facilities, 
was gradually more and more withdrawing contracts from British 
shipbuilders and had established local shipbuilding. The question is 
worthy further consideration later. 



STRENUOUS SHIPBUILDING. 

Director Cuno. of the Hamburg- American -Line, in a much-quoted 
article in the Manchester Guardian of last May. uses the following 
figures to denote activities in shipbuilding this year as compared 
with that in 1914 : 

Tonnage under construction (in thousand tons\. 



1914 



1922 



Germany 

England 

United States 

France 

Japan 



352 


400 


167 


2,299 


171 


164 


152 


286 


49 


117 



Experts are contending that there is a glut of tonnage in the world 
to-day. Tonnage laid up in American harbors is too sad and costly 
a proof of the contention, and owners and operators need no further 
evidence in proof of the statement made to that effect by the the- 



37 



orists. Additions to the tonnage on hand as presaged by the above 
and proved by the figures so far as Germany is concerned by the 
lists of launchings and successful trial trips, as well as by trim new 
liners in the service of the German lines, would appear to be fool- 
hardy. 

Yet Germany with a disrupted currency has the second largest 
and most ambitious program of all. Director Cuno's figures as given 
above are much too modest. The present tonnage of Germany given 
in Lloyds and referred to previously is largely new built. Some of 
the vessels to be sure were formerly in the German service, were 
requisitioned by the Allied Government and have been repurchased 
to form the nucleus of the German merchant navy, but by far the 
greater amount of the tonnage is new. An increase of from 400,000 
to 1,750,000 tons, by actual classification, and to 2,000,000 tons by 
latest estimates, in a period of approximately two years is an 
achievement warranting boasts of accomplishment. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion it may be pointed out that this dogged growth and 
development of German shipping is taking place during a period 
when the shipping of other nations is in precarious condition. The 
period following the war found the world equipped with even mil- 
lions of tons in vessels which were additional to the pre-war tonnage 
and which were entirely superfluous so far as the carrying demands 
were concerned. This situation continues to-day. 

Yet on this date as this paragraph is being written, the Haih- 
burg- American Line reports a new large freighter, and the Hugo 
Stinnes Aktien-Gesellschaft also reports a new passenger freighter, 
both vessels installed in the oriental service of these respective 
concerns. 

The only conclusions that can be reached are that, regardless of 
all protestations and statements to the contrary, German shipping 
is in a prosperous condition and that it is gaining in a drain on the 
shipping of other flags; that the depreciated condition of the Ger- 
man mark is not a handicap to German shipping and that, on the 
contrary, German shipping by its very nature is in a position to 
exploit this debasement to the fullest possible extent; that as the 
result of this financial status German shipping is at a distinct ad- 
vantage over its foreign competitors in many respects ; that the Ger- 
man Government is bound to see German shipping at least at its 
former relative level and that it will take any steps within its power 
to assist the development ; and that in competition, foreign shipping, 
especially British and American shipping operating from national 
home ports, is unable to-day to withstand the German onslaught at 
the moment. 



38 

It may also finally be admitted that the instability of German 
affairs is naturally a source of continual worry and uncertainty to 
German shipping- companies. Yet the precarious situation of Ger- 
many to-day has not thus far served as a serious handicap, as proved 
by the phenominal development of the past two years. No attempt 
should be made to predict the future. 

The statement may be ventured, however, that if present economic 
and financial conditions continue — without revolutionary disorders — 
German shipping should suffer no real setback. Its position in the 
event of a stabilization of German and European affairs is specu- 
lative, but, reviewing the pre-war prestige and success, there is no 
reason to predict that its upward progress would be seriously dis- 
commoded. 



RUSSIA. 

AERONAUTICS. 
28 November, 1922. 



According to recent German newspaper reports, a giant airplane, 
with movable wings, is under construction at the present time in one 
of the Soviet factories. 



SPAIN. 

REPORT OF MELILLA DISASTER. 
28 November, 1922. 

The publication of the report of General Picasso, who was dele- 
gated to make a thorough investigation regarding the disaster to 
the Spanish Army in Morocco in July, 1921, created a great sensa- 
tion, and, since the opening of the Cortes, its time has been devoted 
principally to the discussion of the findings of the parliamentary 
commission which made a study of the Picasso report. 

The report goes into great detail regarding the management of 
Moroccan affairs and reveals a most deplorable condition of ineffi- 
ciency and lack of organization and discipline in the Spanish Army. 
According to the report, the offensive campaign leading up to the 
rout of the Melilla army in July. 1921, was conducted with an abso- 
lute disregard of sound military principles, the organization and 
equipment of every branch were defective and the army lacked dis- 
cipline and morale. When the disaster occurred, the army degen- 
erated into a demoralized mob. Officers removed their insignia of 
uniform, abandoned their posts without waiting for orders and any 
semblance of military organization completely disappeared. The 



39 

report makes specific charges of cowardice or neglect of duty against 
many officers, including General Berenguer (the commander in chief 
in Morocco) and General Silvestre, who was in direct command at 
Melilla. 

The responsibility for the disaster is placed, not only on the mili- 
tary leaders, but on the Government officials in power at the time, 
who, it is claimed by the partisans of General Berenguer, refused 
to furnish sufficient troops and efficient equipment, and avIio ordered 
that the offensive operations be undertaken against his advice. The 
statement made by a member of the Cortes that the King should be 
held responsible, as the advance from Melilla was conducted as a 
result of his direct and personal orders to General Silvestre, has 
created a great sensation. There seems to be a general and well- 
founded opinion that this is really the case, though the press and 
public are well disciplined in Spain, and the King is generally above 
criticism. 

Much political capital is being made over the whole affair, and 
there are the usual demands in the press that those responsible for 
the loss of thousands of Spanish soldiers should be punished. How- 
ever, it is doubtful if the responsibility could be placed directly on 
any individual. It is all the fault of years of mismanagement of 
governmental affairs, the corruption and general inefficiency of the 
army from the top clown, and the general apathy of the Spanish 
people, who accept and tolerate these conditions as a matter of 
course. It is doubtful if even the disgraceful revelations of the 
Picasso report will lead to any reforms or improvement in the 
administration of military affairs. 



SWEDEN. 

NEW BUILDING PROGRAM. 
24 October, 1922. 



A commission was organized in Sweden in November, 1920, to 
study the question of national defense and examine proposals for 
the reorganization of the army and navy. The report has just been 
published and the naval proposals are of special interest. The new 
constructions proposed are as follows: 

Three armored coastal ships of a new type, 12 destroyers, 6 sub- 
marine (I class), 3 submarines with equipment for mine laying, 22 
submarine chasers, 12 motor torpedo boats, and 6 guard boats. 

All the above ships are to be finished by 1934. Since the coastal 
ships must also do duty as cruisers, their measurements will conform 
to the following : 

Length, 459 feet 4 inches (140 m.) ; width, 49 feet 4 inches (15 m.) ; 
draft, 18 feet (5.5 m.) ; displacement, 0,200 tons; speed, 29 knots. 



40 

The armament is to consist of six 8. 2-inch (21 cm.) guns which 
will be mounted in pairs in amidship turrets with one turret in front 
and two behind, elevated; there will also be six 4.7-inch (12 cm.) 
rapid fire guns behind protection plates and three 3-inch (T.6 cm.) 
antiaircraft cannon; three antiaircraft machine guns, and two 21- 
inch (53.3 cm.) torpedo launching tubes. The armor in the strong- 
est parts is to be 5 inches (127 mm.) thick. This will present an in- 
teresting type of ship, although it may be doubted whether such dis- 
placement will furnish the necessary speed and offensive power. The 
torpedo boats are to have 900 tons displacement and 35 knots speed. 

The Sverige class is to be equipped with modern fire control and 
all the old armored vessels are to have guns of greater radius. The 
cost of the proposed program is estimated at 106,150,000 kronen, and 
the cost of equipping and improving the Sverige class at 900,000 
kronen and that of fixing up the old armored vessels at 1,200,000 
kronen. The reorganization of the naval aeronautics has also been 
recommended and the price of such reorganization estimated at 
1,500,000 kronen. 

It remains to be seen whether or not this very extensive program 
can be carried out owing to the finances of the country. Formerly 
it was the Swedish people themselves who took the liveliest interest 
in keeping the country's fighting forces at a maximum and it will be 
remembered that some 10 years ago the line-ship Sverige was paid 
for by a public collection, since the Government would not author- 
ize the required sum. The collection brought in £1,000,000 and as 
the construction of the ship only cost £70,000, the balance was used 
for the sister ship Drottmng Victoria and Gustav V. These three 
ships show what can be attained with small displacement. Although 
they have a displacement of only 7,600 tons, each ship has a speed 
of 22.5 knots (maximum), an armor of 8 inches (203 mm.), an arma- 
ment of four 11-inch (28 cm.) guns, and a large number of smaller 
cannon, as well as two submarine torpedo launching tubes. 



TURKEY. 

THE GREEK RETREAT. 
1 November, 1922. 



(The following article was written by a naval officer who accompanied press 
correspondents on a trip into the interior of Asia Minor.) 

We left Smyrna on a special train composed of army flat cars 
loaded with trucks and army accouterments and three coaches — -two 
compartment cars and one dining car. 

There was the customary delay, and finally we got started, one 
hour and a half after the time set. The Italian journalist affiliated 



41 

himself with the Americans from the first, and we occupied three 
sections of a coach, three second-class sections, while the first class 
were reserved for the Turkish officers. This tended to destroy the 
unity of the party but soon it was forgotten. 

Before we had left the station we were interviewed by various 
officials and representatives of local Turkish papers. We were in- 
formed that we were going to see terrible sights — that we would need 
perfume because of the smell — that it was like going through hell. 
Also Ave were told that we Avere very unfortunate indeed, for there 
was no one to cook for us, but that they would do the best they could. 
That had us worried. 

Our first stop was Manemen. As the train pulled into the station 
we found that Ave were expected. All of the village Avas there to 
greet us. As Ave descended from our coach Ave were met by the 
colonel commanding the troops Avith his staff, the mayor, the toAvn 
president, and the village teachers in their white encircled fezzes. 
We were immediately escorted to seats all carefully arranged in 
front of the station, tea and crackers served, and then the addresses 
commenced. The president, through an interpreter, started telling 
us what he had to show us when he Avas interrupted by the arrival 
of Cassim Pasha, a major general in the Turkish Army. As soon 
as all were again seated and had been supplied Avith tea and tidbits, 
the president called upon one of the leading citizens to tell the story 
of the Greek atrocities. 

He started off well, beginning Avith the 8th of September and 
telling in detail all that happened or was said during all of the 
day. He made an especial point of the fact that the Greek priests 
announced that Mememen would be burned the day the Greek troops 
arrived. He Avent on at great length to tell of the measures the 
Turkish population took to guard against the burning of the city 
and Avorked himself into a terrible state of mind, and when it Avas 
all finished we learned that nothing had happened to Mememen. 
They said that the retreating Greek Army did not have time to 
destroy the village. 

But they had an ace Up their sleeves. They wished us to go for 
a little trip into the country Avhere there Avere the bodies of some 
Turks avIio had been murdered by the Armenians, and Ave- must see 
them. Well and good; Ave all got into carriages and drove out into 
the country for about 2 miles and turned into a farmyard. There 
the party all gathered around an old well Avhich appeared to have 
been filled with reeds. A soldier in the party, evidently brought 
for the purpose, took a long pole and began pushing and scraping 
at the refuse in the bottom of the well. All of the Turks began 
holding their noses and rushing away from the well. " Do you smell 



42 

them? " they asked. " There are 18 of them/' We not of the Turk- 
ish race all admitted that Ave did not. Thereupon the soldier went 
to work again trying to uncover the bodies. After about 15 min- 
utes of pushing and scraping, he appeared very excited and they" 
said he had uncovered a head. Again Ave looked and asrain saw 
nothing. I did smell something, hoAveA'er, but AA'hether it Avas Turk, 
Armenian, Greek, or swine I could not say. The Turks had evi- 
dently convinced themselves, so aAvay Ave went back to the train. 

I had started from Smyrna anti-Turk and now my sentiments Ave re 
being confirmed. The whole thing Avas evidently a propaganda trip, 
well laid out and all of the actors coached in their various parts 
We were to see nothing except what they wished to show us and were 
to hear lots of wild tales without any material evidence beinc; shoAvn 
us. Believing that to be the case, Ave just settled back and decided 
to let them go to it and then Ave would Avrite as Ave felt. 

After many polite adieus we pulled out of the station, the entire 
community lining up to see us away. We stood up and rendered 
very dignified salutes, which seems to be the Turkish custom. 

Our second stop was at Magnesia, about 66 kilometers inland from 
Smyrna, where we were met by the reception committee consisting 
of all the town and district notables, led by Lieut. Col. Cassim Pacha, 
a tall, slender, forceful appearing soldier. 

He was very well prepared with statistical data, the substance of 
which was as follows: The population was 50,000, of whom 42,000 
were Turks, 8,000 Greeks; 10,700 houses, 13 mosques, 2 baths, 2,728 
shops or stores, 19 hotels, 23 residences, 3 flour mills, 5 farms, and 
1,740 houses in suburbs had been destroyed. Avhile 3,500 of the Mos- 
lem population had lost their liA'es in the flames; 167 had been 
wounded while trying to escape from the burning area. 

Then we sat down to tea and this story of disaster was related 
to us. The retreating Greeks had an organized band of incendiaries 
equipped with machines for spraying oil, and as they retreated through 
the city they went through the various streets spraying the houses 
and setting them afire. When the inhabitants came out of their 
houses and attempted to put out the fires they were shot at, many of 
them being killed in this manner. Greek patrols covered the city to 
assure themselves that all of the city was fired before they left. 

The main Greek Army did not pass through the city but around 
it. The damage was done by this organized band who seemed to 
have no other duties, and it was claimed that the work was carried 
out under the personal supervision of Col. Turner PoAveljn and his 
chief of staff, Phillips. 

As the Greeks retreated they took with them 228 young girls, none 
of whom has ever come back. After some of them had been raped. 



43 

it is said that they were compelled to drink petroleum and they were 
set on fire. 

Having heard the story of the destruction of the city, we started 
on a personally conducted tour of the city — personally conducted by 
all of the remaining inhabitants of the city. It had, indeed, been 
burned and there was very little left. It is hard to conceive of such 
complete destruction as we saw. Acres and acres were completely 
wiped out, with nothing left on which to make a start. 

Eight here it might be Avell to digress long" enough to give some 
sort of an idea of what these cities were before the fire. The streets 
were narrow, not over 20 feet wide at the most, and many of them 
less than 15. Man}^ of the shops and better types of houses were 
built of brick, with tile roofing, while the smaller, poorer houses were 
built of mud or clay blocks, reinforced with wooden stringers, and 
many of them had thatched roofs. They were poor fire risks, as was 
proven by their condition after the firing of the city. There was 
nothing except a few tottering walls left. 

In one section of the city at a sort of park or open space we came 
upon a refugee camp where the homeless were congregated. Here 
we talked with the leading Jew of the community, who told us the 
same story of the destruction. All of the people in the camp were 
being fed Turkish army rations, and had absolutely no food nor 
shelter and only such clothing as they had on their backs. 

Having passed through the remains of the village, we were again 
escorted to our train, where an impassioned address was made by the 
colonel, praising the work of a French Catholic school, which had 
been able to save and protect many Turks during the firing of the 
city, and asking us to observe carefully and write what we saw; to 
give the Turk his due before the civilized nations of the world. 

Our next stop was Cassaba, famous for its melons. We were met 
by the usual reception committee and a guard, this time the principal 
speaker being a young Turkish lady. She spoke in perfect French, 
telling us of their great misfortune and of their present needs, saying 
that they had neither food nor shelter and were in need of flour and 
tools and materials to build homes of some sort before the approach- 
ing rainy season. 

We were told that Cassaba had been a city of 40,000 inhabitants, 
37,000 Turks and 3,000 non-Moslems. Of that number, there are now 
0,000 remaining in the city, 1,000 killed and burned, the 3,000 non- 
Moslem residents gone with the Greek Army, and the remainder un- 
accounted for. There were 2,000 buildings in the city, and all were 
destroyed except 200. . 

The story of Cassaba was similar to that of Magnesia. The Greeks 
are said to have used petroleum to make certain that the citv should 



44 

burn, and several witnesses testified as to seeing incendiaries, assisted 
by the Greek and Armenian inhabitants, setting fire to the city. 

We made a tour of the city and found conditions as bad as they 
were pictured. In one dooryard we found two old ladies, one of them 
at death's door, who were crying because they had lost their daugh- 
ters. They said that the Greeks had taken them with them. 

We heard the same story of rape and loot, murder and wanton 
destruction, but still we were skeptical. We could see the results of 
the fire — the complete destruction — but we could not verify the stories 
of raping and looting. We were still looking for concrete evidence 
and were not finding it. 

We traveled on to Alashehr. dining on the way. Traveling on the 
Smyrna, Cassaba & Prolongement Railway is not a pleasure. We 
had started from Smyrna very clean and respectable in appearance, 
but now we were completely dirty. The dust was so thick that 
breathing became difficult. We gave up any idea of trying to keep 
even reasonably clean and gave ourselves over to the dust of Anatolia. 

Alashehr was our destination and fartherest point of travel inland. 
We arrived there about 9.30. and, as it was too late to do much, spent 
the evening visiting with the major. Emir Fuad, who is the non- 
military governor of the city. He is a splendid sort of fellow, very 
pleasant and likeable, and he exerted himself to make us feel that we 
were very welcome. 

First we learned that Alashehr means " The White City." It was 
the ancient city of Philadelphia, or the " City of Brotherly Love." 
Alashehr certainly lived up to its name. 

The evening was spent in discussing the burning of the city. We 
were told the fires were started near the market districts and almost 
immediately fires broke out from every quarter. The Greek civilian 
population helped the soldiers in firing the city and also wrecked as 
much of the water supply as they were able. The soldiers robbed 
and killed the Turks, and many were burned to death in their houses 
as they dared not venture out for fear of being shot. 

While we were discussing the burning of Alashehr the subject of 
the burning of Smyrna was brought up. We asked them to explain 
bow it happened that Smyrna did not burn until the fourth day 
after the Turkish occupation and what precautions had been taken 
to save the city from destruction by fire. The Turkish intelligence 
officer said that they did expect that an attempt would be made to 
burn Smyrna, and they believed it would start in the Armenian 
quarter, so that for the first three days they had kept a heavy patrol 
in that section. When the three days had passed and all seemed 
peaceful and secure they had reduced the patrol, and then the fires 
were set. 



45 

Asked why they had expected the fire to start in the Armenian 
quarter, he said that the Greeks would never dare set it after the 
excavation of their army, while the Armenians were known to have 
"vengeance committees" for just this purpose. He said that the 
Armenians had more courage than the Greeks, and were conse- 
quently used by the Greeks for most of the dirty and dangerous 
work. 

The first fire in the Armenian quarter was extinguished by the 
Turks, but soon after other fires broke out and the fire took charge. 
Twenty Armenians, all equipped with incendiary bombs, were 
rounded up by the Turkish patrols. 

Then the story of the killing of the Greek high priest came up 
and was explained in this manner: The priest had paid a visit to 
Noureddine Pasha, the military governor of Smyrna, and as he 
was leaving he was attacked by a mob and lynched. This was told 
us to refute the charge that he had been taken by the military. 

We spent the night in the train and in the morning took an army 
truck to a small hotel well into the suburbs, where we bathed in one 
of the ancient pools, breakfasted, and then heard the official story 
of the burning of the city. 

The city had a population of 38,000 — 12,000 in the city proper 
and 26,000 in the suburbs. Now there are 5,000 left; there were 
4,000 houses and now there are 100 standing ; there were 3,000 shops 
or stores, of which but 3 remain ; there were 12 mosks and 20 smaller 
places of worship, of which none remain. The 22 small villages 
which went to make the suburbs are all wiped out. Approximately 
600 known dead were found, while there are thousands missing and 
it is not known what became of them. Searching parties are still 
on the mountain side trying to find traces of them. 

The Greeks fell back on the town on the 3d and commenced firing 
it. As in the previous cases, the fires are said to have been set by 
organized bands of incendiaries. Many of the men in these bands 
were known and some of them were captured in Smyrna. 

Eyoub Helmi, a civilian, testified that several Greek officers were 
living with him and they had told him that the city would be burned 
as soon as the Greeks commenced their retreat through that area. 

The story continued that the Greek Army fired the town, using 
oil to assure themselves of a good job, looted and murdered ruth- 
lessly, and then went on their way, taking at least 150 of the young- 
girls with them. 

There were several cases of atrocities which were said to have 
been committed and witnesses were gathered to prove the tale. 
First we heard of a young girl whose breasts had been cut off. 
When we asked to sec her it was declared impossible. Next a lady 
was brought in who was said to have gone mad due to what she had 



46 

seen. To us she appeared rational. Then a Turkish' lady was intro- 
duced, who stated that she was a directress of a young girls' school 
and stated that the Greeks had broken down the schoolhouse, entered 
and robbed all the young ladies of everything they had, and then 
some of the Greek irregulars started the girls toward the station. 
They were able to get away from the irregulars but were then fired 
upon with machine guns and cut down in the streets. Many escaped 
into a garden, when about 20 soldiers came along and commenced to 
beat them. An officer passed that way and the soldiers ran away, 
but the officer entered the garden and forced them to march down" 
toward the station to a factory owned by a Mr. Forbes, an American. 
That is the last she saw of the other young ladies, as she was able 
to escape by hiding in the garden. One girl has since returned, 
wounded in five places and with a story of her violation. We did 
not see the young lady and therefore could not verify the report. 

The next story we heard was of a young child that was torn in 
half by two Greek soldiers — but that was not proven to our satisfac- 
tion. 

Then we were shown a certified and sealed list of GOO known dead. 
That looked pretty substantial and was considered presentable evi- 
dence. It will be noted that up to this time, except for the burned 
cities, we had not seen nor heard any evidence that would bear much 
investigation. We were becoming more and more skeptical, wonder- 
ing if the Turks thought that we were children and would believe 
anything they told us. We had not seen a dead body nor had we 
met any wounded persons who had a first-hand story to tell. We were 
getting fed up with what seemed like the rankest sort of propaganda, 
but now things were about to happen. 

We started on a tour of a village, going up to the highest section 
of the town, where we could get a splendid view of the desolation 
of the city. It was most complete. As we walked down through the 
city we kept insisting that we be shown some concrete evidence of 
the violence of the Greeks other than ruined buildings. Just then 
someone spied a burned and charred head, and with great show of 
finality we Avere shown that. All of the Turks in the party held their 
noses and moved quickly away, seemingly unable to view the sight. 
It was not a pleasant thing, but it was only one head and we were 
not satisfied. 

Then one of the inhabitants said that he could show us graves to 
prove their statements of the number of the dead. Eemember, they 
claimed that there were 600 dead, and we wanted to check up to some 
extent, They led us into a vineyard, and there we found a man 
busily engaged in disinterring bodies so that we should see some real 
evidence. The graves were shallow with not more than 12 or 14 
inches of earth over the bodies, so it was not long before one body 



47 

was uncovered. Unfortunately the spade was thrust into one of the 
bodies during the operation and Ave had to beat a hasty retreat. I 
am willing to swear that there were bodies buried there, however. 

In our wanderings about the town we visited many mosks, and at 
one saw the tomb of the builders of the mosk. The bodies were en- 
cased and laid on slabs in a reclining position with the fez at the 
head of the slab. We were informed that the bodies had been there 
for five centuries and that no possible claim could be laid against the 
Greeks for their death. 

As we were leaving the court in front of the mosque, we noticed a 
large hollow tree which had been taken as a home by one family. 
A rude door had been nailed over the hole in the trunk and it made 
a very comfortable home, not much for room or privacy but in- 
finitely better than no home at all. 

We now started retracing our steps, bound for Smyrna again. As 
we left Alashehr we learned that we were due to meet Mustapha 
Kemal's train at Salikli and we became very much excited over the 
prospect. We met the train all right, but as we pulled in his train 
pulled out and we just had a glimpse of him as he waved to the 
cheering village folk. 

Kemal gone, we became the attraction. The usual courtesies ex- 
changed, we marched down to the Government building correspond- 
ing to our city halls, followed by all of the townspeople. 

Salikli must have been a real prett}- town. The main street was 
quite wide, perfectly straight, and well shaded. The fact that this 
street was, was the salvation of what remained of the town. The 
city did boast of 3,000 houses, of which 2,000 were burned. There 
were 402 shops, 24 hotels, 16 bakeries, 21 coffee houses, 5 flour mills, 
1 moving-picture house, 2 mosques, 1 Jewish synagogue, and 1 Govern- 
ment building, the telegraph office burned. The population had been 
approximately 10,000, of whom 1,000 were non-Moslems. The non- 
Moslem population left two or three days before the firing of the 
town. 

The city was burned on the 5th, and to date 76 bodies have been 
found and buried. About 8.000 people are now in the town, many 
of them homeless. 

The story of the fire followed the same lines as in the previous 
case. The Greeks came, started burning the city, looted the houses, 
and shot all who crossed their path. 

Many pitiful stories were told of the abuse of the people by the 
Greek Army, some of which will bear repetition. First, we, heard a 
wounded man, who said that he was in his house when some Greek 
soldiers entered, robbed him of 600 liras, and then started away, 
taking his son with them. He tried to reach his boy, and was shot 
in the side. Another man told a similar tale and showed his wound. 



48 

Next a man was brought in whose left ear had been cut off'. He said 
that it Avas not an accident; that one of the soldiers had held it while 
he cut it off for amusement. He was robbed before they tortured him. 

Next a little boy limped in. He told his own story, sobbing the 
while, of how he had run out of his burning home and had been shot 
down by a Greek soldier. Asked if the soldier had aimed at him and 
fired, he replied that he was near a tree at the time, and the soldier 
bad fired right at him. 

Then a man told of how his home had been broken open, one man 
shot through the throat, another wounded, and he himself shot 
through the arm. A Greek sergeant had come along and drove the 
soldiers away, and then turned to and robbed them without any com- 
petition. 

Another told of how they had killed his 7-year-old daughter, after 
robbing the mother. 

Two women came in and told their stories. One told of how her 
son-in-law was shot, and the other how her home had been broken 
open, robbed, and her husband killed. Then a little girl told of how 
her father had been beheaded, after he had been robbed of 5 liras, and 
how she had been beaten by the Greek soldiers. 

Next an old man crawled in to show how badly he had been beaten. 
The governor said that this man had been a strong man previously, 
but that he had been crippled by the beatings he had received. 

Most pitiful of all was the story of the next witness, a little boy of 
about 8 years, who told of how he had seen his 30-year-old brother 
caught in the street and beheaded. His story caused one of the Turk- 
ish reporters, who got it first-hand, to break down entirely, which is 
not usual with a Turk. 

We had heard tales of raping, so the lady in the party investigated 
that, interviewed one of the girls and confirmed the story. 

Now we had indeed some evidences of atrocities, and could not 
help but believe. Little children could not even imagine such tales 
unless they had seen them. We saw the wounds themselves and 
heard the stories of the people themselves who had received them, 
and we were convinced that there had been terrible doings in the 
Greek retreat. 

There were about 100 other witnesses, all anxious to tell how they 
had been wounded, and had been mistreated by the retreating army. 
We had seen and heard enough, but it was with difficulty that we 
were able to get away without hearing each individual story and 
examining every wound. 

We went to one of the houses that had not been harmed by the 
fire for lunch, and then made a tour of the town. We saw and 
smelled more dead bodies, and then we were ready to leave for 
Menemen once more, where we were to spend the night. 



49 

On the way back to the station we saw a large body of men march- 
ing along on the next street, so went down to see what Avas going 
on. It was a body of recruits from the country marching to a con- 
centration camp to be armed and equipped. They were a hardy look- 
ing lot of fellows, of all ages from 20 to 50, and sang as they 
marched. Evidently Turkey is still mobilizing. 

We were informed that they would be equipped with rifles and 
army gear captured from the Greeks. I suppose that they will be 
clothed in United States Army uniforms, for all of the Turkish 
troops that we have seen are wearing the United States Army uni- 
form complete, even to the buttons. 

It would be interesting to know where else, except Russia, these 
Army uniforms could have come from. It would seem a wise pre- 
caution to remove Army buttons from all uniform clothing sent to 
relieve the poor Russian Bolsheviki before it left the United States. 

Once more we were off and soon we reached Magnesia, where we 
found a wire for us, asking that we return to Smyrna immediately 
to meet Franklin Bouillon, French diplomat, and tell him what we 
had seen in the^ interior. He had waited in Cassaba for us for 
quite a time, and would wait in Smyrna until 9.30, when he must 
repair on board the Edgar Quinet and sail for Constantinople. 

Our train was reduced to as few cars as possible, and then all 
speed was made to get into Smyrna on time. We raced through the 
dusty corpse-strewn country at all of 20 miles an hour and arrived in 
Smyrna just too late to meet M. Bouillon. 

On the way down we had been informed that if we were too late 
to meet M. Bouillon we would be taken on board the French flagship 
to meet him. Now it was too late for that and we were advised that 
we would have to remain in the station all night before going back 
to our ships or homes, as there was martial law, and no one was 
allowed on the streets at night. Some little persuasion was neces-. 
sary to convince the officials that the same rules which would allow 
us to cross the city to meet Franklin Bouillon at their request would 
allow us to return to our own beds for our convenience. After 
having been refused permission once, suddenly it was decided to let 
us go, and so, guarded by military police, we ended our trip at the 
American consulate. 

IMPRESSIONS GAINED ON THE TRIP. 

I started into the interior anti-Turk, skeptical of all that was 
done or was shown me. My first experiences did not tend to lessen 
my doubts or suspicions. I had, indeed, begun to congratulate 
myself as to my keenness in reading the Turk character. Gradu- 
ally, as I saw the country, became familiar with the people and 



50 

their ways of doing tilings, entirely different from our ways, I found 
that my preconceived ideas and prejudices were being overthrown, 
that the Turk was not so black as some would like to paint him, and 
that he could be and was quite a decent person. I saw that he had a 
good case against the Greek, and he was only asking us to show him 
in his true light and as he really was. 

Everywhere I met the same sort of feeling. I was urged to 
observe, use my own power of judgment, and then to tell the civi- 
lized world what I saw. I was urged to remember the moral re- 
sponsibility that rested upon me as a representative of the press to 
tell the world the whole truth and let the world judge whether the 
Turks or the Greeks were the ones who should take the blame for 
the calamity that had fallen upon the country. 

I found the people in the interior destitute of food, clothing, and 
shelter. They accepted their lot patiently, without the wailing and 
wringing of the hands characteristic of the refugees we have seen 
fleeing from Smyrna. Every time we saw a crowd of people it 
was an orderly crowd. There Avas no begging, no cries for sym- 
pathy; they accepted their lot and only asked for a chance to start 
again. Their very silence was impressive. It was not sullenness: 
it was silence. They were interested, eager to do anything that was 
asked them, but they were orderly throughout. 

Their plea was this, that they be presented to the world in their 
true light. More than that is necessary, however. The rainy season 
is coming on and they are without shelter ; they have no food ; they 
have only the clothes that they are wearing. As Americans we are 
spending thousands of dollars in the Near East for the relief of 
the destitute. Now is a chance for us to show our good faith, our 
political disinterestedness, and our broadness of mind by contribut- 
ing to the relief of the Turks. There is suffering a plenty here 
and no aid in sight. Foodstuffs are needed first of all, then shelter, 
and last of all, clothing. 

The Turks evidently think a good deal of the good opinion of 
America. They show an eagerness to be friendly and to have busi- 
ness relations with us. I have found them extremely friendly and 
hospitable and believe we would do well to make their better 
acquaintance. 

I am convinced that I was allowed to see all that there was to be 
seen on this trip into the interior and that every effort was made to 
show the country in its true state. Undoubtedly the trip was 
arranged for Turkish propaganda but, as has been remarked before, 
they have a good case and it should be presented to the Avorld. 
They have won a great victory by force of arms and now hope to 
have the world judge them by what they see, not what it may be 
told by their enemies. Certainly they deserve that chance. 



51 

We were then shoAvn the military map of the area included in 
the Turkish drive. On it were plotted the position of all the Greek 
troops, regiment by regiment, division by division, 24 hours before 
the drive started. They held a line from the Gulf of Gemlik to 
Eskishehr ; to Afiun, the Greek headquarters ; to Ushak ; to Alashehr 
to Smyrna. They had over 15 divisions on this line, each division 
of from 8,000 to 9,000 men, with most of force concentrated at 
Afiun. The Greek commander in chief, Trecopas, was stationed 
there. Thus the Greeks were holding, or trying to hold, a line of 
some 300 miles with approximately 200,000 troops. The Turks evi- 
dently had their positions well spotted while they claim that the 
Greeks had no idea of the positions or activities of the Turkish 
Army. 

The first Turkish army hit the line to the south and west of Afiun, 
driving toward the north, and took the Greeks entirely unawares. 
They started driving them to the north. The next day the second 
Turkish army started a drive between Afiun and Eskishehr, driving 
to the westward, pushing all before them and thereby boxing the 
headquarters troops between them. The Greeks tried to fall back 
to their secondary lines of defense but were annihilated before they 
could reach them. They lost five divisions at this one spot. They 
had 8-inch guns on the mountains but they never even had a chance 
to use them. 

Meanwhile - the third Turkish army penetrated the Greek line 
between Eskishehr and Brusa, thus breaking the rail communication 
from the north. Also a cavalry division had broken the line to the 
south and west of Ushak, thus cutting off communication with 
Smyrna and this route of escape. 

The story was told of the capture of the Greek commander in 
chief, who was asked why he did not stop the burning and destruc- 
tion by his troops and whose reply was that he could not control 
his troops, that they were out of his hands, and that "As they are 
burning the cities, God is punishing them," whereupon Kemal is 
said to have ordered him taken away from his sight. Orders were 
found on several Greek incendiaries to burn all of the villages. 
Trecopas is being held a military prisoner by the Turks pending 
court-martial. 



52 

PERSONNEL 
GREAT BRITAIN, JAPAN, UNITED STATES NAVIES. 

Tabic shotving comparative personnel strengths of navies of Great Britain, 
United States, and Japan on November 1, 1922, with explanation tables and 
notes. 





United States. 


Great Britain. 


Japan. 




Offi- 
cers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Offi- 
cers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Offi- 
cers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Regular Navy (see note 16) 1 


7,707 


2 3 < 86,512 


94, 219 


15 8,217 

428 

4 

59 

251 


'6 84,041 

3,814 

415 

300 

1,850 

1,944 

327 

2,143 

8,100 


1 92,258 

4,242 

419 

359 

2,101 

1,944 

345 

2,143 

8,545 


'7,705 


65, 469 


73, 174 
















Canadian Navy lO.!./.;;;;; 




























Royal Fleet auxiliary u 














Navy signaling section 1 3 . . . 








18 








Men on yard craft or mer- 
cantile agreement u 














Proportion of Royal air 
force assigned the navy I5 _ 








445 






















Total 


7, 707 


86,512 


94, 219 


9,422 


102, 934 


112, 356 


» 7, 705 


65,469 


73, 174 



1 The figures shown are as of October 1, 1922. The Admiralty have announced that the numbers to be 
retained on March 31, 1923, will be 7,893 officers including 73 naval constructors and 119 engineers and 81,- 
168 enlisted men. Th\s would reduce the total to 9,098 officers and 100,061 men. 

2 Average number of men U. S. Navy borne during the year will be 86,000. 

3 An analysis of the turnover in enlisted personnel for United States shows that the turnover will be 
approximately 57,000 men, of which 19,000 will be reenlistments and 38,000 first enlistments. In other 
words, the "turnover" is equal to practically two-thirds of the total enlisted strength. The term of enlist- 
ment in the British Navy is for 12 years. About 20 per cent are on their second enlistment. 

4 Includes 490 officers and 3,170 men required for aviation. 

5 Includes 73 civil engineers and 119 naval constructors. Naval constructors and civil engineers are 
not officers in British Navy, but perform same duties as naval constructors and civil engineers, who are 
officers in U. S. Navy. British naval constructors and civil engineers are paid from navy votes. Does 
not include Coast Guard. 

6 Does not include Coast Guard, composed entirely of officers and men who have served in Royal Navy. 
Coast Guard will probably be reorganized shortly, and upon reorganization the portion of it remaining 
under the control of the Admiralty will consist of'18 officers and 327 men. The Admiralty have fixed for 
the Naval Establishment a total of 101,300 (i.e., 98,500 and 2,800 Coast Guard), excluding naval construc- 
tors, civil engineers, officers on unemployed or half pay, officers lent to Foreign and Dominion Governments, 
but including Coast Guards and Marines. 

7 Does not include midshipmen at sea. Midshipmen at sea correspond to ensigns, U. S. Navy. 
8 109 (known) officers and 400 (estimated) men from Roval Navy are lent to Australian Navy. 
9 30 (known) officers and 11 (known) men from Royal Navy are lent to New Zealand Navy. 

i° 15 (known) officers and 99 (known) men from Royal Navy are lent to Canadian Navy. 

11 Royal Indian Marines are engaged in running transports. Officers rank with but after Royal Navy 
officers men are enlisted*. This is Naval Establishment of Indian Government. 

i 2 Royal Fleet auxiliary mans colliers and tankers, includes men and officers. May be reserves or mer- 
chant sailors, but perform duties assigned to our Regulars. 

1 3 To be transferred from Coast Guard. (See note 6.) 

w See Table II; number given includes men and officers. May be reserves or merchant sailors, but 
perform duties assigned to our Regulars. 

1 5 Air Ministry stated to naval attache, London, that incase of separation of Royal air force into an army 
wing and a navy wing the line of division would, generally speaking, adhere to the existing division be- 
tween coastaland inland areas. He furthermore added that in peace time those allotted to the navy would 
not be less, but likely more than now represented by coastal areas. Total number, 445 officers, 8,100 men. 
(R adio 0102-2300 May 6, 1922.) It is stated by the Admiralty that the number engaged in naval aviation 
is 209 officers, 1,154 men. (Radio 1617-1400, October 18, 1922.) Number is varied to suit demands of land 
or sea operation. Prior to consolidation 30 per cent of the total air force was in the navy. 

16 On October 1, 1922, the following is a comparison of officers and men serving ashore.— United States: 
Officers, 45 per cent; men, 32.7 per cent. This includes aviation stations, which are not included in British 
Navy. Great Britain: Officers, 32 per cent; men, 32 per cent. Japan: Officers, 60 per cent; men, 60 per 
cent. 



53 

Table II. — Number of men other tftan Royal Navy provided under navy esti- 
mates, 1922-23, to man auxiliaries and corresponding number of regulars, 
United States Navy, required for same duties. 



Great Britain. 



Officers. Men. 



Total. 



United States. 



Officers. Men. 



Total. 



Colliers and tankers 1 10 

Various yard craft 3 

Ammunition ships (naval armament ves- 
sels) 1 ' 

Victualing yard craft 7 

Hospital ships 8 

Transports 9 



13 

257 



97 
1,850 



2 1,944 
* 1, 539 

6 216 

6 78 

6 110 

6 2, 101 



( u ) 



(») 



Total . 



264 



1,947 



5,988 



(») 



RESERVES. 



United States, class 1 

United States, class 6 

Royal naval reserves 

Royal fleet reserves 

Royal naval volunteer reserves. 
Japanese naval reserves 



Total. 



United States. 



Of- 
ficers. 



385 
4,094 



4,479 



Men. 



6,859 
7,136 



13, 995 



Total. 



7,244 
11,230 



18, 474 



Great Britain. 



Of- 
ficers. 



1,644 



166 



1,810 



Men. 



7,551 
35, 352 

1,897 



44, 800 



Total. 



9,195 

35, 352 

2,063 



46, 610 



Japan. 



Of- 
ficers. 



i 2 694 



694 



Men. 



12 33, 400 



33, 400 



Total. 



12 34, 094 



34, 094 



MARINE CORPS. is 


United States. ' 


Great Britain. n 


Japan.is 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


Officers. 


Men. 


Total. 


1,124 


19, 500 


20, 524 


403 


9,388 


9,791 












i Number stated by Admiralty as manning tankers and yard fueling craft, i. e., tankers 1,537, yard fuel- 
ing, 457, total 1,944. 'Number provided in Navy estimates, p. 255, is 1,977. In addition, some colliers are 
time chartered. 

2 The various Naval Reserves of the Dominions are not included in above. 

3 Number shown for British Navy is total numbers provided on pp. 58, 106, 112 of Navy Estimates, 
1922-23. Actual number on Oct. 1 unknown. 

4 Estimated. 

5 Actual number on Oct. 1, British Navy, unknown. Number shown is number provided in Navy 
estimates, 1922-23, p. 127. . 

6 Known. 

7 Above is number stated by Admiralty on Oct. 24, 1922, as manning store ships and water boats. Num- 
ber provided in Navy estimates, 1922-23, p. 44, is 291. 

8 Number shown is number of officers and men to man ships; hospital staffs are excluded. 

9 Royal Indian Marines is number shown in British column. 

i° Japanese tankers manned by navy. Other items of above table not manned by navy. 

ii All manned by regular U. S. Navy. 

12 Whatever reduction of regular personnel is made will represent an increase in reserves. 

• 3 United States marines 1,877 men, 59 officers serve afloat. Royal marines 4,975 men, 169 officers serve 
afloat. Percentage of marines serving afloat: United States: Officers, 5.4 per cent; men, 9.2 per cent. Great 
Britain: Officers, 31 per cent; men, 53 per cent. 

14 Number shown is number announced by Admiralty to be retained on March 31, 1923. Strength of 
Royal Marine Corps on October 1 1922, was 483 officers, 9,614 men. Strength of United States Marine 
Corps on October 1, 1922, was 1,124 officers, 20,382 men. 

15 Eight hundred and fifty marine police under Minister of Marine, who perform same duties as United 
States marines guarding navy yards. 



Remarks on Enlistment. 

united states. 

Enlistments in the Navy are for two, three, and four years. These short 
periods of enlistment results in a heavy turnover in recruits and discharges 
each year. It is estimated that 57,000 men will he enlisted during the year, 
of which 38,000 will be first enlistments and 19,000 reenlistments. An ex- 
amination of the enlisted personnel of June 30, 1922, shows the following: 

Men with less than 4 years' service 68, 646 

Men with 4 and less than 8 years' service 9, 152 

Men with 8 and less than 12 years' service 5, 169 

Men with 12 and less than 16 years' service 3, 693 

Men with more than 16 years' service 1, 920 

Total 88,580 

Of the above, 58,582 were not over 24 years of age. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

On October 1, 1922, the 84,041 men in the British Navy were divided as follows : 

(a) Serving first enlistment of continuous service (viz, for 12 years) 57,432 

(6) Serving second period of continuous service (viz, 10 years to com- 
plete time for pension) 18,136 

(c) Short service (5 years) plus 7 years in reserve 4, 915 

(d) Noncontinuous service 1,458 

(e) Foreigners 1, 632 

if) Pensioners and miscellaneous ^. 468 



Total . 84,041 

The 1,458 noncontinuous-service ratings are practically all stewards and cooks. 

The foreigners consist of 903 foreign natives (Chinese, Kroomen in tropical 
climates, etc., and 729 Maltese.) 

Pensioners and miscellaneous are subdivided — 388 pensioners, 80 miscella- 
neous. 

JAPAN. 

Enlistment for all petty officers is 10 years (6 years active, 4 years reserve). 

Other enlisted men is for 12 years. For volunteers — 6 years active, 6 years 
first reserve. For conscripts — 4 years active, 3 years first reserve, 5 years 
second reserve. 

The enlistments for 1921 were 16,066. The transfers from active to reserve 
status were 14,370. 

(54) 



55 

NAVAL PROGRAMS. 

November 1, 1922. — Ships building and projected. 
Note. — No restrictions on any type except capital ships and aircraft carriers. 



Great Britain. 



Num- 
ber. 



Light cruisers, first line. . .1 4 

Destroyer leaders ! /2 

Destroyers, first line 6 

Submarines, first line 6 

Fleet submarines 

Aircraft carriers 



Tons. 



34, 600 
3, 500 
7,450 

5,550 

3,800 



United States. 



Num- 
ber. 



10 



10 

34 

33 



Tons. 



75, 000 



29, 575 

6,375 



Japan. 



Num- 
ber. 



21 

38 
16 
28 
3 



Tons. 



136, 600 



49, 155 

13, 480 

( 2 ) 
4,500 



France. 



Num- 
ber. 



} 



3 

6 

12 

12 



Tons. 



24, 000 
14,400 
16, 800 

13, 200 





Italy. 



Num- 
ber, 



2 

6 

12 



Tons. 



Estimated all powers will build aircraft carriers up to tonnage allowance 



16,000 
12, 270 
11,680 

2,600 





1 12 destroyers authorized but not under contract. 

2 Tonnage unknown. 

3 6 additional fleet submarines authorized but not under contract. 

Note. — Aircraft carrier tonnage allowed by treaty as follows: United States, 135,000; British Empire, 
135,000; Japan, 81,000; France, 60,000; Italy, 60,000. No aircraft carrier to exceed 27,000 tons, except that 
each power may build two of 33,000 tons, provided tonnage allowance not exceeded thereby. 

Ships retained September 1, excluding those to be scrapped under treaty ; ships 

over 12 years of age not included. 





Great Britain. 


United States. 


Japan. 


France. 


Italy. 




Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Capital ships 


22 

2 



41 

13 

17 

178 

6 

42 

34 

6 

6 
3 

4 

3 


1580,450 

34,600 



171,880 

69,230 

29,458 

200,383 

4,200 

33,740 

14,608 

11,280 

7,200 

4,800 

62,590 

25,900 


18 











295 

21 

59 

27 

3 





1 


2500,650 











350,591 

15,582 

37, 120 

10,645 

3,318 





12,700 


10 





11 





54 

12 

27 

8 







1 


301,320 





54,850 





56,035 

7,850 

23,538 

2,689 







9,500 


9 

2 

4 
1 
1 

20 
24 
24 

24 



2 

1 




194,421 



28,200 

19,260 

3,444 

2,485 

19, 122 

16,397 

18,403 

9,610 



3,094 



24,830 




6 



2 

5 

5 

6 

27 

16 

10 

33 










143,000 


Cruisers, first line 





Cruisers, second line 

Light cruisers, first line. . . 
Light cruisers, second line. 
Destroyer leaders 


21,000 
21,000 
17,300 
10,300 


Destroyers, first line 

Destroyers, second line 

Submarines, first line 

Submarines, second line. . . 

Fleet submarines, first 

line 


21,649 

11,840 

8,040 

9,610 




Fleet submarines, second 
line ^ 





Monitor submarines 

Aircraft carriers, first line. . 

Aircraft carriers, second 

line 













1 On completion of two new ships to be constructed, Great Britain will scrap four capital ships, and total 
tonnage retained will be 558,950. 

* On completion of West Virginia and Colorado, United States will scrap North Dakota and Delaware, 
and total tonnage retained will be 525,850. 

Ships to be scrapped by treaty. 





Great Britain. 


United States. 


Japan. 


France. 


Italy. 




Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Old capital ships 


20 



408,500 



15 
13 


227,740 
552,600 


10 

6 


164,000 
255,800 

















Capital ships under con- 
struction 










Note.— Any of the powers may retain any two ships, which would otherwise be scrapped, for conversion 
to aircraft carriers, providing displacement of each does not exceed 33,000 tons. 



56 
VALUES OF FOREIGN CURRENCIES. 

18 DECEMBER, 1922. 
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 



Country. 



Europe: 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. . . 

Denmark 

England 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Italy 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Serbia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Yugoslavia ..... 
Asia: 

China 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

India 

Japan 

Singapore (S. S.). 
North America: 

Canada 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Newfoundland. . 
South America: 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Uruguay 

Chile 



Monetary unit. 



Krone 

Franc 

Lev 

Krone 

do 

Pound sterling. 

Markka 

Franc 

Reichsmark. . . 

Drachma 

Giulder 

Krone 

Lira 

Krone 

Mark. 

Escudo 

Leu 

Dinar 

Peseta 

Krona 

Franc 

Krone 



Chefoo tael 

Hankow tael 

Shanghai tael 

Tientsin tael 

Hongkong dollar 

Mexican dollar 

Tientsin or Peiyang dollar 

Yuan dollar 

Rupee 

Yen 

Dollar 



do. 

Peso. . . 

do. 

Dollar. 



Peso (gold) . . 

Milreis 

Peso 

Peso (paper). 



Noon buying 

rate for cable 

transfers in 

New York 

(value in U. S. 

dollars). 



I). 



4. 



00014 

0661 

006783 

030769 

2087 

6526 
. 025075 
.0718 
. 000131 
.012471 
.4005 
. 000431 
.0403 
.1906 
. 000056 
.0436 
. 006166 
. 012486 
.1570 
.2693 
.1899 
. 003109 

.7392 
.7383 
.7123 
.7442 
.5352 
.5225 
.5392 
.5317 
.3085 
.4896 
.5300 

. 995694 
. 999375 
.484792 
. 993594 

.8580 
. 1209 
. 8470 
.1238 



Value a 
month ago. 



10.000014 
.0675 
.0069 
. 031569 
.2019 
4. 4903 
.0258 
.0720 
. 000155 
.0147 
.3932 
. 000415 
.0468 
.1831 
. 00065 
.0452 
.00655 
. 016029 
.1530 
.2678 
.1860 
. 003997 

.7408 
.7400 
.7145 
.7442 
.5339 
.5208 
.5367 
.5317 
.2981 
.4841 
.5206 

1.000226 
.998875 
.495156 
.9975 

.8217 
.1262 
.7993 
.1211 



O 



CONFIDENTIAL. Division C. 

OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Washington, D. C. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION 
BULLETIN. 



NUMBER 2-1923. 



FEBRUARY, 1923. 



DISTRIBUTION: 

In general : Bureaus of the Navy Department ; all force commanders ; all commanding 
officers of capital ships, the larger patrols, destroyers, and submarines. 



$ 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1923 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION BULLETIN. 

NUMBER 2— 1923— FEBRUARY, 1923. 

FOR CONVENIENCE IN ROUTING. 



Officer 


Initials. 


Date received. 


Date forwarded 










Executive Officer 








First Lieutenant 














• 


Gunnery Officer 








Communication Officer. . . . 








Engineer Officer 








Medical Officer 








Supply Officer 








First Division Officer 




■ 




Second Division Officer. . 








Third Division Officer. . . 








Fourth Division Officer. . 








Fifth Division Officer 








Marine Officer 

































(II) 



CONTENTS 



I'age. 

GREAT BRITAIN 1 

British garrisons in Ireland 1 

Cruise of Atlantic Fleet 1 

H. M. S. Eagle : 2 

New battleships H 

New mine-layer building 4 

Retirements of commissioned personnel of navy • 4 

Devonport dockyard 5 

Target practice notes '. 

JAPAN 6 

Example of anti-American propaganda (5 

Field maneuvers ! 7 

Miscellaneous notes regarding new construction , 

Organization of Japanese fleet 9 

Rangeflnders supplied navy 10 

Statement of foreign office regarding naval and military reductions 10 

FRANCE 13 

New wind tunnel constructed 13 

ITALY 14 

Caproni seaplane ;_ 14 

Flying statistics 15 

Naval personnel notes 16 

Torpedo manufacture 18 

Torpedo tubes in destroyers 19 

ARGENTINA : 19 

Air service data 19 

Air service data, additional 20 

BRAZIL 21 

Aviation commission in Italy 21 

CHINA 21 

Changing views toward Soviet 21 

New Japanese railroad into Kirin 24 

Notes on the general situation 26 

Soviet rule in Mongolia 2S 

Wu, Pei-Fu 30 

GERMANY 33 

Aircraft spotting glass 33 

Comment on various foreign armies 33 

Comparative operating costs of German and United States mer- 
chantmen ] 35 

Description of torpedo plane 36 

General conditions at Krupp Works 38 

Important popular antisocialistic movement in Bavaria 40 

Motor ships under construction 45 

Parseval commercial airship 46 

Torpedo apparatus for airplanes 49 

(m) 



Page. 

GUATEMALA 52 

Army organization and personnel 52 

MEXICO 54 

Conditions in general 54 

Review of accomplishments of Obregon administration 56 

RUSSIA 60 

Present conditions of Black sea fleet 60 

Evidences of improved conditions 65 

Notes on army and navy 66 

Observations npon conditions in Kamtchatka 67 

Reported German aid in reconstructing Black sea fleet 71 

SPAIN 73 

Popular unrest ^ 73 

Political unrest due to investigation of Moroccan disaster 74 

TURKEY 75 

Contrasting experiences of two parties of refugees 75 

Prominent personalities at Angora 76 

Refugees from various parts of Anatolia 78 

Relations with Soviet government 79 

Turkish opinion regarding possible Russian attack 79 

NEAR EAST 80 

Summary of military situation 80 



Attention of the service is particularly invited to the following article 
which appears in this month's Bulletin: 

MEXICO: Page. 

Review of accomplishments of Obregon administration 56 

(v) 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

BRITISH GARRISONS IN IRELAND. 
30 December, 1922. 

On December 17 the last of the British garrison of Dublin was 
evacuated and sailed for England. The only British troops now left 
in southern Ireland are four batteries of Royal Garrison Artillery 
manning the coast defenses of Queenstown and two batteries in 
the coast defenses at Berehaven. These troops will not be evacu- 
ated, as it is provided in the British-Irish treaty of 6 December, 1921, 
that the former will keep control of certain coast defenses, including 
Berehaven, Queenstown, Belfast, and Lough Swilly. The defense 
forces of the Irish Free State, according to the latest information 
available, consist of about 30,000 men, of whom an unknown propor- 
tion are well armed and equipped with British rifles, revolvers, and 
machine guns. On last May the British Government had handed 
over to the Irish Free State 4,000 rifles, 2,200 revolvers, and 6 ma- 
chine guns with corresponding amounts of ammunition; and this 
supply, although it has been suspended from time to time as condi- 
tions in Ireland grew uncertain, has probably been carried on up to 
the present time. According to the British-Irish treaty mentioned 
above, the military force of the Irish Free State " shall not exceed 
in size such proportion of the military establishment maintained in 
Great Britain as that which the population of Ireland bears to the 
population of Great Britain." Considering the fact that Ulster has 
decided not to join the Irish Free State this will put the strength of 
the latter forces between 25,000 and 30,000. 

The British forces in Ulster consist of 14 battalions of infantry, 
with auxiliary troops, a total of 10,000 to 11,000. Besides the Brit- 
ish troops in Ulster, there are local defense forces of various degrees 
of training and equipment whose total number is probably between 
20,000 and 25,000. The nucleus of this force is the so-called " C-l " 
Special Constabulary, which in July consisted of about 1,000 men 
fully armed and equipped. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

CRUISE OF ATLANTIC FLEET. 
19 December, 1922. 

Orders have been issued for the Atlantic Fleet to reassemble at 
Portland at the expiration of Christmas leave. On January 10 the 

(1) 



fleet will leave there for a cruise in southern waters, returning to 
England on April 3. 

The Battle Cruiser Squadron, First Light Cruiser Squadron, and 
the various flotillas will cruise independently; the Battle Squadron 
first visiting certain Spanish and Portuguese Atlantic ports, and 
subsequently the Canary Islands, Teneriffe, and Madeira ; whilst the 
Battle Cruiser Squadron after calling at Gibraltar will visit Spanish 
Mediterranean ports, returning home via Spanish Atlantic ports. 
The First Light Cruiser Squadron will proceed from Gibraltar to 
Madeira and the Canaries, touching at Casablanca, Morocco, and 
Spanish Atlantic ports on the return voyage. 

The cruise of the Fourth and Fifth Destroyer Flotillas will in- 
clude visits to Spanish, Mediterranean, and Atlantic ports; whilst 
the cruise of the First Submarine Flotilla will be confined to Gibral- 
tar, Vigo, and Arosa Bay. The Second Light Cruiser Squadron, 
two destroyer flotillas, and one submarine flotilla of the Atlantic 
Fleet are still on detached service in the eastern Mediterranean. 

Destroyer flotillas manned by reduced crews will not take part in 
the cruise. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

H. M. S. EAGLE. 
4 December, 1922. 



An opportunity was recently afforded to see from the dock H. M. 
S. Eagle, now being fitted out at Portsmouth dockyard. Permission 
could not be obtained to go aboard this vessel. It was stated, how- 
ever, that this vessel will be completed and ready for service about 
April 1, 1923. 

The Eagle carries 7 guns of apparently 4 or 5 inch caliber. There 
are three on eacli side and one at the stern on the deck below the 
landing deck. On the landing deck are 2 antiaircraft guns behind 
the funnels, which are on the starboard side of this deck. The land- 
ing deck projects about 8 feet beyond the side of the ship amidships, 
and much more than this at both bow and stern. The stern of the 
landing deck is built up with a ramp. It was stated that this ramp 
was used for fastening the wires for the arresting gear. 

The landing deck is of steel and is carried hy heavy girders with 
supports to the main deck. It is understood that the arresting gear 
is permanently installed on this deck when the ship is in commission 
and does not have to be removed in order for planes to get away. 
This ship has been fitted with a bulge which, in addition to protec- 
tion, gives added stability in order to carry the heavy flying deck, 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

NEW BATTLESHIPS. 

December, 1922. 

On December 12, the Admiralty issued the following particulars 
regarding the construction of the two new battleships : 

The hull of the first ship will be built on the Tyne by Messrs. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co. (Ltd.1, the engines and boilers being made also on the Tyne 
by the Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Co. (Ltd.). 

The hull and machinery of the second ship will be built on the Mersey by 
Cammell Laird & Co. (Ltd.), whilst the armor is to be manufactured at 
Sheffield, Manchester, and Glasgow. The guns will be made at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Sheffield, Barrow, Manchester, Glasgow, Darlington, and Woolwich, and 
the gun mountings at Barrow and Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The daily papers stated that as many as 500 firms will be engaged 
in helping to supply the necessary material. Many thousands of 
men, now unemployed, will ultimately be provided with work. 

The following information regarding the features of these battle- 
ships was gathered from reliable sources and is believed to be 
correct. 

The contract price of these ships is about £6,000,000 apiece. The 
contract time for completion is three years. The displacement of 
each vessel will be 35,000 tons; length, 660 feet; beam, 106 feet; 
speed about 23 knots. These vessels will be oil-burning, driven by 
turbines with reduction gears, and will have a greater cruising radius 
than any previous British battleship. It is reported that these 
vessels will have a great cruising radius in order to allow them to 
operate in the Pacific and other foreign waters. Each ship will 
carry nine 16-inch guns, mounted in three turrets, three guns to a 
turret. Two of these turrets will be on the forecastle, No. 2 firing 
over No. 1. The third turret, it is believed, will be between the 
conning tower and built up bridge structures and the funnel, so that 
there will be practically no astern fire. A heavily armored citadel 
will inclose the barbettes of the three turrets, the conning tower, and 
possibly the uptakes to the funnel. 

No definite information has been received as to the side armor, but 
it is believed that the main belt will be 13 inches, tapering top and 
bottom, and also tapering forward and aft. The upper deck will 
be armored as a protection against plunging fire and aircraft bombs. 
It is also believed that two additional armored decks will be fitted, 
one at the top and one at the bottom, on the main armor belt. The 
thicknesses of these three decks are not known. 

It is believed that the secondary battery and the antiaircraft bat- 
tery will be the same as that previously intended for the super- 
hoods; that is, twelve 6-inch guns, six on a side, mounted in three 2- 
guns turrets, and twelve 4-inch antiaircraft guns mounted in pairs. 



Torpedo tubes will be installed on the upper deck in triple-tube 
installations. The divergence between these tubes will be about 1°, 
so as to give a dispersion to the torpedo fire. The number of tubes 
that will be carried is not known, but it is believed that the 21-inch 
Whitehead torpedo will be retained for these ships. 

The quarter-deck will be large and free from obstructions, and it 
has been stated that this deck could probably be used for flying off 
or a landing deck for airplanes. 

The bulges of these vessels are designed to come inside of the 
hull, which will give them better streamlines and obviate the diffi- 
culty in tying these ships up to wharves or piers. 

The turrets will be operated by the hydraulic system. The steer- 
ing gear will be hydraulic, and it is believed it will be practically 
the same as that intended for the superhoods, which was covered 
fully by naval attache's report No. 000T6 of 3 February, 1922. 

No special provision has been made for protection against gas 
attacks, other than that the ventilating sj'stem can be shut down, 
and voice tubes leading to important positions are fitted with dia- 
phragms. 

A number of compartments below the water line will be fitted with 
permanent electric submersible pumps. A number of portable sub- 
mersible pumps will also be provided. It is believed that all of 
these pumps will be of the Eeid- Cooper type. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

NEW MINE-LAYER BUILDING. 
11 December, 1922. 

Work has been started on the new cruiser mine-layer at Devon- 
port. It is understood this vessel will have a displacement of about 
7,000 tons, will be about 500 feet long and 58 feet beam. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

RETIREMENTS OF COMMISSIONED PERSONNEL OF NAVY. 

December, 1922. 

Below is summarized recent information regarding the weekly 
commissioned strength of the British Navy. The detailed figures for 
admissions, deaths, dismissals, etc v , are not at hand. 



Date. 



28 Oct., 1922. 
6 Nov., 1922. 
13 Nov., 1922 
20 Nov., 1922 
27 Nov., 1922 
4 Dec, 1922.. 





Retired 


Active list. 


during pre- 




vious week. 


8,825 


14 


8, 755 


70 


8,706 


13 


8,656 


50 


8,641 


15 


8,634 


7 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

VISIT TO DEVONPORT DOCKYARD. 



12 December, 1922. 

The principal work at this yard at present is the fitting out of 
the air carriers Hermes and Furious. Very extensive repairs and 
alterations are being made to both of these vessels, and it is under- 
stood the Hermes will be ready for sea about July 1, 1923. No in- 
formation was gained as to when the Furious will be ready. The 
Furious is practically stripped at present, and work is going ahead 
on the construction of her flying deck, and the building up of the 
supports and upper works. Visitors were not allowed to go aboard 
these vessels or spend any time in their vicinity. It was stated by 
the construction officer, however, that, in rebuilding the Furious, 
there would be no island, and that the chart house was to be raised 
and lowered, and that smoke would be handled by two funnels 
straight aft with assisted draft. 

The Hood is at the dockyard for a short overhaul and to give 
liberty to her officers and crew after her return from Brazil. In- 
spection of this ship consisted in going over the boat deck, upper 
deck, main deck, and engine room. Opportunity was also afforded 
to visit the conning tower, but not the fire control part of it. It 
was noted that the slits in this conning tower are about 3 inches 
wide and 4 to 5 feet long. The fire control tower is in a separate 
armored tube inside of the conning tower. It was noted that the 
Hood has four above-water torpedo tubes, two on each side of the 
main deck forward. In British nomenclature the main deck of this 
vessel is one deck lower than that of our vessels. 

It is very evident that the officers detailed to show visitors over 
the yard had received definite instructions as to what should be shown 
them and what should not, and consequently very little of interest 
was learned during this visit. The yard, however, is apparently 
filled up with work, and all of the shops are busy. Besides the two 
aircraft carriers mentioned above, considerable work is being done 
in fitting out several of the " H " class submarines, as well as ordi- 
nary refit and repairs to light cruisers, destroyers and other types 
of vessels. 



6 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

TARGET PRACTICE NOTES. 

December, 1922. 

During long-range target practices of the British Fleet, the major 
caliber guns are now fired in " double guns salvos," which means 
that the entire battery of main caliber guns is fired simultaneously. 

The battle practice firings of the British Fleet are now conducted 
at extreme ranges, fire being opened at 30,000 yards. 



JAPAN. 
EXAMPLE OF ANTI-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA. 

October, 1922. 

(The Tsinan Jih Pao is a Japanese-owned newspaper published in the Chi- 
nese language at Tsinan fu. It is circulated and read largely by Chinese uni- 
versity students and by the educated Chinese people.) 

The Tsinan Jih Pao for October 28 published the following vicious 
attack on the United States: 

Still worse is the treatment the United States meted out to Japan. At the 
Washington Conference, for instance, the United States proposed the 5:5:3 ratio 
for the naval forces of the United States, Great Britain and Japan on the basis 
that it was really the existing ratio. But as a matter of fact, her own naval 
force and that of Great Britain were not nearly the same, and the settlement 
of the naval ratio is a striking success of the shrewdness of the American diplo- 
mats. Moreover, the American and Japanese naval forces, as the naval experts 
of the latter country said, stood at the ratio of 5 : 4, while the American naval 
experts averred that the existing ratio was 5 : 2i or 3. This difference, how- 
ever, was due to the fact that the Japanese have a different way of keeping 
their statistics. When the Japanese experts wished to appeal to public opinion 
for a reconsideration of the ratio, they were persuaded by the Americans not 
to go to an extreme on the plea that the question of the ratio could be deter- 
mined at leisure. Another American representative said that the naval ratio 
would be easy to settle if the Japanese were far-sighted enough to promote 
friendly relations between the United States and Japan. From this we con- 
clude that the proposed ratio by the American delegates was neither fair nor 
reasonable. But real friendship can not be brought about nor can the struggle 
be avoided unless the two countries are equal in their naval forces. 

Moreover, a struggle between the powers is unavoidable unless they both 
abandon capital ships, because these upset the balance of power which is apt 
to lead to disputes. A few days ago an American paper in one of its articles 
said, " The thing that the United States was afraid of was the Anglo-Japanese 
Alliance, and as this alliance no longer exists the United States has nothing to 
fear." This article reveals the real American attitude. For example, the 
Island of Cuba was annexed by the Americans in 1898 with certain military 
privileges. At the Washington Conference they said that it was absolutely 



necessary to keep a strong defensive force in the island ; but in the case of 
Hsiao Cha Yuan ( ?), owned by Japan, they said such a force was not necessary. 
Moreover, with, reference to shipbuilding the Americans proposed that no more 
capital ships be built within the next 10 years ; but they themselves have built 
two large ships, the Washington and the Colorado, within that same period. 
Furthermore, the Americans proposed that no vessel exceeded a displacement 
of 35,000 tons. This limitation is also to their own interest, because no ships 
above 35,000 tons can pass through the Panama Canal, which is only 110 feet 
wide and 30 feet deep. 

From the above we can clearly see what is the American attitude and what 
shrewd diplomats they are in international affairs. They compel other coun- 
tries to practice righteousness while they have all sorts of base motives. On 
January 10, 1922, the American Secretary of the Navy said that the American 
Navy should not be smaller than that of any other country. Can international 
friendship be promoted when one country, that always boasts of its own right- 
eousness, does such unfair things? International friendship can not grow 
unless every country receives the same treatment. Anglo-French relations 
prove that this is so. If the United States continues her unfair policy much 
longer, like Germany she will be deserted by the whole world. 



JAPAN. 

FIELD MANEUVERS. 
16 December, 1922. 



During a period of eight days in October special field maneuvers 
were held near Mount Fuji by certain selected Japanese Army units 
from six divisions, with probably about 20,000 men and over 500 
umpires participating. As foreign observers were not permitted, 
definite detailed information is not available, but the following sum- 
mary is believed correct. 

The purpose was to try out the provisions of the new Infantry 
Drill Regulations, and especially to test the powers of new-type 
weapons in order to increase the fighting efficiency of units, made 
necessary by the reduction in army personnel. 

The defense was formed in three lines covering a front and depth 
of about 2£ miles each. Trenches and bombproofs were carefully 
constructed, all manner of wire and other communications established 
and a thoroughly prepared defense position laid out. 

A newspaper description of the bombproof shelters states that 
they were made of iron plates covered with earth to a depth of 
more than 6 feet, the entrance being closed with india rubber so as to 
make the shelter proof against both artillery fire and poison gases. 
The interior was supplied with underground audiphones, electric 
draining machines, electric ventilators, vertical periscopes, instru- 
ments showing the presence of poisonous vapors, and heliographs. 



8 

The offensive is described as forming its artillery in eight lines. 
The first line, trench mortars for destroying wire entanglements; 
second line, heavy trench mortars for destroying trenches ; third line, 
mountain guns for opposing hostile machine guns and infantry 
troops ; fourth line, field guns for forming smoke screens ; fifth line, 
howitzers for firing on hostile artillery and destroying important 
points of the enemy's fortifications; sixth line, 10-cm. guns for de- 
stroying the hostile artillery position ; seventh line, 24-cm. howitzers 
for long-range firing; and the eighth line, 15-cm. guns for oper- 
ation against hostile artillery at long range. Antiaircraft guns were 
used at various points. Wire was laid down to protect the infantry 
against counterattack. 

In conducting the attack, various positions were vigorously fired 
upon, the defending troops being withdrawn temporarily and the 
results carefully examined by umpires and in some cases works re- 
constructed by troops on the defense before further attack. 

Four days were consumed in the capture of the first line. Saps 
were used and wire entanglements and works were destroyed by 
shelling. Three small French tanks participated and in the final 
rush the attacking troops were described as wearing steel helmets 
and carrying shields of various types. In the final closing in, flame 
throwers and hand grenades were employed bj' both sides. Numer- 
ous searchlights were used at night. 

A notable point mentioned in newspaper reports was the employ- 
ment of smoke screens both by the offensive and defensive troops. 

The second line was captured two days after the first line, the ad- 
vance being gradual and the final dash being less than 100 meters 
from a gap constructed on the flank. The maneuvers were ended 
after the capture of the second line. 

All manner of communications appear to have been employed in- 
cluding captive balloons, air squadrons on both sides, telephones, tele- 
graphs, underground telephones, radio, pigeons, dogs, and hand flags. 
Signal fires, heliographs, and electric flash lights were used for 
signals. 

The true results of the maneuvers are not made known. In the de- 
struction of a fortification of reinforced concrete by a 24-cm. 
howitzer it is stated that 20 hits out of 200 shots were made on the 
works. The exploding shells were reported as emitting a black 
smoke. 

Undoubtedly the Japanese Army was at tremendous expense in 
carrying out these maneuvers and they far surpass in military im- 
portance the Grand Maneuvers of which foreign observers will make 
detailed reports. 



9 

JAPAN. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES REGARDING NEW CONSTRUCTION- 

Source: Japanese Press. 

The Japanese tanker Hayatomo was launched at the Kure Navy 
Yard on 4 December, 1922. The Hayatomo is reported to be 15,400 
tons displacement with a cargo capacity of 9,000 tons of oil. 

This vessel was laid down in March, 1922. 

The Japanese light cruiser Aouhwna was launched on 1 December, 
1922, at the Uruga Dockyard. The displacement of the Abukuma is 
5,500 tons. 

The Japanese destroyer No. 7 was laid down at Maizuru on 2 
December, 1922. 

The Japanese tanker Iro has been placed in commission and will 
leave Kure naval station 10 December, 1922, on her maiden trip, for 
Tarakon to take on a cargo of fuel oil. 



JAPAN. 

ORGANIZATION OF JAPANESE FLEET. 

6 December, 1922. 
Source: Japanese Press. 

FIRST FLEET. 

First Division (4 battleships) — Nagato, Mutsu, Ise, Hyuga. 
Third Division (3 light cruisers) — Oi, Kuma, Tama. 
First Torpedo Division — Tatsuta, flagship. 4 flotillas : 

Twenty-fifth Flotilla- — Nashi, Take, Momi, Kaya. 

Twenty-sixth Flotilla — Kaki, Toga, Nire, Kuri. 

Twenth-seven Flotilla — Hishi, Ashi, Warabi, Sumire. 

Twenty-eighth Flotilla — Tade, Hasu, Yomogi, No. 2. 
First Submarine Division — Ghikuma, flagship. 4 flotillas : 

Fourth Flotilla— Nos. 28, 29, SO. 

Sixth Flotilla— Nos. Iff, 46- 

Seventeenth Flotilla (vessels not completed). 
Note. — Second Division of First Fleet not to be organized. Aviation depot 
ship Hosho to be attached to First Fleet upon completion. 

SECOND FLEET. 

Fourth Division (3 battle crusiers) — Kongo, Hiyei, KirsMma. 
Fifth Division (4 light cruisers) — Natori, Nagara, Kinu, Yura. 
Second Torpedo Division — Kitigami, flagship. 4 flotillas : 

First Flotilla — Namikaze, Nokaze, Numakaze. 

Second Flotilla — Sliiokaze, Tachikaze, Yukaze, Hokaze. 

Third Flotilla — Minekaze, Saivakaze, Yakaze, Okikaze. 

Fifth Flotilla — Shlmakaze, Hakaze, Akikaze, Nadakaze. 



10 

Second Submarine Division — Yahagi, flagship ; Kawasaki, depot ship : 
Fourteenth Flotilla — Nos. 10, 20, 23. 
Sixteenth Flotilla— Nos. 34, 35, 36. 
Twenty-fourth Flotilla— Nos. 48, 1,9, 50. 

Note. — Aviation depot ship Wakamiya to be attached second fleet next 
spring. 

FOREIGN SERVICE FLEET. 

Cruiser Tsushima, gunboats, Ataka, Saga, Toua, Fushima, (Seta, Katata, 
Hira, Hotsu, to be assigned this fleet upon completion). 



JAPAN. 

RANGE FINDERS SUPPLIED NAVY. 
December, 1922. 

Twelve range finders have been supplied the Japanese Navy by 
the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. All range finders were 20-foot 
range finders, either Mark X Modification 4 or Mark X Modifica- 
tion 5. Eight of these range finders were supplied the Japanese Navy 
in December, 1916, through their agents, Takato & Co., of New York, 
and four were supplied through the same agency in October, 1918. 
The latter delivery was authorized by the Bureau of Ordnance. 

It is reported that these range finders were not of the highest 
quality supplied by the company. 



JAPAN. 

STATEMENT OF FOREIGN OFFICE REGARDING NAVAL AND 

MILITARY REDUCTIONS. 

27 November, 1922. 

Immediately after the conclusion of the Washington Conference 
and even before the Imperial ratification of the naval treaty growing 
out of that conference, the Japanese Government suspended the con- 
struction of the capital ships Kaga, Tosa, Amagi, and Akagi. When 
the naval treaty had been ratified, preparations were at once taken 
for scrapping the other vessels to be disposed of under the treaty, 
viz, Settsu, AM, Satsuma, Katori, Kashima, Kurama, Ibuki, Ikoma, 
Hizen, Mikasa, SMkishima, Asahi, and Fuji. These preparations 
were made in order that those vessels could be promptly scrapped 
when the naval treaty should have taken effect; and now they are 
already divested of the greater portion of their armament, and 
manned by only a small number of men, sufficiently for preserving 
order, they are waiting for the coming into force of the treaty. 
Under the provisions of the treaty the armament and armor of the 
Fuji has been removed and she has been made a special service boat. 



11 

It needs scarcely be said that the Japanese Government will 
scrupulously observe the restrictions imposed by the naval treaty 
on capital ships, airship carriers, etc., nor need it be said that the 
Japanese Government will adhere to the spirit of the treaty in build- 
ing auxiliary ships. In this connection a comparison ■ may with 
advantage be made between the newly contemplated and reduced 
program and the 8-8 program which was framed through many ses- 
sions of the Diet up to and including the extraordinary session of 
1920. The auxiliary ships which were to have been completed by 
1927 under the 8-8 program are as follows: 

(a) Cruisers. — Those completed after Tatsuta and Tenryu, " but 
including these ships " and those already ordered numbered IT, and 
those not yet ordered numbered 9, making in all 26 vessels, totaling 
146,750 tons. Among these ships were 4 of 8,000 tons each. 

(b) Destroyers. — Those completed after Kawakaze, Tanikaes, 
Naru, and Kuwa " but including these ships " and those already or- 
dered numbered 57, and those not yet ordered numbered 22 first- 
class and 15 second-class destroyers, making in all 94, with a total of 
102,566 tons. 

(c) Submarines. — Those completed or already ordered numbered 
47, and those not yet ordered 48, making 93, with a total of 82,852 
tons. 

These vessels were under a program which took several years to 
frame and naturally lack uniformity in style. While decreasing the 
number of ships, it is intended somewhat to enlarge the size and to 
standardize it, and also to discard old ships in order to reduce future 
expenditures. The new program has not yet been definitely decided 
upon, but its general outline is as follows : 

(a) Cruisers. — Four of about 10,000 tons each and 4 of about 7,000 
tons each, totaling 8, with about 68,400 tons gross. 

(b) Destroyers. — Twenty-four first-class destroyers totaling 33,000 
tons gross. 

(c) Submarines. — Twenty-two totaling 28,166 tons gross. 

Under the old program an increase of only 20 per cent was pro- 
vided for in the appropriation to cover the great rise in prices. 
Under the new program it is intended to rectify that percentage so 
that the deficit can be covered. But this means no increase of ex- 
penditure. The new program is to be carried through within the 
appropriations of the old program. When the old and new pro- 
grams are taken together it will lie seen that the vessels to be built 
under the new program as compared with that portion of the 8-8 
program which has not yet been placed on order, show a decrease 
of 38 in number, totaling 13,395 tons. 

29148—23 2 



12 

The number of men and officers to be discharged as a result of the 
scrapping of capital ships and other measures of armament restric- 
tion totals about 12,000. This does not include mechanics and labor- 
ers employed at dockyards, 6,000 of whom have already been 
dismissed. 

ADJUSTMENT OF NAVAL STATIONS. 

The Japanese Government contemplates the adjustment of first- 
class naval stations and minor naval stations in connection with the 
limitation of armaments provided for by the Washington treaty and 
for economy of expense, the gist of that decision being announced on 
July 5, 1922, as follows: 

MAIDZURTJ. 

The Maidzuru naval station is to be converted into the Maidzuru 
minor naval station. The Maidzuru naval station jurisdiction, per- 
sonnel department, department of accounts and supplies (excluding 
part of clothing and provision section), building department, prison, 
court-martial, and the naval barracks are to abolished. Minor naval 
station jurisdiction is to be established at the Maidzuru minor naval 
station. The arsenal, port affairs department, hospital and clothing 
and provision section are to be retained for the minor naval station 
jurisdiction, with necessary readjustments. 

The defense corps and the radio station are to be retained without 
any radical change. 

CHENKAI. 

The Chenkai naval station is to be abolished and the Chenkai 
minor naval station to be established in its place. Minor naval 
station jurisdiction is to be established at the Chenkai minor naval 
station. 

PORT ARTHUR. 



The Port Arthur minor naval station jurisdiction is to be abolished. 
A defense corps and the radio station are to be retained. 

OTHERS. 

The minor naval station at Takeshiki and Yengheung are to be 
abolished. The system of dividing the country into five naval dis- 
tricts is to be changed into a system of three naval districts. 

It is intended that the changes mentioned above concerning Maid- 
zuru, Chenkai, Takeshiki, and Yengheung, and the changing of 
system of naval districts shall be carried into effect about April, 
1923, and those at Port Arthur about December, 1922. 



13 

ARMY REDUCTION. 

In conformity with the spirit of the Washington Conference, the 
Japanese Government has the intention of readjusting its army and 
has been consistently considering ways and means of carrying out 
that idea. 

A program was framed and the first part of it was carried into 
effect on August 12, 1922. The number of men and officers to be 
discharged under the program is as follows : 

Officers ; 1, 800 

Noncommissioned officers 3, 000 

Men — 53, 000 

In order to curtail Government expenditures, the six battalions of 
troops garrisoned along the railways in Manchuria and the extra 
contingents attached to the divisions in Korea are to be abolished. 
This will mean further reduction to the extent of 400 officers and 
5,000 men. Taken all in all, it means that the Japanese Army is to 
be reduced by approximately one-fifth. 



FRANCE. 

NEW WIND TUNNEL CONSTRUCTED. 
19 December, 1922. 

1. The French Government has constructed a wind tunnel at Issy- 
les-Molineaux to give an air stream 3 meters in diameter at a 
speed of 80 meters per second, arranged to make tests of models up 
to 2| meters span. This tunnel is nearing completion and will prob- 
ably be given preliminary tests in January or February. 

2. One of the high officials of the section technique stated in con- 
versation that they expect great results from this tunnel. He stated 
that they were not satisfied with the experiments on full-scale models 
conducted by a railroad and car at St. Cyr. He stated also that he 
thought with the successful operation of a wind tunnel of the size of 
this one, full-scale tests would not be necessary to undertake. He 
said further that he did not consider compressed-air tunnels neces- 
sary at present, but this latter statement seems to be based somewhat 
on prejudice. 

3. The tunnel is built in an old steel hangar and is concrete cast- 
ing sunk in the floor about 8 feet. Stream lining of all parts has 
been attempted, but due to considerable obstructions in the hangar 
itself and the small size of the hangar as compared with the tunnel, 
turbulence will probably give trouble at high speeds especially. 

4. The testing stand is a movable steel framework and is in an 
open compartment between the mouth of the tunnel and the venturi. 
In passing through this room the wind stream diverges a very small 



14 

percentage, according to a statement of one of the attendants, and 
the entrance and the venturi back of the testing stand are enlarged 
to care for this stream. 

5. Power is supplied by 1,000-kilowatt direct-current motor driv- 
ing a propeller about 15 feet in diameter. The propeller is fitted 
with six variable pitched blades and has a stream line spinner at the 
center about 7 feet in diameter. 



ITALY. 

CAPRONI SEAPLANE. 
8 December, 1922. 



1. The following are the characteristics of the 1922 type of Caproni 
bombardment seaplanes. This seaplane is a " land plane " with two 
parallel floats attached. The central part of the cellule is completely 
rigid. The outer bay only has diagonal wires. The nacelle is 
equipped with bomb racks for carrying the various types of bombs. 

A nacelle for carrying eight persons and mail has been designed 
for fitting to this machine. To date one sample of the land plane 
only has been completed for tests: 

CHARACTERISTICS — CAPRONI SEAPLANE, TYPE 1922. 

Type Caproni biplane seaplane 1922. 

Span (upper) 20.72 meters. 

Span (lower) 19.00 meters. 

Length 11.20 meters. 

Height 4.71 meters. 

Chord (upper wing) 2.90 meters. 

Chord (lower wing) 2.65 meters. 

Gap 2.30 meters. 

Total supporting surface area 100 square meters. 

Area biplane tailplanes : 

Fixed part 7.15 square meters. 

Movable part 3.60 square meters. 

Propellers : 

Tractive 2 each of two blades. 

Pusher : 1 of four blades. 

Diameter 2.40 meters. 

Number revolutions 1,600. 

Weight empty 2,500 kilograms. 

Useful load 1,500 kilograms. 

Weight fully loaded 4,000 kilograms. 

Load per square meter 40.00 kilograms. 

Load per horsepower : 7.56 kilograms. 

Power plant Three IFV 4-B engines, each of 190 horse- 
power ; or four Spa engines.! 

Speed 160-170 kilometers per hour. 

Endurance 4 hours. 



15 



ITALY. 

FLYING STATISTICS. 
11 December, 1922. 

The following information has been received from the Ministry 
of Marine relative to flying hours, accidents, and deaths incident 
to flying at Italian flying stations for the years October, 1921, to 
October, 1922. 

MINISTRY OF MARINE AERONAUTICAL INSPECTORSHIP. 

Damages of machines confirmed in the Atrial Corps of the Royal Marine from 

1 October, 1921, to 1 October, 1922. 



Stations. 


Sum to- 
tal hours 
of flight. 


Aerial in- 
cidents. 


Wounded. 


Deaths. 


Taranto (school) 


h. m. 

1,213 23 

520 10 

401 40 

141 09 

118 50 

126 30 

14 40 

13 07 

2 45 

2 00 


3 
6 
I 
9 
9 
9 


1 
2 
2 




Spezia 


1 


Naples 




Pola 


1 


Brindisi 


1 
1 


1 


Sesto Calendo 




Ostia 




Leghorn 








Orbetello „ 








Venice 
















Total 


2,554 14 


37 


7 


3 







Incidents {Causes.) 

Total No. false maneuvers — 13 : 

Capsized crash 

Spinning crash 

Wing broken on water 

Machine broken in mooring 

Bad piloting J 

Collision in flight against electrical cables — 

Total No. motor damages — 9: 

Radiator broken in flight 

Various damages to the motor ^ 



3 
3 
1 
2 

2 
2 

1 
8 



Total damages 

Total No. damages to the structure — 15 : 

Breakage of wing in flight 

Breakage of the tail of the boat when on the surface of the water 

Axle that connects the inner parts of the machine come out of posi- 
tion when in flight 

Breakage in flight of the principal cable of the small wings and the 

small gas hands 

The fixed base of the tail out of order 

Breakage in flight of the fore part of the motor 

Various damages to the boat 



22 

1 

1 



1 

1 
1 
9 



Total damages 37 

SUMMARY. per cent 

False maneuvers (13 per cent) 1 35 

Motor damages 25 

Damages to the structure „„„„_„_ 40 



16 



The following is their comparison of Italian and American per- 
centages : 



United 
States. 



Italy. 



For false maneuvers 

For damages to the motor. . . 
For damages to the structure 
For unknown causes 

Total 



Per cent. 
70 
16 

2* 

7* 



Per ccvf. 
35 
25 
40 



100 



100 



ITALY. 

NAVAL PERSONNEL NOTES. 
12 December ,1922. 





Allowed. 


Actual. 




Number. 


Extra 
number. 


Line officers: 

Admirals 1 


1 

7 

11 

11 

52 

110 

150 

430 

| 270 


1 

8 

12 

11 
53 

115 

145 

382 

J 171 

\ 60 




Vice admirals 




Rear admirals 




Commodores 




Captains j 


1 


Commanders . 


5 


Tiip.ntp.na.nt, commanders , 


5 


Lieutenants 


16 


Lieutenants (junior grade) 


5 


Midshipmen 








, 


1,042 


958 








Engineer Corps (all have army titles): 

Lieutenant general 


1 

1 

2 

8 

20 

48 

160 

100 


1 

1 

2 

8 

19 

46 

155 

133 




Major general 




Brigadier generals 




Colonels 




Lieutenant Colonels 






1 


Captains 


5 


Lieutenants and lieutenants (junior grade) 


33 






Construction Corps (all have army titles): 

Lieutenant general 


1 

2 

2 

7 

12 

22 

56 

16 


1 

3 

1 

8 

12 

22 

38 

10 




Major generals 


1 


Brigadier generals 






1 


Lieutenant Colonels 




Majors 






1 












118 


95 




Medical Corps (all have army titles): 

Major generals 


1 

2 

8 

24 

48 

105 

30 


2 
1 
9 
25 
43 
78 
13 


1 


Brigadier generals 




Colonels 


1 


Lieutenant colonels 


1 








4 


Lieutenants 










218 


171 




Supply Corps (all have army titles)' 

Major general 


1 

1 

8 

22 

44 

105 

| 40 


1 

1 

8 

22 

39 

121 

/ u 

\ o 




Brigadier general 




Colonels 




Lieutenant colonels 




Majors 


1 


Captains 


16 




3 


Lieutenants (junior grade) 










221 


203 









1 Two full admirals in Royal family. 



17 

The Italian Navy has no warrant officers. Their " sottoufficiali '" 
comprises what would be warrant officers in the United States serv- 
ice. " Sottoufficiale " is above a chief petty officer, but less than a 
warrant. Of this class there are: Capi anziani, 2,394 (chief petty 
officers) ; capi first and second class, 3,400 (P. S., first class) ; other 
petty officers and enlisted men, 28,492. 

Line officers alternate on sea and shore duty; terms not fixed. 

To be promoted, line officers must have served at sea for various 
grades as follows : 



Rear admiral 6 months. 

Commodore : 6 months. 

Captain 2 years. 

Commander 18 months. 



Lieutenant commander 1 year. 

Lieutenant 4 years. 

Lieutenant (junior grade) 2 years. 

Midshipman 1 year. 

A commodore has no command of groups or units, and duty is 
mostly on shore. 

Midshipmen when graduated from naval schools are considered as 
officers and are entrusted with all duties of their grade; 5 years at 
Naval Academy and after 18 months of service afterwards, of which 
12 months must be at sea, are promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) 
(sottotenente). 

When the Navy Register (quadri organici degli ufficiali) was re- 
duced at the close of the war, such officers as requested to be put in a 
special position were authorized to remain in what is called " spe- 
cial temporary discharge for reduction of register" (aspettativa 
speciale per reductione di quadri) by which, though considered as on 
active service, they are exonerated therefrom and get three-fourths 
of their active-duty pay. They can not be promoted unless placed 
in auxiliary position. 

Naval constructors go to sea for one year in grade of captain. 
Supply corps officers perform both sea and shore duty. 

On all battleships, ordnance officer in charge is lieutenant com- 
mander, assisted by a lieutenant, and on cruisers is a lieutenant. 

The letter "A" following the name of the lieutenant signifies ord- 
nance officer or assistant ordnance officer, according to whether he is 
on a cruiser or on a battleship. 

Letter " E " signifies the officer in charge of electrical department. 

" T " signifies torpedo officer. 

On all ships, the senior lieutenant, whose name is not followed bv 
a designating letter, is navigator. 

Other lieutenants without designating letters stand watch. The 
captain may order the ordnance officer to stand watch. 

The executive officer and each lieutenant has a sublieutenant as an 
assistant. 



18 
ITALY. 

TORPEDO MANUFACTURE. 
4 December, 1922. 

1. The standard Italian naval torpedo is the 18-inch, and before 
and during the war were manufactured by the Whiteheads of Fiume 
and Naples. The Whitehead factory at Fiume has closed down and 
will probably never be reopened for the manufacture of torpedoes. 
The Whitehead works at Naples have passed completely into Italian 
hands, and present Italian management is largely devoid of experi- 
ence in the manufacture of torpedoes. 

2. Torpedoes of over 18 inches have never been manufactured in 
Italy, and it is understood that not only do the Italian naval authori- 
ties wish to stand on their own feet as to the manufacture of tor- 
pedoes but they also desire to adopt a larger torpedo. They are evi- 
dently contemplating a 21-inch torpedo or even larger, 23.4 inches, 
as they have ordered some air flasks for 23.4 inches (60 cm.), which 
the Silurificio Italiano (old Armstrong- Whitworth & Co.) , at Naples, 
have accepted a contract for, probably a small number for experi- 
mental purposes. 

The Armstrong- Whitworth &, Co. is now entirely Italian owned, 
Armstrong having sold out their interests and rights in Italy after 
the armistice. Before and during the war they manufactured tor- 
pedoes of all kinds up to and including 18 inches. 

3. The Silurificio Italiano reopened as an Italian firm in May, 
1922, for the manufacture of torpedoes, and it is understood the 
Italian Government wishes to give them as much support as pos- 
sible in order to develop them into a much needed national private 
torpedo factory. From the present outlook it is not seen how this 
new firm can exist unless subsidized. 

4. It is reported that the Italian Government in the future intends 
that all its torpedoes shall be manufactured in Italy at Spezia and 
Naples. 

5. Armstrong at Pozzuoli was asked to bid on the 24.3-inch (60 
cm.) air flasks and refused on the grounds of inadequate machinery 
and difficulty of obtaining satisfactory material, and too much of an 
experiment to be sound financially at the present time. 

6. At the present time the Silurificio Italiano employs about 600 
men, of which 350 are employed in commercial manufacture. The 
Government work consists of repairs and replacements to existing 
stocks of 18-inch torpedoes and tubes. They expect to receive orders 



19 



soon for 21-inch torpedoes and tubes, but whether or not the naval 
authorities have a design for a 21-inch torpedo or tube is not known, 
nor about the 60 cm. (23.4-inch) torpedo and tube. 



ITALY. 

TORPEDO TUBES IN DESTROYERS. 
4 December, 1922. 

1. The torpedo tube question for destroyers, flotilla leaders, etc., 
is in the air at the present time. The Italian naval authorities have 
rejected the Armstrong design of triple 18 aiid 21 inch tube (similar 
to English tubes) , as they objected to the high superimposed center 
tube. 

A special design was submitted by Armstrong which overcame 
objections, center tube being placed underneath and height of upper 
tubes, being lowered. This design was also rejected. 

2. Armstrong was asked to submit a design for 18 and 21 inch 
triple tube arranged horizontally; they declined on grounds that 
such a mount would give excessive " throw off " (particularly in case 
of 21-inch) when firing wing tubes. 

3. They have not been again approached as to a design, and it is 
rumored that Italian naval authorities will make their own design. 

4. The Italian naval authorities seem to be hesitating between twin 
and triple tubes for all vessels building. 



ARGENTINA. 

AIR SERVICE DATA. 
8 December, 1922. 



The following data has been received on the Argentine air service : 

(a) Aii-planes in Argentina 173 

{!)) Army_ 53 

(c) Nationality of planes: 

French 88 

United States 30 

English 24 

German 11 

Italian '. 4 

Various nationalities 16 

The French mission (Fonck and Fronval) to Argentina, are 
endeavoring to persuade them to greatly increase air strength. 



20 
ARGENTINA. 

AIR SERVICE DATA— ADDITIONAL. 

December, 1922. 

1. The following- more recent information on planes in the Argen- 
tine is herewith furnished : 

Numbers and types of machines constructed in Argentina : 

Castriobert 1 

Mira 1 

Golondrina . 1 

Lavelli 1 

Halcor A 1 1 

A 2 1 



6 



Numbers and types of airplanes at the military school of El Palomar : 

Sva (Italian) 16 

Bristol 16 

Avro 20 

Spad 4 

Curtiss 10 

Caudron 5 

Voisin 1 

Nieuport 2 



69 



Numbers and types of machines at civil schools : 

Caudron (Italian construction) 40 

Caudron (French construction) 6 

Saml (Italian) 20 

Curtiss 22 

R2 (Italian) 2 

Sva (Italian) 6 

Avro 12 

Balilla (Italian) 2 

Caproni 600 horsepower (Italian) 3 

Farman 4 

De Haviland 7 

Breguet 4 

Airco 11 

Foker 1 

Spad 8 

Morano-Parasol ,„„_,„__„ 10 

158 



21 
BRAZIL. 

AVIATION COMMISSION IN ITALY. 

2 December, 1922. 

A Brazilian military aviation commission is in Italy and has pur- 
chased 18 new Sva airplanes (2 seater biplane) from the Ansaldo 
Co. The officers are now on duty at the Ansaldo factory supervis- 
ing the testing and packing of the machines as completed. The 
commission apparently intends to purchase from the same company 
a number of the new tactical reconnaissance machines known as the 
A-300 type. 



CHINA. 

CHANGING VIEWS TOWARD SOVIET. 
November, 1922. 

Talk in the tea houses among official and semiofficial folk in Peking, 
though not always characterized by accuracy or by pure reason, is 
a fairly good political weather vane. According to this standard, 
then, the current of Chinese sympathy has within the past month 
turned decidedly and strongly against the Soviet Government of 
Russia and against the Soviet's representatives in this country. A 
few months ago a decidedly friendly interest in Russian policy and 
in prospective Russian relations with China was developing not only 
among the teachers and students of the schools but among all classes 
of Chinese officials also. The attitude is now one of suspicion of 
the Soviet's policy in the Far East and of keen resentment of A. A. 
JofiVs diplomatic tactics. 

Chinese opinion was veering around in favor of the Soviet a few 
months ago because the average Chinese believed that the Soviet 
Republic, so called, was a liberal and popular government, and be- 
cause it was supposed that a liberal and popular government could 
have no imperialistic policy. The idea that an alliance with Russia 
would protect China against Japanese aggression and would give 
her new dignity in the sight of the Occident so that she could take 
a more independent attitude toward her creditors was also very 
attractive to many minds. Opinion in these same minds has been 
largely reversed because it has gradually dawned upon them that 
whether the Soviet Government is a liberal and popular government 
or not, it does have an ambitious imperialistic policy; and also be- 



22 

cause it is being realized that to defy public opinion in the Occident 
and enter into an alliance with Soviet imperialism would be out of 
the frying pan and into the fire. 

The notes and public statements of the Soviet representatives in 
the Far East have begun to show clearly enough that the Soviet 
wants to seize and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway as a Rus- 
sian railway and not as a Chinese railway, and also that the Soviet 
has no intention of restoring Mongolia to China or of giving Mon- 
golia even that degree of autonomy guaranteed under the old three- 
party agreement. 

These points are obvious enough to any one who reads between 
the lines of Joffe's published statements, and if one reads Russian 
statements of policy published in Russia and Siberia one does not 
have to read between the lines. Of these things the Chinese are be- 
coming aware, but they have not influenced them so much perhaps 
as Joffe's insulting attitude toward the Chinese Government which 
he has adopted since the Changchun conference and the Red occupa- 
tion of Vladivostok. As long as be abused the occidental Govern- 
ments before his Chinese audiences, the Chinese were astonished and 
delighted by his boldness. It was a new experience to hear a foreign 
diplomat in Peking call the great Powers of the West names. But 
since he has turned the same weapons of abuse on China, the Chinese 
have been astonished afresh, but by no means delighted this time. 
The best of it is that the Chinese are by no means intimidated. 
Guided by sound political intuition they have realized that JofFe is 
bluffing. 

Opinion in the university, where theoretical communism was de- 
cidedly popular a few months ago, has turned radically against Joffe 
and the regime he represents. With the exception of Tsai Yuan-pei 
himself, almost every recognized leader in the university has re- 
cently hastened to announce that he is not a Bolshevik and that he 
and Joffe have nothing in common. 

The Soviet leaders labor under the impression that Japan and 
America will some day go to war because of Japanese aggression in 
Manchuria, but if Russia threatens Manchuria with invasion and 
the Chinese Government with violence, it affords Japan an excuse 
to push into northern Manchuria and to strengthen her already strong 
position in the South, which the American Government would scarce- 
ly challenge and which most occidental Governments would p rob- 
ably support as a good excuse. An act of violence against the Chi- 
nese Government or even a consistently menacing attitude will range 
China herself, Japan, America, and all the rest of the world against 
Russia as allies. This is a situation which the Bolsheviks from their 
own point of view can not afford to create in the Orient. The last 



23 

thing that Moscow wants is a hostile China with all the world sup- 
porting her. 

It has been the Soviet's policy in Peking to use the Red. occupation 
of Mongolia as a lever for prying other concessions out of China. 
This was useful so long as the Chinese labored under the delusion 
that the Bolsheviks really proposed to withdraw from Mongolia 
some day when certain conditions were complied with. 

The Soviet propagandists are sometimes overzealous, however, and 
fail to keep their secret plans to themselves. The Russian press has, 
within the last few months, intimated only too clearly that the Soviet 
does not propose to abandon Mongolia but to annex it. The con- 
tinued occupation therefore ceases to be a diplomatic instrument in 
JonVs hands and becomes a powerful incentive to Chinese hostility. 

When the Red troops entered Mongolia they had an excellent 
excuse for doing so, an excuse which appealed to both the Mongols 
and the Chinese. When the remnants of Little Hsu's army were 
annihilated by Baron Ungern in February, 1921, all Mongols and all 
classes of Russians felt a considerable sense of elation because the 
Chinese soldiery had certainly behaved abominably in Urga. Ungern 
was, however, as violent and ruthless as Little Hsu's men had been 
and gave the Chinese good cause to resent his occupation of Urga. 
When he used Urga as a base and commenced his attacks upon the 
borders of the Far Eastern Republic, he afforded the Reds a good 
excuse to invade Mongolia and the Chinese were elated in their turn 
when they heard that Ungern had been overthrown and that Red 
troops had reached Urga. After the Reds had set seriously to work 
to build up a government in Mongolia according to their own tastes 
and entirely under their own auspices; and when they had made 
Bodo, a Buriat by origin, the head of this government, the Chinese 
began to object and all the Mongols of the old regime expressed 
their resentment and in many cases made representations to Peking. 

The Russian delegates from Moscow do not now want the Chinese 
to know, however, that the Soviet Government does not propose to 
relinquish Mongolia at all, nor that they will violate any promises 
which they make to China in exchange for other concessions — con- 
cessions relative to the use and management of the Chinese Eastern 
Railway for instance. These are the things which the ardent Red 
propagandist can not keep to himself. 

A certain Maysky has recently published a book in Irkutsk under 
the auspices of the Bolshevik regime which is entitled " Modern 
Mongolia." This book contains a detailed description of Mongolia 
founded on official figures collected by the author during a journey 
into the country in 1919-20 and then deals with the political future 
of Mongolia. Since it is published with the official approval of the 



24 

Reds, the political views expressed must coincide with those held 
in Moscow or the book would never have seen the light. Accord- 
ing to this book, Mongolia, before considering the matter of her own 
autonomy, must follow one of two courses, union with China or union 
Avith Russia. The author then goes on to prove that the only course 
which can be of advantage to Mongolia is that of union with Soviet 
Russia because of existing conditions in China. He points out that 
China is passing through an epoch of change and is adopting in- 
stead of her ancient institutions the modern institutions of Europe. 
He then expresses the opinion that whatever reforms China is trying 
to introduce can not be effected within less than 50 years, and that no 
one can look so far ahead and foresee what will be the result of 
political evolution in China. No one can say whether it will be a 
capitalistic State or whether its Government will be shaped accord- 
ing to modern standards; that is to say, according to Soviet stand- 
ards. China's reactionary tendencies do not encourage one to be 
optimistic. Therefore, says this author, the reunion of Mongolia 
with China can only lead to stagnation and economic ruin. Before 
China has ever developed into a socialistic state the Chinese mer- 
chants will have ruined the Mongol population. 

" On the other hand," says this Bolshevist book, " union with Rus- 
sia will help Mongolia to adopt forms of economic relations of a 
more just and favorable character, and will guarantee to the Mongols 
not only the preservation of the old conditions of their existence but 
also a renewed improvement of their general well-being. From the 
Russian point of view, union with Mongolia is of great political and 
economic importance. Through such a union Russia will obtain free 
access to an immense reservoir of raw materials and will create at 
the same time a buffer State between herself and China — a sufficient 
guarantee in the event of the latter developing into a militaristic 
State." By way of conclusion, the author then outlines the program 
of economic and political steps to take for the consolidation of the 
union between Russia and Mongolia. Do the Chinese need any better 
indication than this of the Soviet's policy in Mongolia or any further 
proof that any promises which Joffe or his colleagues make about 
Mongolia will be made to be broken? 



CHINA. 

NEW JAPANESE RAILROAD INTO KIRIN. 

November, 1922. 

The local Chinese press is this year showing an unusual interest in 
the Japanese proposal for a railway from the Tumen River to Tien- 
paoshan in Kirin — unusual because when the negotiations for this 



25 

concession were nearing completion in Peking more than a year ago, 
the local papers showed no interest whatever and made no adverse 
comment. Now that the matter has come up again, has been indorsed 
by Chang Tso-lin and has been protested by the Ministry of Commu- 
nications, it has suddenly assumed the proportions of a new grievance 
against Japan. 

The proposal was originally made when a Japanese company took 
over the development of a silver mine at Tienpaoshan which had 
never been a paying venture in Chinese hands. The Japanese oper- 
ators suggested more than a year ago that a light railway should be 
built to take the silver ore out of Manchuria via Korea. A promi- 
nent Manchu official named Wen Lu, who was a resident of Kirin 
City and who had an interest in the mine and in the prospective 
railway, came to Peking to conduct the negotiations with the Minis- 
try of Communications. Negotiations were actually completed and 
the documents were ready to sign when Wen Lu died. So far as 
the writer has been able to learn, this put an abrupt end to the bar- 
gaining and the agreement was never sealed by the Chinese 
Government. 

This year Chang Tso-lin was approached directly by the conces- 
sionnaires and his indorsement of the project obtained. It is re- 
ported that the ruler of Manchuria summoned two Kirin officials to 
Mukden and instructed them to draft the railway agreement with 
the Japanese Development Co. and to sign it on behalf of their 
province. According to the Manchurian papers these officials were 
T'ao Pin, the Taoyin of Yenchi district, and a certain Mr. Tsai, 
presumably the commissioner of foreign affairs for the Province. 
It is said here that T'ao Pin objected strongly to granting the con- 
cession and tried to avoid participation in the negotiations but was 
forced by Chang Tso-lin to go through with it. 

The proposed railway will be 240 li in length, will follow the 
line of the big highway from Huining on the Korean border to 
Ninguta, east of the Chang Pai-Shan, and will pass through the 
important commercial center of Lungchingtsun. A wooden bridge 
was built last year across the Tumen River at Huining by the Jap- 
anese to facilitate the movement of their troops into eastern Man- 
churia. Huining is already the terminus of a Korean railway from 
Narami (near Kiengseng) on the coast. Narani and Huining are 
already important and strongly fortified military posts, and as the 
new line to Tientpaoshan will be to all intents and purposes an 
extension of the existing military railway, the Chinese here regard 
it as a proposed medium for Japanese military penetration into a 
territory still inaccessible to Chinese troops. This suspicion that 
the real purpose of the line is strategic is strengthened by the Chinese 



26 

belief that the Tienpaoshan silver mines are worthless and can not, 
under any management, be developed sufficiently to warrant a 
railway 80 miles long. The population of the country through 
which the line will pass is 85 per cent Korean, and the authorities 
here see in the railway project a Japanese scheme for pushing the 
Korean boundary further north so as to take these erring Korean 
colonists, together with the territory they occupy, back into the 
bosom of the Japanese family. 

The Government protest against the construction of this railway, 
which will commence in the spring, is that no formal concession 
was ever granted by the Central Government while the Government 
can not under any circumstances recognize a deal made with Chang 
Tso-lin. The Japanese reply is that a full understanding was 
reached with Chang Chi-tan when he was Minister of Communica- 
tions. This presumably is true as far as it goes, for just before his 
death here a year ago the Manchu Wen Lu produced cards bearing 
the inscription " president of the Tien-Hui Light Railway," but 
the Japanese omit to mention the vital point that the agreement 
was not signed and that there is therefore no documentary proof 
of the understanding with Chang Chi-tan. If the indorsement of 
the present administration is not obtained, therefore, and if the 
Japanese authorities insist upon going ahead with the railway with 
Chang Tso-lin's indorsement, it will be tantamount to recognition 
by Japan of the complete independence of Manchuria — a diplomatic 
attitude which the other Powers will scarcely be willing to adopt. 



CHINA. 

NOTES ON THE GENERAL SITUATION. 
November, 1922. 

PARLIAMENT. 

In the two months that Parliament has been having occasional 
meetings since its members were allowed to return to Peking with the 
avowed purpose of rushing Avork on a constitution for China, its 
members have been squabbling over the election of a president for 
the Senate and a speaker for the House of Representatives, so far 
without result. And as these two offices are supposed to yield the 
greatest graft, open charges have been made in these sessions of votes 
being bought right and left for from three hundred to several 
thousand dollars each. A week ago President Li Yyan-hung at- 
tended a meeting of Parliament and was openly accused by several 
members from the floor, in a loud voice, with being an interloper in 



27 

the presidential chair, and the premier, Mr. Wang Chung-hui, was 
assaulted and knocked down, and nothing has been done about it. 

At yesterday's session of Parliament, while they were trying to take 
a ballot, charges of bribery were made from several sides, and eventu- 
ally, at the end of only 30 minutes, one senator grabbed the ballot box 
and hurled it at another, and tore up and scattered on the heads of 
the other members the prepared ballots, so that the meeting broke up 
in disorder. 

THE FOREIGN OFFICE AND MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR. 

The Foreign Office and the Ministry of the Interior are functioning 
in a half-dead fashion, routine work being carried on by such of the 
staff as have not yet struck because of long delayed wages ; but it is 
gradually dawning on everyone that the Central Government of 
China is only a name. 

CHINESE POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH RATES TO BE INCREASED. 

In desperation for funds to keep up the semblance of government, 
the Ministry of Communications, that is almost swamped by debts ac- 
cumulated in spite of its large income, has just issued a proclamation 
increasing postal rates and telegram rates enormously, which will 
bring much odium on that ministry from Chinese and foreigners 
alike. 

A CHINESE ADMIRAL'S OPINION. 

• 

A lifelong resident, in China told me last week that an admiral in 
the Chinese Navy had expressed to him wonder that the foreign 
powers were so dense as to continue to recognize this Gentral Govern- 
ment any longer. He said, although he was a Chinaman, he felt the 
only course that could bring peace and prosperity to China would be 
for the Central Government to acknowledge its impotency and appeal 
for an international regency. Not a few of the more intelligent 
Chinese have expressed privately to intimate friends among foreign- 
ers the same opinion, but none, as far as I know, have dared to openly 
advocate this plain truth. 

RUSSIAN BOLSHEVIK ACTIVITIES IN CHINA. 

I 

In all the ports and in the interior Russian Bolshevik activities are 
manifest through paid Chinese agents, and it is undeniable, as evi- 
denced by numerous strikes engineered by these agents, that the 
Chinese are seriously infected already with this deadly poison ; and 
its fruits will become increasingly manifest. The Japanese-owned 

29148—23 3 



28 

papers have warned the Chinese again and again that the Washing- 
ton Disarmament Conference gave them an opportunity to put their 
house in order, but instead of utilizing it they are increasing their 
mad struggle for graft, apparently with the idea " after me the 
deluge." 

One often hears the question asked, " Are there no patriot's in this 
land?" The usual answer is, "I don't know any." 



CHINA. 

SOVIET RULE IN MONGOLIA. 
November, 1922. 

The political policy of the Soviet agents in Mongolia is to exclude 
all Mongols of influence or ability from the Government and to 
maintain there a Government of their own Buriat puppets until 
they have educated the Mongols up to a due understanding and ap- 
preciation of the blessings of Bolshevism. Russians with Russian 
Buriat assistants are the real administrators. The princes and lamas 
who constituted the former governments of Mongolia are rigidly 
excluded from participation not only in Urga but throughout the 
country. The Soviet regime is maintained by garrisons of Red 
troops, inconsiderable in numbers but sufficient now to control any 
risings gainst their Government. The former Buriat figurehead 
Bodo was indiscreet enough to make some opposition to Soviet au- 
thority and was shot. In his stead the Reds have set up what might 
be described as an unfrocked lama, known among his own country- 
men as Dja Lama. 

This Dja Lama was a very inconspicuous figure in one of the 
monasteries in Urga before 1911. When the Mongols rebelled against 
China he emerged from obscurity as a nationalist leader, favoring 
complete Mongolian independence of both Russia and China. As a 
leader of revolutionary Mongol forces he occupied Kobdo, from 
which place the Chinese troops from Sinkiang failed to dislodge 
him. At China's request the Imperial Russian Government sent an 
expeditionary force into western Mongolia, scattered the Mongol 
troops around Kobdo, and captured Dija Lama, whom they carried 
away and exiled to some point in the extreme north of 'Siberia. About 
two years ago the Bolsheviks released him and bought him into 
Mongolia subsequently as their agent. 

A number of other native Mongols are used, but in keeping with 
the Red policy everywhere, they are drawn from the riffraff, from 
what is virtually a pariah class. This the better-class Mongols 
naturally resent. The population of Mongolia, which probably does 



29 

not exceed 500,000, is, according to reliable figures, divided as fol- 
lows : Lamas, 44.6 per cent, nobles 5.6 per cent, serfs 16.6 per cent, 
freemen 26.2 per cent, and the so-called declasse Mongols 7 per cent. 
According to foreign traders and according to Mongols who have 
come to Peking, the Soviet makes a point of cultivating and using 
this declasse element only with the result that all other classes are 
solidly and bitterly opposed to the whole regime. A policy has been 
instituted deliberately to augment this outcast element, officially 
known as the nomad proletariat, by depriving propertied Mongols 
of their herds through taxation. A herd of 50 animals is taxed, for 
instance, $300 a year, which means that with the low prices paid for 
animals in Outer Mongolia, the herd would be taxed out of existence 
in two years. 

The economic policy of the Soviet is to force all food exports to 
go to Russia and to prevent the export of money from Mongolia by 
putting unreasonably high taxes on imports from China and Man- 
churia. Accounts of conditions brought back by foreigners who try 
to do business in Mongolia vary greatly, for the simple reason that 
those who go there to buy products — if they happen to be other than 
foodstuffs — or to develop the Mongol output along any line are 
tolerated if they are not actually welcomed, because they either bring- 
in money or increase production. Those who go to Mongolia to sell, 
that is to take money out of the country, are treated in summary 
fashion and are quickly discouraged. The taxes charged on these 
imports are absurdly high and then when the tax is paid the mer- 
chant is forced to sell his produce at the Soviet's price. For instance 
one man who took in brandy paid $2.50 per bottle import duty and 
was then told that he must not charge over $2 a bottle for it. Motor 
cars of travelers are taxed $50 every time they enter or depart from 
Urga. The Mongols are in some districts allowed to sell their ani- 
mals to the Government only and that at a very low price. The 
export of cattle and horses, except to Russia, is strictly prohibited. 
Nomads who try to escape from the Red rule by moving into Inner 
Mongolia with their flocks and herds are pursued, brought back, and 
heavily fined. Recently when Puntsuk Wang, who is now in Peking, 
escaped from Outer Mongolia into Inner Mongolia with his large 
herds, the Red troops discovered that he was gone and pursued him 
far into Chinese territory. The whole story is that the Soviet 
leaders, having impoverished, starved, and exhausted their own 
people through their absurd economic experiments, are now busy 
ruining the Mongols in the same way and with the same enthusiasm. 
There can be no question of the unpopularity of this regime among 
the Mongols. Peking is full of dissatisfied Mongols of all degrees 
clamoring for release from the Red rule. 



30 

If China were to enter into negotiations with Mongol princes and 
leaders in the right spirit, it would be a simple matter to prove to the 
world that the Soviet has virtually annexed Mongolia, violating 
China's sovereign rights over this vast territory, and that 90 per 
cent of the Mongol population resents the imposition of Bolshevik 
rulers and institutions upon Mongolia. However anxious the Mon- 
gols are to get rid of the Eeds, they want no more military occupa- 
tion of the Anfu character. Autonomy under Chinese sovereignty 
without Chinese military garrisons is what they want and is what 
the Chinese Government should offer them. Nothing would be more 
unwise on China's part than to organize a military expedition into 
Mongolia without first having made very definite pledges of auton- 
omy to the Mongols. Such an understanding between China and the 
Mongol leaders, while it might not result in the immediate recovery 
of Mongolia from the Keels, would immediately reveal to the world 
that the Mongols themselves were the enslaved victims of the Red 
Russian dictatorship and that the occupation of Mongolia by the 
Reds was nothing less than the theft of a huge slice of Chinese terri- 
tory, an act which the world can not afford to tolerate. 



CHINA. 

WU PEI-FU. 
November, 1922. 

NOTE. — These observations were made by an officer who was one of an 
important party of visitors to the locality mentioned. 

General Wu's headquarters are in the camps and barracks of 
Loyang. The mime of the town appearing on most maps of China 
is Honanfu but attempt is being made to return to the old name of 
Loyang which the city held for centuries. It was the capital of 
China for long periods at various times, the last one being 1,500 
years ago. 

The camp and General Wu's headquarters are lighted by electricity. 
He has several motor cars for his own use. Roads have been built 
so that these cars can run about the camps and to some extent through 
the surrounding country. 

In characteristic Chinese fashion, however, the number of passen- 
gers in an ordinary seven passenger car was 13, every seat being 
filled and 6 men on the running board as a guard. As the roads 
are rough the wear and tear on the cars is immense. 

Aside from a comparatively short time taken on an inspection of 
camps and surroundings, most of our time was given to conferences 
with General AVu and his officers. This resulted in getting rather 
better acquainted in the two days of the visit than would have other- 
wise been the case. 



31 

Loyang is reached from Chengchow, which is one of the principal 
junction points on the Peking-Hankow Railway line. From Cheng- 
chow to Loyang is 120 kilometers. The railway is standard gauge 
and the roadbed is in most excellent condition. The railway eauip- 
ment is fair but sufficient, The line is through generally flat country 
immediately south of the Yellow River but is intersected by low- 
ranges of hills of loess formation and t h rough these hills there are ten 
short tunnels. 

Loyang is an ordinary town of about 40,000 inhabitants. 

General Wu's camp is situated 3 miles south of the town and is 
connected by a railway spur. This is the old camp and barracks 
built by Yuan Shih-kai as headquarters for a division in the old 
days. General Wu has taken over the camp and it is now arranged 
and modernized and capable of holding from 20,000 to 25,000 troops 
in barracks. There is sufficient room about the camp for temporary 
accommodation for practically any number of troops. The bar- 
racks, kitchens, and messing arrangements need no comment, There 
seems to be a more considerable arrangement for administration than 
would be required for a small unit of this kind. About the camp are 
large drill grounds, athletic fields, etc. The main buildings of the 
camp are substantial brick, and are lighted by electricity. 

All of the artillery observed was either field guns of about 75 
millimeters or small machine guns. It was impossible, however, to 
get the definite numbers due to the fact that most of the troops were 
absent and said to be on maneuvers. Most of the troops observed 
were recruits or youths being trained for officers. Some 1,500 were 
on the field going through various exercises, largely athletic, to which 
very considerable attention is paid, and the men seem to be in ex- 
cellent condition. About 150 young men were seen under instruction 
at drill as officers' personnel. 

The size of a division of the Chinese Army is supposed to be 
10,000, but it is understood that while the number of divisions of the 
army is not being increased the size of a division is quietly increased 
to 20,000 men. There are at present between 16,000 to 18,000 in the 
Loyang encampment and some 50,000 in the Province of Honan. 

The divisions consist ordinarily of infantry, cavalry, and ar- 
tillery. The number of cavalry and the number of artillery has no 
fixed standard, but seems to be what can be gotten together. 

The equipment of the infantry is the ordinary equipment of west- 
ern troops. The rifles are of fairly recent type and pattern and are 
said to be largely of Chinese manufacture from General Wu's arsenal 
at Kunghsien. 

General Wu Pei-fu was born in Shantung in 1873. He graduated 
with honor from the Kai Ping Military Academy, near Tientsin, 
1898. He obtained the degree of B. A. at the age of 21. He had fur- 



32 

ther military training with Marshal Tuan Chi-jui. Since the estab- 
lishment of the Republic he has been engaged in numerous cam- 
paigns throughout China. He has gradually risen to his present 
prominence. 

In appearance General Wu is tall and slender and somewhat 
stooped. He looks well in military uniform and is particular in 
regard to his personal appearance. He impresses one as a student 
and as being careful and thorough. He is energetic and begins the 
day at an early hour- The best description of his character in one 
word is scholarly. He does not speak English. He impressed me 
as being capable and a gentleman. 

During our visit we were with General Wu almost constantly and 
had excellent opportunity for observations and to become well ac- 
quainted. During the evenings particularly long discussions took 
place, not only on topics of the day but frequently on classical sub- 
jects, and Wu showed himself to be acquainted with ancient and 
modem European history and civilization. In one discussion the 
conversation ranged from ancient history to modern times, and Wu 
compared Aristotle with Confucius. In his conversation, he referred 
to Julius Caesar, Oliver Cromwell, Bonaparte, and our own Alexan- 
der Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin. In fact, he held his own 
remarkably well and in a scholarly style. As an illustration of the 
thoroughness of his knowledge, comment was made on the fact that 
the Chinese soldiers at reviews were using the German goose step. 
Wu asserted that the goose step was originated by the Chinese in 
the Tang Dynasty and that it had been used occasionally since, and 
that the Germans had taken it from an old Chinese book on strate- 
gies and tactics, and this they had obtained for use in the army and 
was still one of their textbooks. I am unable to say how accurate 
his statement may be, but would not be surprised it were true. 

He is surrounded by what appears to be a competent and capable 
staff. Those coming under my direct observations were Col. Li Chi- 
chen, chief of staff, Brig. Gens. Yang Ching-chen and Chang Hsi- 
chen of the Fifth and Sixth divisions, Mr. Pai Chien-wu, political 
adviser, and various competent interpreters. 

These two officers are similar in appearance and character. Each 
is about 45 years of age, large, vigorous personality, who looks as 
though he was a capable soldier who would carry out his instruc- 
tions to the letter. 

Col. Li Chi-chen, chief of staff, appears an officer of considerable 
capability. He is tall and slender, not soldierly in appearance. He 
does not speak English. 

Mr. Pai Chien-Wu is the political adviser of General Wu. He comes 
from a family that has been known for its scholars for a thousand 
years. He is a man of about 40 years of age with a capable and 



33 

thoughtful face. I have been unable to find out what his education 
has been, but he appears to be a Chinese classical scholar and is well, 
acquainted with European and American history. From our con- 
versations it was plainly evident that he had recently made a con- 
siderable study of our Constitution and knew in general the history 
of its formation and adoption — this is probably due to the present 
agitation in regard to a Chinese constitution. Mr. Pai impressed 
me as a man of excellent education and information and of a great 
deal of ability. I should say he is an adviser not only on political 
affairs but on all others that are not purely military. He has been 
associated with Wu for 10 years. It is my opinion that the criticism 
that Wu was without political experience and therefore handicapped 
in regard to the other leaders in China is largely nullified as long as 
he has Mr. Pai in his present capacity. It is further my opinion that 
the impression that Mr. Pai has made on several unusually compe- 
tent observers is that of a man of exceptional capacity and ability. 
While his personality is pleasant he is likely to be abrupt in his 
speech, and on occasion does not hesitate to contradict statements. 
He speaks no English, but probably reads it. Speaks German. 



GERMANY. 

AIRCRAFT SPOTTING GLASS. 
12 December, 1922. 

The German Navy is working in conjunction with the firm of Carl 
Zeiss in the development of a stereoscopic spotting glass, which is 
designed particularly for use against aircraft in order that shrapnel 
bursts may be quickly and accurately located with relation to the 
target. The general features of the instrument are being drawn up 
by the admiralty, while the optical construction is being perfected 
by Carl Zeiss. It is understood that these glasses will be ready for 
experimental use with the German Navy some time in March, 1923. 
Further details will be submitted on this subject when the experi- 
mental glasses have been completed. 



GERMANY. 

COMMENT ON VARIOUS FOREIGN ARMIES. 

5 December, 1922. 

Source: An article in a military magazine by man who signs himself Erwin 
Herman (probably a pseudonym). 

ITALY. 

The Italian Officers' Corps is well educated in a military sense, is 
instilled by a good military spirit, and has generally during the war 



. 34 

shown itself equal to the demands which one could place on the 
Italian Army. 

The training of the troops still does not fully correspond to the 
demands of war. The morals has recently somewhat improved. In- 
genious political influences, particularly communist, are kept away 
from the troops, The number of soldiers who can not read and 
write is still considerable. 

On the whole, the Italian Army can still not be considered as a 
first-class army of a great power. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The scientific education of the British Army is, in general, not 
particularly high, in accordance with the peculiarity of the English 
school system, in which special emphasis is laid on physical devel- 
opment. 

Spirit and military education of the officers, who are largely war 
veterans, are good. Both the higher and subordinate officers showed 
in the war a certain amount of formalism and doctrinarianism, both 
in operative and tactical matters, which often led to failures when 
they were confronted with an unforeseen situation. 

Discipline, spirit, and morale of the troops are good. A real hate 
of the Germans no longer exists. The training is careful and, in 
general, in accordance with the lessons of the war. The regular 
army may therefore be regarded as a first-class army. Their slight 
strength, particularly that of the expeditionary corps, prevents, how- 
ever, the British Army being considered in peace a political factor. 
With respect to France, in this regard Great Britain is at a consid- 
erable disadvantage. 

The territorial army is to be considered equal to the regular army 
as long as it continues to have a heavy proportionate number of war 
veterans in its ranks- As time goes on, however, the men trained in 
war will gradually leave it and in consequence its value will dimin- 
ish as a result of its short period of peace-time training. 

BRITISH INDIAN ARMY. 

The Indian soldier has in the war generally showed himself as a 
usable man. Several mountain tribes are excellent. The European 
climate, however, influences him adversely and reduces his ability 
to resist disease. The utilization of large bodies of Indian troops 
in European theaters of war does not, therefore, come in question 
for this reason as well as for reasons of internal Indian politics. 

THE RUMANIAN ARMY. 

The peace distribution of the army is carried through in such a 
way that nine divisions and two cavalry divisions front Hungary; 



35 

five divisions, Bulgaria; six divisions and two cavalry divisions, 
Russia; and five divisions, the coast. 

The armament is not unitary. In addition to Rumanian mate- 
rial, largely of French origin, there is much captured Hungarian 
equipment as well as German and Russian material left in Rumania 
by us in 1918. Tanks and aeroplanes are largely French. 

The officers' corps consists largely of Rumanians from the pre- 
war area. Transylvanians are only included to a very limited 
extent. Education is good. The corps of officers showed its good 
qualities in the war. 

Spirit and morale of the troops is, on the whole, good; the army is 
dependable. Communist propaganda is not noticeable. Continuous 
calling to the standards of the reserves permits the men in the 
newly conquered territory to become acquainted with Rumanian 
regulations and the Rumanian language. 

The French influence is also strong in the Rumanian Army, but 
not to the same degree as in Czechoslovakia and Poland. 

The army on the whole fought well during the war. Its value is 
fully as high as prior to the war when it was one of the best in the 
Balkans. Morally its value has been raised by the final success of 
the Entente in the Avar. The 5,000,000 acquired Rumanians, who 
are not of Rumanian nationality, could some day be a weakness 
both for the State and the army. 

UNITED STATES. 

Before the war the theoretical training of the officers was good, 
the practical, as well as the capability to be troop commanders, 
slight. The war brought fresh material to the officers' corps, which 
could meet simple demands, but often failed in difficult situations 
for lack of schooling and war experience. 

Spirit and morale in the Army is good. The regular divisions 
and a part of the National Guard were at the end of the war very 
good; the great mass of the Army, however, not grown to the 
demands placed on it. In the war neither the leadership nor the 
training of the troops brought the tactical success, but the over- 
whelming superioritysin numbers and material. 

Communist influences have not made themselves noticeable. 

On the whole, the American Army can be considered a usable 
instrument of a great power. 



GERMANY. 



COMPARATIVE OPERATING COSTS OF GERMAN AND UNITED 

STATES MERCHANTMEN. 

19 December, 1922. 

In conversation with one of the leading officials of an American 
shipping firm at Hamburg, the interesting statement was made that 



36 

he had analyzed the cost of operation of two similar ships, one 
American and one German. Of the total cost of operation, the cost 
for the upkeep of the crew of the American ship amounted to 7l T 
per cent while the cost of the crew of the similar German ship 
amounted to LJ per cent. 

This 6 per cent is, of course, a clear gain to the German merchant 
marine. Coupling this with the fact that the Germans pay in marks 
and receive in gold, it is very easy to understand this tremendous 
expansion. 

He further stated that the total monthly pay of the crew of a 
German merchantman was in the neighborhood of $250 gold for 
nearly 60 men. 

GERMANY. 

DESCRIPTION OF TORPEDO PLANE. 
1 December, 1922. 

The construction of this torpedo plane (monoplane) is based on 
years of experience in the construction of torpedo planes. Director 
Heinkel, the constructor of this machine, already began the construc- 
tion of torpedo planes for the German Navy in 1915, and in the year 
1916, as the first success, a Russian destroyer was sunk in the Bight 
of Riga by a torpedo from the first torpedo plane of Herr Heinkel 
(Hansa Brandenburg). The planes at that time, however, suffered 
from too weak motors. The first torpedo planes had two 160 horse- 
power Mercedes motors, and later on 220 horsepower Benz motors 
were used. These machines were also built as double-deckers and 
had far too much resistance. 

In this torpedo plane great stress has been laid on the plane being 
;is easy and agreeable to fly as possible, for just this very point is of 
the greatest importance to airplanes of this type. 

In order to carry the airplane easily aboard ship; the assembly is 
A^ery greatly simplified. The wings, of which about 7 meters are 
free, can be taken off and folded up on the sides of the machine, ac- 
cording to an entirely new patent, in a very short space of time. 
It is so arranged that the plane can be mounted while the ship is pro- 
ceeding at full speed without the use of any kind of tools for mount- 
ing the carrying surfaces. Such assembly only requires four 
minutes. 

The 600 or TOO horsepower Benz or Fiat motors (or another type) 
built in the front part of the fuselage, is used as the propellant. 
In comparison with nearly all the other torpedo planes with two 
motors, this central construction with only one motor has the very 
great advantage of simplicity. There are none of the many pipings, 
ropes, and rods found in the two-motor constructions. Also, the 
number of fittings is very greatly reduced. 



37 

Fuselage: The fuselage is made entirely of wood with planking of 
block wood and without any inner stretching. The protections for 
the pilot and the torpedoes adjoin each other. For defensive pur- 
poses, there is a revolving machine gun behind the rear beam in the 
fuselage and there is a free firing field in front, behind and upwards. 
The fuselage rises towards the back so that the stabilizing surface 
can be brought into the plane of the machine gun and the enemy will 
not be able to hide behind the stabilizing surface, so that the dead 
firing angle is therefore reduced to a minimum. The stabilizing 
surface is also made of block wood and is attached firmly to the 
fuselage. There are no rods or struts in the firing field so that the 
factor of safety is increased. If desired, the fuselage can be sepa- 
rated just back of the wings or in front of the stabilizing surface, for 
the purpose of more convenient transportation. 

Floats: The floats are constructed in two tiers and have a total 
length of 8.6 meters with a width of 1.1 meter. The great length 
and breadth assure stability on the water. This form of float has 
proven admirable in a hundred machines not only for the start but 
also for the landing. 

Float carriage tody: This consists of a minimum of struts. The 
triangular form is used all over. The floats are fastened to the 
struts of the' float frame by means of a patented construction and 
can be removed in a very few minutes by means* of a simple lever 
action. 

Wings: The carrying surfaces consist of three parts — the center 
portion connected organically with the fuselage, and the two free 
wings of about seven meters length. As has already been mentioned, 
the carrying surfaces can be mounted and demounted in 4 minutes 
while the ship is in motion. 

Steering gear: The entire steering gear, such as elevator, rudder, 
and buckling gear are all balanced so that the machine is easy to 
steer. The rudder is so large that one rudder is quite sufficient. 

PERFORMANCE. 

The firm guarantees a speed of 200 kilometers per hour. The load 

at such Speed is aS follows : Kilograms. 

Fuel for 4 hours 580 

Two persons 170 

Torpedo 975 

Launching device '. 60 

Machine gun with ammunition 40 

Miscellaneous 95 

Load 1,920 

Weight empty 2, 300 

Total weight 4, 220 



38 

TORPEDO-LAUNCHING DEVICE. 

The torpedo-launching device has been very greatly improved as a 
result of the experiences gained in the war. It is possible to build the 
launching device for various-sized torpedoes. The device is not 
affected by any distortion of the fuselage, but always functions per- 
fectly. Its weight amounts to about 60 kilograms and it is very 
simple and easy to operate. There are also safety devices in the 
event of danger. 



GERMANY. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS AT KRUPP WORKS. 
9 December, 1922. 

During a visit to the Krupp works on December 5 the following 
information was obtained in conversation with several of the di- 
rectors. Some of the items noted here have not changed materially 
during the past year. 

In considering these item it must be borne in mind that the 
directors of Krupp's would naturally present the German side of 
the case and the statements contained herein should therefore be 
considered in connection with reports on the subject received from 
other than German sources. 

Labor. — The Government has so far not permitted the demobili- 
zation of the labor employed in these works during the war, but the 
men work under the 8-hour day ruling. A workman can not be 
discharged except for causes of a criminal nature, such as theft, etc., 
without reference to the Government and to the labor union com- 
mittees. The labor is getting less and less efficient. The output 
per man per hour has fallen off. In most of the machine shops 
only one 8-hour day shift is employed. In others, two shifts are 
employed, but only in the furnaces and smelters are three shifts 
employed; i. e., in those parts of the works that must be kept operat- 
ing for the entire 24 hours. 

Wages. — Wages on December 5 were seven times as high as in 
July. At the present time, due to the fluctuation of the mark, the 
adjustment is made every two weeks, but it was stated that prob- 
ably within the next month they would have to come to a weekly 
adjustment of wages. 

Expert workmen receive about 325 to 350 marks per hour, average 
2,700 marks per day. Ordinary laborers receive 300 marks per 
hour, or 2,400 marks per day. The directors of the works stated 
that their salaries were in general about three times the amount of 



39 

an expert laborer. In pre-war days the salaries of the directors 
were at least 20 times as great as the most expert labor employed. 
Reducing the above figures to a gold basis, an expert laborer re- 
ceives about 33 cents per day and ordinary labor about 28 cents per 
day. A director who has charge of the big shops and the technical 
direction of large sections of the work receives about $1 per day. 
So long as this scale of wages exists, Krupp's ought to be able to 
compete advantageously in any markets, regardless of the disad- 
vantages they now have in regard to minerals and coal. 

Food.— The general appearance of the working men in these fac- 
tories is not good. Most of them have a pasty skin, characteristic of 
persons not properly nourished. Comparatively few of the workmen 
look husky and fit. Four of the directors stated that they themselves 
eat meat only twice a week, but that they were able to supplement 
their meat ration by sausages to a certain extent. 

Ore. — Eighty per cent of the iron ore used in Krupp's at the pres- 
ent time is imported; some from Lorraine and some from Sweden. 
The Lorraine source, of course, is the one on which this industry was 
built during the time that the Lorraine mines were German, so that 
the problem of transportation of the ore received from this source is 
not different from the pre-war situation, except that the ore must be 
purchased from France. 

Coal. — The output of the coal mines belonging to Krupp's is 
6,500,000 tons a year. Of this, Krupp's is allowed 2,000,000 tons for 
the operation of their industries. The requirement for full opera- 
tion of Krupp's is 4,300,000 tons a year. They are supplementing 
the allowances by purchases of brown coal and some English coal 
which at present allows the various factories to operate at a little 
more than 50 per cent capacity. 

Output. — The pre-war output of the Krupps industries was 90 per 
cent for civil uses and 10 per cent for war. During the war the out- 
put became 100 per cent for war. Since the armistice, return to a 
peace basis of manufacture has been necessary and would have been 
necessary in any case, even had the Germans been victorious. The 
actual losses due to conversion from war to peace under the pressure 
of the interallied commission of control has not, therefore, been very 
destructive in its nature, as such conversion was more or less dis- 
counted in the general scheme of operating the industry under both 
peace and war conditions. 

Conversion from war to peace. — The directors of the works state 
that in the course of carrying out the demands of the interallied com- 
mission of control they have actually broken up and distributed 43^ 
per cent of all of the machinery in operation in the entire works at 
the close of the war. By distribution of this machinery is meant the 



40 

sale of much of it to firms in foreign countries or to factories in Ger- 
many that were permitted to purchase such machines. 

There are still more than 30 machines that are continuing to oper- 
ate on probation. Those machines are condemned by the interallied 
commission of control to be destroyed, but Krupp's is still arguing 
the matter because of the fact that they are actually employing the 
machines in manufacture of articles used entirely for commercial 
purposes. They consist principally of the big lathes suitable for gun 
construction. They are now being employed in turning out huge 
steel tubes used in the nitrogen industry. These tubes look very 
much like parts of an enormous gun and are designed to stand a pres- 
sure of some 250 atmospheres. One of the directors stated, however, 
that while the lathes looked to be of a military nature because of the 
fact that they can be employed in certain phases of gun construction, 
such was the case with numerous kinds of machinery used for the 
manufacture of purely commercial articles and as all of the ma- 
chinery that was exclusively used in the manufacture of guns had 
been destroyed, one should consider that the demobilization of the 
munitions manufacture was complete and thorough. Machines of 
this nature, such as rifling machines, special devices for finishing the 
guns, machinery used exclusively in making breech blocks, etc., have 
all been broken up. 

General conditions. — It was stated by the directors that the losses 
due to the conversion from war to peace are about over. At the pres- 
ent time practically all parts of the plant are beginning to operate 
without loss and generally with profit under the existing conditions. 



GERMANY. 



IMPORTANT POPULAR ANTISOCIALISTIC MOVEMENT IN 

BAVARIA. 

28 November, 1922. 

The most active political force in Bavaria at the present moment 
is the National Socialist Labor Party. Less a political party, in the 
ordinarily accepted meaning of the word than a popular movement, 
it must be considered as the Bavarian counterpart to the Italian 
Fascisti. For several years almost unnoticed, it has recently suc- 
ceeded in acquiring a political influence in Bavaria quite dispropor- 
tionate to its actual numerical strength. Several factors contributed 
to the success of this movement; a very general dissatisfaction of 
the masses with the practical results of Socialist government, the 
oratorical abilities of their leader, Adolf Hittler, and in recent 
months, the general awakening of the Nationalist feeling in Bavaria, 
echoing the success of the Italian Fascisti south of the frontier. 



41 

The party was founded in Munich in the early part of 1919. The 
Bavarian press began to take notice of it, however, first in 1921. 
Adolf Hittler, from the very first, has been the dominating force in 
the movement and the personality of this man has undoubtedly been 
one of the most important factors contributing to its success. 
Hittler is of Bohemian-Austrian birth, but enlisted as a private in 
the German Army at the outbreak of the World War. Wounded 
several times, he was given the iron cross of the first class for bravery 
as a runner for battalion headquarters, and eventually rose to the 
rank of noncommissioned officer. His ability to influence a popular 
assembly is described as uncanny. In private conversation he dis- 
closed himself as a forceful and logical speaker, which, when tem- 
pered with a fanatical earnestness, made a very deep impression on 
a neutral listener. 

Hittler makes a decided differentiation between the basic aims of 
his movement, and the demands raised by the party, in response to 
local German problems, for purposes of propaganda. His basic aim 
is the overthrow of Marxism, whether in Socialist or Communist 
garb, and the rewinning of labor to the Nationalist ideals of state 
and society. He considers that the present parliamentary form of 
government in Germany is incapable either of settling Germany's 
internal or foreign problems. The clash of party interests has 
proved stronger than love of nation, and the present cabinet crisis 
in Berlin has effectually demonstrated the impossibility of Ger- 
many's rescue from her present difficulties through Democracy. His 
movement aims at the establishment of a national dictatorship 
through nonparliamentary action. Once achieved, he demands that 
the reparations demands be reduced to a possible figure, but that 
done, the sum agreed on be paid to the last pfennig, as a matter of 
national honor. To accomplish this, the dictator must introduce 
universal reparations service, and enforce it with the whole force 
of the state. His power during the period of fulfillment can not 
be hampered by any legislature or popular assembly. An under- 
standing with France is the necessary keystone to the execution of 
such a policy. He believes that the " war of revenge " preached in 
certain national circles to be an utter absurdity. 

The question of monarchy or republic is a matter of third-rate 
importance. It is possible to-day that German labor be rewon to 
nationalism, but not to monarchism. The disgraceful abdications of 
the German kings and petty princes without a struggle in November, 
1918, has rendered them impossible as candidates for the German 
throne. It is possible in the distant future that the popular will 
of the nation may decide for a monarchical form of government. To 
permit the existing differences of viewpoint on this question to 
interfere with the achievement of the national dictatorship, so vital 



42 

to the interests of Germany, would be an absurdity. His movement 
is, therefore, no matter what his opponents say, a purely national 
one, and has no connection with either monarchy or republic. 

The propaganda driven by the party before the public shows one 
particular plank which Hittler, in his personal talk, mentioned as 
little as possible — anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism is undoubtedly 
throughout all Germany, but particularly in Bavaria ; a political 
factor that can not be neglected. Hittler stated when directly asked 
as to this point, that he favored the withdrawal of citizenship from 
all Jews and their exclusion from public offices. Other leaders 
of the movement gave the impression, however, that anti-Semitism 
was a propaganda weapon rather than a basic aim of the movement. 

The methods of the movement have a certain resemblance to 
those of the Socialists — emphasis on catch phrases, demonstrations 
on every possible occasion, and military discipline. There has been 
organized within the party a special military body, popularly called 
in Bavaria " Stoss Truppen" (storm troops) which the leaders 
admit are armed with pistols and clubs, and which offer security 
that the National Socialists are not broken up by their opponents. 
They have on several occasions taken the offensive against Socialist 
meetings. A year ago National Socialist meetings in Munich and 
the neighborhood were regularly broken up by the left. Since the 
organization of the " Stoss Truppen," there is no longer in this dis- 
trict any open opposition. There are at the present time in Munich 
12 centuries of Stoss Truppen, each ranging in strength from 125 to 
175 men, and six centuries in other south Bavarian cities. The 
men make a disciplined impression. They are reputed to be fanatical 
followers of Hittler. and their loyalty to him was evident during a 
review which they held before him on November 19 in the eastern 
suburbs of Munich. It is very difficult to gain an impression of the 
total party strength. Opponents of Hittler estimated it as high as 
200,000, other neutral observers as 35,000. It is not easy, however, 
to distinguish between actual party members and Hittler sympa- 
thizers, who, as yet, take no active part in the movement. These 
were found in the army, the Government, and among the press. It 
was stated that the larger part of the Munich police was entirely 
in sympathy with the National Socialists. 

The actual party membership and the members of the Stoss 
Truppen have been recruited to date almost entirely from south 
Bavarian cities and have been drawn from two widely differing 
classes of the population, the students and the middle classes on the 
one hand and the radical Socialists and Communists on the other 
hand. Hittler's conversions in the latter class are admitted on all 
sides to be numerous, but it was pointed out that they were either 
employees of small factories or stores. In the larger factories, it 



43 

was stated by a Socialist, the strong labor-union discipline had re- 
sisted any serious inroads. 

It is an unquestionable fact that a large part of the success 
achieved by Hittler is due to the policy of noninterference and laying 
aside actual sympathy extended toward him by the Bavarian Gov- 
ernment. As has already been mentioned, sympathy toward Hittler 
was found in very high Government positions. The Bavarian min- 
ister of the interior has on several occasions in the Diet officially 
proclaimed Government toleration of the National Socialists and 
actual sympathy with many of their aims. This attitude is not sur- 
prising, considering the present composition of the Bavarian cabinet, 
in which " National " parties are alone represented. 

Until a short time ago the activities of the party were confined 
very largely to the vicinity of Munich. This was explained by 
Hittler's chief of staff as due to the condition of the party finances. 
In recent months, he stated, large sums of money had been received 
anonymously. A well-informed Jewish newspaper man stated that 
Director Hugenberg, of Krupps, had recently donated 40,000,000 
marks to the National Socialists. Nurnberg industrials were also 
financing the movement. The party is at the present time purchas- 
ing motor trucks to use in transporting their Stoss Truppen from 
city to city. Such purchases can not be carried out without consid- 
erable capital. 

Hittler emphasizes that his movement is a federal one and that he 
seeks control of the Reich, not merely of Bavaria. His party has 
developed in southern Bavaria with Government favor. He even 
stated that there was an informal agreement with the minister of the 
interior as to the scope of action of the National Socialists. To date, 
however, the Federal and Prussian Governments have actively op- 
posed the movement. (The National Socialists were recently sup- 
pressed in Prussia, under the terms of the law for the protection of 
the Republic.) Progress has nevertheless been made in the Ruhr, 
Hamburg, and even in Socialist Saxony. The movement in north 
Germany is still in a far less developed stage than in Munich. 

The immediate program before the National Socialists is the in- 
vasion of the north Bavarian industrial centers, Regensburg, Nurn- 
berg, Wurzberg, and Hof. A large meeting in Regensburg was 
scheduled for November 19. A special train had been hired to trans- 
port six centuries from Munich to Regensburg. At the last moment 
the Munich direction of the Federal Railways withdrew permission 
for the train, as is stated, following a protest of the Workers' Coun- 
cil. The meeting was therefore postponed until the 26th. It was 
stated by Hittler that the meeting would be held, whether a special 
train could be procured or not. All arrangements had been made to 

29148—23 4 



44 

transport a sufficient number of centuries by motor truck, if neces- 
sary. The invasion of Nurnberg, the stronghold of Bavarian Social- 
ism, is planned for the following week. 

The question whether Hittler's National Socialists can plan a role 
in Germany equivalent to that played by the Fascisti in Italy can 
still not be answered with any degree of certainty. In the limited 
area of Bavaria, south of the Danube, Hittler's success can not be 
gainsaid. Important gains have been registered by the National 
Socialists from the extreme Socialist parties. It is believed that not 
only in Munich, but in all Germany, there is a fertile field, even 
among the factory workers, for a national movement, provided the 
idea of monarchy, which has dominated all preceding national move- 
ments, be entirely left aside. It seems hardly probable, further- 
more, that with the results already achieved there will be any lack 
of money for the propagation of the idea of a national dictatorship. 
These facts, coupled with the magnetism and oratorical ability of the 
National Socialist leader, speak for a rapid and consistent develop- 
ment of the German " Fascisti." 

One must not, on the other hand, fall into the mistake of believing 
the past success an omen for the future supremacy of the party. 
South Bavaria is primarily an agricultural region and its only great 
city, Munich, though with a popuation of over 600,000, is differen- 
tiated from other German cities by an almost complete absence of 
large factories. The- success of the movement in industrial Nurn- 
berg requires a quite other set of conditions. The discipline of the 
German laborer to his union is a well-recognized fact. The breaking 
off of this relationship is fundamental for the success of any Nation- 
alist labor movement. So far it can not be said that Hittler has 
either proved or disproved his ability to overcome this barrier in his 
path. 

It is also felt very strongly that labor will only come to him in case 
his movement is kept entirely free from the suspicion that it is agi- 
tating the cause of either one or the other of the former reio-nino- 
families. While Hittler himself probably realizes the necessity of 
a pure and simple national movement, elements have gathered around 
him which are of quite another hue. Hittler's ability to dominate 
in his own movement is an open question. So far, his movement has 
been relatively so unimportant that the question in its fullest extent 
has not yet arisen. It seems certain that with the great influx of 
party members now going .on the task of maintaining the purity of 
the party's national aims will require not only a great orator, such as 
Hittler is, but a political genius, with deep knowledge of human 
nature. One can not say as yet that Hittler's possession of this 
quality is proven. 



45 

The question of the ability of the National Socialists to spread 
their doctrines into the industrialized North Germany can also not 
now be answered. It will undoubtedly depend to some extent on the 
attitude adopted toward them by the federal and Prussian govern- 
ments. Until now both governments have been hostilely disposed 
toward Hittler. Although Cuno's new bourgeois federal cabinet 
may adopt a different policy, the Socialists still remain in the Prus- 
sian cabinet, and one of their number, Severing, holds the very im- 
portant post, as far as internal political movements come in question, 
of Prussian Minister of the Interior. Coupled with the uncertainty 
as to the future Government attitude is the uncertainty of the two 
right parties, the German Nationalists and the Peoples Party. In 
South Germany these parties have adopted a friendly policy toward 
Hittler. In North Germany, on the other hand, one must still speak 
of them as interested but waiting. Until now they have felt them- 
selves too weak to openly espouse the movement. The favor of the 
Peoples Party is, in view of this party's present participation in the 
federal cabinet, a matter of the utmost importance to the National 
Socialists. 

The attitude of the French Government toward this movement, 
once it becomes a powerful factor in German politics, can also not 
as yet be answered. Much depends on the speed with which Hittler 
can confront the Entente with a completed fact. Granting even, 
however, its success to be assured, it is difficult to see how a national 
dictatorship can maintain its position in Germany without a rap- 
prochment with France. The achievement of such an understand- 
ing, however, presupposes a vast number of factors which in reality 
lie quite outside the domain of German domestic politics. 



GERMANY. 

MOTOR SHIPS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 

19 December, 1922. 

The firm of Blohm & Voss is engaged in the construction of two 
motor ships for the Hamburg- America Line. Originally four ships 
of this type were ordered, but within the past two months two of 
these were canceled. The characteristics are as follows: 

19,000 tons displacement. 
13£ knots speed. 

Diesel engine motor drive, with reduction gear. 
2 shafts. 

Two 3.000-horsepower motors on each shaft, each unit driven through 
the gear with one pinion. 



46 

In case of damage to any of the units, the propeller shaft may be 
driven by the other unit. Estimated saving over straight Diesel 
engine drive without reduction gear : In weight, 40 per cent ; in fuel 
consumption, 15 per cent; in cost, approximately 10 per cent. The 
Diesel engine units in this construction are the submarine type 
Diesel, modified for commercial use — that is, the maximum speed of 
the engine is reduced from 3.95 to about 2.80 revolutions per minute. 
Blohm & Voss are very confident of success in this installation, as the 
Havilamd and sister ship worked out very successfully after a year 
and a half service. 

The cost of building such motor ships now, when fitted with pas- 
senger service, is approximately 15 pounds per ton. The cost of con- 
struction of freighters at the present moment is approximately 13 
pounds per ton. These figures vary considerably with the fluctuation 
of the mark, as the labor is paid in marks, while the shipbuilding is 
on a gold basis; the labor costs are continually fluctuating and 
exact estimates are subject to considerable variation. 



GERMANY. 

PARSEVAL COMMERCIAL AIRSHIP. 
6 December, 1922. 

MEASUREMENTS AND PEFORMANCE. 

Gas space, entirely filled, 25,000 cubic meters. 

Length over all, 133.0 meters. 

Maximum width, 21.0 meters. 

Height, 26.0 meters. 

Motors: 4 Maybach motors of 260 horsepower each, total 1,040 
horsepower. 

Guaranteed speed, 115 kilometer-hours. 

Guaranteed useful buoyancy consisting of fuel, ballast, crew, pas- 
sengers, post, supplies, etc., with completely inflated ship and a= 
1.16 kilograms, =14.5 tons. 

Accommodations for 32 passengers. 

SUPPORTING SURFACE. 

The ship is constructed in accordance with the latest experiences 
and tests and embodies a number of improvements. 

The form of the body is a still further development of the ideal 
stream line, and the guide surfaces and rudders have been greatly en- 
larged in order to insure safe steering and a pleasant flight for the 



47 

passengers. Further, in place of the so-called trajectory bands, 
there is a strengthening net of steel ropes, which appreciably in- 
creases the strength of the body, especially in the case of injuries to 
the ship, and at the same time it reduces very greatly the possibili- 
ties of deformations. This net consists of longitudinal and diagonal 
girders, each of the latter being a wire strand, one end of which is 
spliced on a turnbuckle and the other on a shackle. The turnbuckle 
is also fitted with a shackle and both these shackles grip the rings of 
the points of intersection of the net so that each girder on the ring 
can be turned in all directions and interchanged. The diagonal 
girders are all located 1.75 meters apart, while the longitudinal 
girders amidships are 2 meters from each other, which distance de- 
creases toward the ends in conformity with the form. The diagonal 
stiffening of the net enables the ship to support effectively all strains, 
such as bending, sliding, and twisting, and, as all the girders are 
made of as nonelastic wire strands as possible, the deformations of 
the ship are also very slight ; in fact, 100 times less than in the case 
of ships made of balloon material. The covering of the net is the 
framework of the ship, and this makes it as stiff as a rigid ship, but 
also as nonbreakable as a pressure ship, for, in the case of too great 
strains, the body yields. The ship, therefore, combines all the ad- 
vantages of the rigid ship and the pressure ship without any of their 
disadvantages. 

The frames are fastened along the longitudinal girders of the net 
and are sewed to the outer covering so that the latter, in the event 
of increased pressure in the middle chamber, bulges outward and 
takes a somewhat cylindrical form, whose evolutions are transmitted 
longitudinally along the ship. The upper surface of the ship there- 
fore appears to be pressed or tied into the stream-line direction, but 
otherwise is absolutely smooth. 

The inner chamber is under increased pressure so that the outer 
covering is always taut and smooth. The purpose of this is, on the 
one hand, to give the ship a satisfactory smooth upper surface, and 
on the other hand, to protect the gas bags from the action of the 
weather and the sun, as the air within the space is kept continually 
in motion from the bottom upward and outward and the space 
itself, contrary to the pressure ships, has a greater and everywhere 
equal thickness. With this arrangement, the ship can always remain 
out in the open and it is therefore possible to operate a service with- 
out hangars, which is greatly desired at the present time. 

There are certain interior arrangements which enable the con- 
venient interchange of gas bags which can be either of goldbeater 
skin or cloth. 

The question of compartments has also been happily solved here. 
It is well known that the question of compartments is a highly im- 



48 

portant one and also one of the most difficult. The diagonal bulk- 
head is to so transmit the axial gas pressure (which arises for 
instance when the ship is in a diagonal position) to the cover (in 
this case, the net) that there is never &nj constriction or bulging, 
etc., which to a certain extent can not be seen from the outside. 
This object is attained in the ship through cylindrically curved bulk- 
heads. This contemplated cylinder passes through the body of the 
balloon from top to bottom and, together with its mantle, joins the 
sides of the ship so that the edge of penetration forms an elliptic 
with the ship, and in the lateral view appears as a right angle, the 
hypotenuse of which inclines 45° toward the ship's axis. By means 
of a special construction, this wall is attached to the net in such a 
way that during a radical pressure from the inside toward the out- 
side, only the horizontal fibers passing round in circles are spanned 
and only these transmit the bulkhead load on the net covering. 
However, the horizontal fibers mostlv enter the net cover tang-en- 
tially but leave, however, such small spacial components that, as a 
matter of fact, there is absolutely nothing to be seen from the out- 
side, something that has been proven by the most detailed tests. A 
further advantage of the cylindrical bulkhead is that when it is not 
under stress (that is, when it is straight up and down) it takes the 
same form as when under stress. This prevents the dreaded so- 
called gas rolls during an inclined position of the ship, since there 
is no necessity for bracing through ropes, belts, and the like. The 
fact that this represents a clear, simple, and easily calculable load 
factor is only mentioned in passing. The cylindrical bulkhead walls 
are arranged in pairs, since they are only strained on one side. 
Thus when the strain comes in the other direction, the strain on the 
one bulkhead wall is released. The space between each pair of bulk- 
heads is naturally filled with bags and gas. 

PASSENGER ROOMS. 

These are in the middle of the ship in the cabin suspended from 
ihe corridor frame. Tlfe pilot cabin, with wireless apparatus, etc., 
is in the front part of the car, while the other part is divided into 
anterooms, conference rooms, and lounging rooms. There are 32 
passenger seats. Each seat can be converted into a berth. The 
toilets (subdivided for men and women) also contain washstands, etc. 

CORRIDOR FRAME. 

A corridor framework made up of single rigid parts passes along 
the under side of the supporting body, making the ship semirigid. It 
also serves for the storage of fuel, ballast, and other cargo. 



49 

MACHINERY PARTS. 

The machinery parts consist of two side cars and one keel car to 
the rear. In each of the side cars there is one motor, with propeller 
coupling gear and forward and reverse action; in the rear car there 
are two motors on one propeller, with couplings and connection gear. 
There are also auxiliary engines and ventilators here. The ventilators 
are to press the air into the carrying surface, if, for instance, during 
a halt or on the stand the normal air supply through the flight wind 
on the bow of the ship is insufficient. 

LANDING DEVICES AND MOORING. 

The pressure in the ship is regulated by the L: F. Gr. pressure reg- 
ulator, the sensitiveness and accuracy of which have been still more 
increased through a new device. The air valve and several gas 
valves are on the back of the ship. The gas valves, which are not 
mechanically operated as in rigid ships, are placed in gas shafts, but 
with the exhaust also upwards. 

LANDING DEVICES AND MOORING. 

The ship can land either on water or on land. In both cases the 
downward movement is restricted through the landing buffer on the 
pilot's cabin. When landing on the water, water can be taken into 
this buffer and the ship secured in this way. The ship is moored 
either to a mooring mast in the English manner or on the ground 
by fastening the landing buffer by a cable and drawing it tight 
against a small horse (brace). The ship is so stabilized aero- 
dynamically that it automatically " plays in the wind " about this 
point. By means of all these newly-described, characteristics the 
ship fulfills all the demands of a commercial airship. 



GERMANY. 

TORPEDO APPARATUS FOR AIRPLANES. 

15 December, 1922. 

The apparatus in question is installed in a special airplane con- 
structed for this particular purpose, and makes it possible to fire a 
torpedo at a moving or stationary ship with absolute accuracy with- 
out the airplane dropping to the water. The torpedo is thrown dur- 
ing flight at an altitude of from 2 to 6 meters. Of course, the tor- 
pedo must be equipped with a gyro apparatus so that after striking 
the water the torpedo will continue to follow a straight course. The 



50 

motive power of the torpedo only operates with a portion of its 
power until after the torpedo strikes the water. The suspended pin 
found on every torpedo is used to support the torpedo in the plane 
and prevent its slipping out of its vertical position. 

The construction of the apparatus is such that after the firing of 
the torpedo the lever automatically reverses so that the gyro appa- 
ratus of the torpedo is set in operation; only when this has been 
reached the full number of revolutions, which only takes a fraction 
of a second, is the torpedo released and thrown. The torpedo takes 
its aim, is fired by a blow on the firing lever, and leaves on its track 
all in the same moment. Even when the airplane changes its course 
slightly after the firing the torpedo resumes the given direction after 
entering the water, through the action of the steering gear of the 
torpedo. 

In giving any orders for the apparatus all the necessary details 
must be given so that the individual parts of the device may be cor- 
rectly estimated in point of size, etc. The information to be fur- 
nished is as follows : 

(1) All exterior measurements of the torpedo which determine its form. 

(2) Weight of the torpedo. 

(3) Location of the center of gravity in the torpedo. 

(4) Location and measurements of the lever which sets the torpedo in action. 

(5) Extent of the power necessary to reverse the lever. 

(6) Time necessary for the gyro apparatus to reach its full number of revo- 
lutions. 

(7) Measurements for the subdivisions of the torpedo — war head, chamber, 
propeller, etc. 

If torpedoes of various calibers are to be discharged, then the 
above-mentioned details must be given for each type of torpedo. 
The weight of a complete torpedo-firing device for an airplane 
amounts to about 50 kilograms ; it is somewhat more when arranged 
to discharge torpedoes of various calibers. Whether or not the appa- 
ratus can discharge all the types of torpedoes desired, can only be 
determined by tests. 

The complete torpedo firing device consists of the following parts : 

(a) The complete apparatus with all its parts for carrying and discharging 
the torpedo. 

(b) The discharging lever. 

(c) The emergency lever. 

(d) The indicator with electric signal lamp but without current generator. 

(a) The discharging apparatus. — This consists of a thin-walled 
steel tube in which is located a steel spring for the reversing of the 
lever. This spring operates on a piston running in the tube which 
bears the bolts for the reversing of the lever, and is worked out in 
such a waj' that the piston is blocked when the spring is spanned. 



51 

By means oT specially constructed parts such as shafts, levers, etc., 
this piston is in direct connection with the carrying parts and serves 
to steer same. These carrying parts (locks closing automatically) 
hold the torpedo on the steel bands which are laid on the lower 
half of the torpedo, and the ends of which are so armed that they 
are protected against the carrying parts (the locks), without any 
sticking or catching taking place during the act of loading, or dur- 
ing the flight. 

For the suspension of the torpedo, a specially constructed wagon 
or carriage is used with lifting, turning, and sliding devices. By 
means of this, the torpedo is carried under the airplane and raised 
up into the discharging apparatus. When the torpedo is being 
lifted into the apparatus and has almost reached the end, then, by 
means of the special devices on the carriage or wagon, it is pushed 
or turned into the proper position and definitely raised. The ap- 
paratus prepared for the tension of the spring for loading, clutches 
the bands under the torpedo and holds these so that the locks close 
automatically, and the torpedo is then held tight in this position 
until released at the discharge or by means of the emergency lever. 

The bands are only released on one side. The other side remains 
fast on the apparatus. At the discharge of the torpedo, the two 
bands hang from the airplane, but this has no effect on the course of 
the torpedo as they can not fall into its propeller. All the levers 
of the apparatus are so constructed and fastened that an easy dis- 
charge is possible, but they can not be released through any shocks 
arising to the airplane through the flight itself. 

There are special control organs which permit the testing out of 
all parts before flight. This avoids any danger due to faulty opera- 
tion. The essential properties of the airplane itself make it difficult 
to get at the discharging apparatus so that, this one item is a very 
important point, and especially acceptable to the crew of the air- 
plane. 

All steel parts are galvanized. 

A special spanning device is delivered for the purpose of spanning 
the apparatus. This can be removed after the loading of the tor- 
pedoes and is, therefore, not carried along during the flight. 

It requires about two minutes to span and load the apparatus. 
Practiced personnel can do it in a shorter period. During the load- 
ing, the entire apparatus is blocked so that no accidents can occur. 
The special points warranting consideration are the fact that un- 
trained workmen can operate the apparatus and that it is subject to 
control at any time. 

(b) The discharging lever. — The discharging lever is so constructed 
that it is only necessary to strike a knob near the seat, in order to 



52 

discharge the torpedo. In order to prevent any accidental operation 
during the flight or in the hangar, the discharging lever is protected 
by a specially reversible lever with a cap and closed with a weight. 
This weight indicates to the flyer whether or not the apparatus has 
been tampered with. 

(c) The emergency lever. — It must be taken into consideration 
that in war the airplane will be bombarded by the enemy and that 
the apparatus can be damaged to such an extent that it will be im- 
possible to fire a torpedo. However, when an airplane eludes this 
bombardment it is of the very greatest importance to be able to fire 
the torpedo in order to lighten the weight and increase the stiffness. 
An emergency lever is provided for this purpose. By drawing this 
lever the torpedo is released from the airplane without setting the 
entire apparatus in operation. This emergency lever is also used to 
unload the airplane without having to undertake a flight. By firing 
off the torpedoes great damage might be done. 

(d) In flying, the discharge of a torpedo is never known soon 
enough, as it should be in an attack on an enemy. This indicator, 
therefore, shows the pilot when the torpedo leaves the airplane 
through the flashing of a red light (electric) on the indicator. That 
is the moment when the pilot can divert his plane from the enemy 
and seek safety. Every minute is priceless. 

Exact and detailed instructions for the personnel are delivered 
with the apparatus and the loading carriage. 



GUATEMALA. 

ARMY ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL. 

November, 1922. 

At the present time the army of Guatemala consists of two parts : 
A field army — that is, forces organized with a view to taking the 
field in campaign; a garrison army, composed of detachments gar- 
risoning the larger towns of the Republic. The field army is all in 
the capital under instruction by the French military mission. The 
present composition of this force is as follows : 

CORPS OF ARTILLERY. 

First Regiment. — One battery 75-millimeter French field guns. 
Four officers, 60 men, 4 guns. Stationed in Matamoras fort in the 
capital. Has no harness and no horses. Could be moved for short 
distances in motor trucks. 

One battery 75-millimeter Bethlehem mountain guns. Five offi- 
cers, 70 men, 6 guns. This is pack artillery and is in good shape. 



53 

Each gun section consists of three mules. One carries the gun, one 
the wheels, axle, and shield, and the third the trail. There is one 
ammunition mule with each gun section. 

Second Regiment. — Three batteries 42-millimeter Hotchkiss moun- 
tain guns. Each battery 5 officers, 70 men, 6 guns. This is also pack 
artillery. There are three mules to each gun section, one mule carry- 
ing the wheels and axle, the second mule carrying the gun, and one 
mule carrying ammunition. This regiment is stationed at Fort San 
Jose. 

MACHINE GUN CORPS. 

This consists of three companies of Hotchkiss machine guns, each 
company having 2 officers, 30 men, and 2 machine guns. These are 
also pack outfits, one mule carrying ammunition. These companies 
are stationed in the cuartels in Guatemala City, and are shifted from 
time to time. 

INFANTRY CORPS. 

This consists of 3,000 men, divided into four battalions of four 
companies each. Each company has from 2 to 12 officers and about 
150 men, of whom about 100 men per compan}^ are always on duty. 
This corps is stationed partly in San Jose Fort, partly in Mata- 
moras, and in the cuartels in the capital. 

CAVALRY. 

One troop, consisting of 4 officers and 80 men. 

FIELD OFFICERS. 

At the present time there are a great number of colonels, lieutenant 
colonels, and majors assigned to all the orpanizations. This seems to 
result mainly from the separation of parts of the units. For ex- 
ample, each cuartel in the capital has 1 colonel, 2 or 3 lieutenant 
colonels, 2 or 3 majors, and from 60 to 100 men. So far as Major 
Cruse can find out, the field officers seldom attend any drills, and at 
ceremonies apparently have no direct command over the troops. 

GARRISON ARMY. 

In all the larger towns of the Republic there are garrisons vary- 
ing in strength from 200 to 600 men. There is no uniform organiza- 
tion. These garrison forces consist entirely of infantry, and a very 
few machine guns. There are some of the more antiquated types of 
small field guns at Antigua, Quesaltenago, Huehuetenango, and 
Ayutla, but there is no distinct artillery organization at any of these 
points. 



54 

FEESONHTSL. 

The officers of the higher grade, with the one exception of General 
Ubico, are not military commanders, but are mere garrison com- 
manders. The limit of their military knowledge will probably be 
confined to defending a cuartel or clearing the streets in time of 
trouble. The captains and lieutenants, on the other hand, are mostly 
graduates of the Polytechnic School, and have now had over a year 
of instruction under the French mission. 

The French mission has succeeded in developing the field arm to a 
fair state of appearance and probably of efficiency. The members of 
the mission complain that they can really accomplish very little on 
account of the constant changes among men and officers. They state 
that although the same number of soldiers will be present at drill 
every day, that these soldiers are hardly ever the same two days in 
succession. They state that the number of officers attending drill 
with, for example, a battery of artillery will vary from one to ten 
throughout the week. They also state that if the personnel of the 
Hotchkiss mountain battery are on guard or other duty, the personnel 
of a machine-gun corps will be sent down to take out the Hotchkiss 
batterv for drill. 



MEXICO. 

CONDITIONS IN GENERAL. 
Last Quarter, 1922. 

Source: Unofficial observer. 

Herewith is a resume of events and conditions in general. All 
statements as regards revolutionary movements made some months 
ago have become, you might almost say. in details proven by facts. 
Murguia. who was considered the strongest leader of the Govern- 
ment's enemies, has been captured and killed. Most of his active 
followers have met the same fate and only those escaped who were 
able to return to the United States. General Carrasco and his 
nucleus of rebels has likewise been eliminated as an element of 
danger, Carrasco having been killed and a number of his followers 
captured and shot. Felix Diaz has returned to Havana and Pelaez 
is making statements to the press from the United States side that 
he is not a rebel and has not assisted anv such movement against the 
government. His statements are not believed as he has always left 
his men in the lurch whenever any real danger appeared in the 
horizon. Troops have been retired from the Huasteca by Sanchez 
as the region now is deemed clear of rebels. 

Many rebel leaders have surrendered and others are conducting 
negotiations for favorable conditions in order to do so. Carlos 



55 

Green's rebels in Tabasco have lost heart and Carlos Green is reported 
killed, though the report is not confirmed. General Aleman still 
remains, but he received so many blows tliat his body of men has 
been considerably reduced and he does not dare leave his mountain 
fastnesses. 

As I have positively stated before, no rebel movement can succeed 
against this government because of the fact that the people at large 
are sick of revolutions and unwilling to join any movement; also 
because the army of the government has been wonderfully well con- 
centrated whenever necessary and has so skillfully been manipulated 
by the Sonora leaders by shifting continually their officers that no 
body of men becomes sufficiently attached to any leader so as to 
follow him in any revolutionary adventure. All things considered 
there is no danger of the success of any revolutionary movement 
headed by the army of the anti-Obregon leaders. 

It is also improbable that any blow can be struck by those inside 
the party as, despite rumors, certain harmony exists. Calles is all 
powerful as ever and De la Huerta apparently has become elimi- 
nated as a cloud on Calles' aspirations and will shortly go to Sonora 
to assume the governorship in said state. His hopes (De la Huer- 
ta's) are based on Calles' physical condition, which is said to be of 
such grave nature that his time is very brief in life. From his 
private secretary emanates the statement that he suffers from a 
cancerous growth on the spinal column and that Mayo Brothers, of 
Rochester, Minn., refused to operate, alleging that there was not one 
chance in a hundred for a successful operation. Calles has been sick 
now at his home for several weeks. 

The economic conditions are very critical throughout the Repub- 
lic and several banks and many mercantile firms have gone to the 
wall within the last two weeks, among them counted the French 
Banque du Mexique (Lacaud & Son) with a passive of many mil- 
lions. People have lost faith in banks and are withdrawing their 
deposits, resorting to the old method of keeping their money at 
home. Congress is in session and has been losing time in preliminary 
study of article 27 prior to commencing the debates on same, but as 
ever it is believed to be at sea, and that it will probably take the 
measure from the executive and his advisers who are now studying 
all features of article 27. In connection with said contemplated leg- 
islation, Parri, Minister of Relations, broke faith with Mr. Summer- 
lin, charge d'affairs here, and gave out for publication a note trans- 
mitted by the State Department of the tenor that the project of 
article 27 as gotten up was unsatisfactory. In view of the numerous 
discussions had between the above-mentioned representatives regard- 
ing said pending legislation so that no injury might ensue to ac- 
quired rights and the fact that advice has been sought by all those 



56 

paid agents and propagandists who have worked for recognition, the 
publication of said note in an effort to make it appear as an attempt 
to dictate or interfere with their legislation, all serious minds have 
looked upon it as a breach of faith and an attempt to make political 
capital out of it by a play to the gallery. Calles seized upon the op- 
portunity to wire said note to all governors for placing same to the 
notice of inhabitants, and it was also wired to all embassies and le- 
gations throughout South America and abroad. 

It has, however, failed of its purpose and it is said the matter 
formed the subject of a heated discussion between the President and 
Parri. 

A confidential report of Mr. Bushnell, commercial attache of the 
United States, has evidently leaked out by some inconceivable blun- 
der so that the same was published in the New York Call in connec- 
tion with the death of Eicardo Flores Magon at the Leavenworth 
Federal prison. The same was given wide publicity in all the Mexi- 
can press, and as the text of same is very uncomplimentary to the au- 
thorities here, he is wiring for his immediate recall. 

Mexico City has been almost without water for the last 10 days by 
reason of the inundation of the compartment where the three pumps 
were kept and consequent inutilization of same. In spite of condi- 
tions, the municipal authorities have done nothing to quickly remedy 
matters and as a result on the 30th of November in the afternoon a 
public demonstration became unmanageable and set fire to the mu- 
nicipal building, destroying all the archives. Thirteen persons were 
killed and over 50 wounded. Deputies who know say it was a Gov- 
ernment move intended to eliminate the municipal authorities in the. 
Federal district, which administration is constitutionally provided 
for. City government collects about 28,000.000 pesos annually, the 
bulk of which serves as boodle for politicians. The killing was done 
by firing of the municipal authorities and not Federal forces. The 
plan is to have the Federal Government take over such administra- 
tion. 



MEXICO. 

REVIEW OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF OBREGON ADMINISTRATION. 

30 December, 1922. 

On December 1, 1920, General Obregon, the revolutionary succes- 
sor to Carranza, entered upon his duties as the constitutionally 
elected President of Mexico with a program of national reconstruc- 
tion which, according to him and his adherents, was to lift the 
country from a state of turbulence and rebellion to a place of dignity 
and credit among the nations of the world. 



57 

Comparing the conditions at the time with the situation of to-day, 
we find a military situation that is decidedly better; an economic 
situation that has passed from bad to worse; and an international 
situation in statu quo. 

It can not be denied that Mexico to-day is more at peace than at 
any time during- the past decade. The more pretentious rebel leaders 
within the country have either faced the firing squad or have died 
in combat, while the majority of the lesser chiefs have sought and 
obtained amnesty. The activities of expatriates of known rebel ten- 
dencies have been marked of late by their loud disclaimers of any 
hostile intention against the established Government in Mexico. 
This successful suppression of open rebellion and control over the 
more active of the turbulent element is due primarily to the continued 
loyalty and increased combat efficiency of the army, and secondarily 
to the present antipathy of the masses of the people toward revolu- 
tionary activity and their unwillingness to join or even covertly 
support the most powerful leaders who have taken the field. But 
the heart of Mexico is not at peace. Strong undercurrents of dis- 
satisfaction and unrest, based on abject hopelessness on the part 
of the larger mass of the people, are manifested daily throughout 
the country. The radical element is increasing. Labor unions have 
enlarged their sphere greatly, and their radical tendencies and fre- 
quent strikes have paralyzed the few industries that remained in 
existence. 

Fundamentally, the desperate economic conditions existing in Mex- 
ico to-day may be traced to certain provisions of the Federal consti- 
tution of 1917. Principal among these are article 27, which consti- 
tutes the thorn of disagreement in international affairs, and article 
123, dealing with labor. The first mentioned has deprived the coun- 
try of foreign investment and enterprise, so essential to economic re- 
construction following the long revolutionary period of destruction 
and waste, and the application of agrarianism has produced a state 
of hopeless uncertainty among the agricultural element of the people 
that has resulted in practical abandonment of the farming industry 
and the consequent necessity for enormous imports of 'grain and 
meats. The second tends to create a special class autocracy of labor 
and is chiefly responsible for the present destructive attitude of the 
labor unions. 

From the political and the military standpoint the present Gov- 
ernment has little to fear, but financially it is in desperate straits. 
The country is entirely devoid of a national banking system; cur- 
rency is scarce and private banks are lending from their depleted 
funds only on gilt-edge security and at excessive rates for service. 
With even the most necessary expenditures exceeding current receipts 



58 

and with revenue constantly diminishing, the administration is fur- 
ther faced with the necessity of beginning payment on the public 
debt in January, 1923, under the terms of the de la Huerta-Lamont 
agreement. Even recognition by the great powers who have so far 
withheld recognition would scarcely result in the securing of a much 
needed foreign loan in the absence of nonpayment on the present 
public debt as agreed upon. 

Viewed in its broader aspect, the great economic problem confront- 
ing Mexico is one of guarantees : Guarantees to invested capital ; 
guarantees that will strengthen internal credit; guarantees which 
will restore confidence to foreign capital ; guarantees against the ar- 
bitrary and confiscatory application of agrarianism. Proper guar- 
antees will produce capital and the latter will bring production and 
industrial life, without which the economic situation will not im- 
prove. 

During; the two vears of his administration, President Obregon 
has accomplished none of these guarantees ; nothing constructive has 
been produced by legislative enactment, although the present Con- 
gress and its predecessor were elected presumably in support of the 
Executive and supposedly in harmoiry with his expressed policies of 
reconstruction. 

While failing in constructive progress along political and economic 
lines, General Obregon has well earned the recognition of his mili- 
tary title by the effective results he has accomplished in the matter of 
army reconstruction. 

On December 1, 1920, the army contained over 300 separate and 
distinct organizations, of which number approximately one-third had 
no legal status. The enlisted strength of about 100,000 men carried 
an officer personnel of over 21,000, including 700 generals, approxi- 
mately 5,000 field officers, and over 15,000 company officers. This 
aggregation of troops consisted chiefly of an accumulation of indi- 
vidual leaders and their followers who had been active in one or more 
of the many revolutions and militarv administrations during the 
previous 10 years, including the support of Obregon in his successful 
overthrow of Carranza in May, 1920. Graft was rampant, loyalty 
and discipline unknown, and among the small army of high ranking 
general and field officers were to be found many political leaders of 
influence and prestige, whose support was urgently needed by the 
new administration they had helped to put in power. The military 
problem was therefore a very serious one ; to be successful the support 
of the army was necessary, but to make this support dependable and 
effective radical measures had to be adopted, aimed at reorganization 
and reconstruction. 

General Obregon and his newly appointed Secretary of War and 
Marine. General Estrada, met the situation boldly and without pro- 



59 

crastination. The military strength was considered excessive in 
comparison with military needs and the necessity for economy. It 
was therefore decided to effect a reduction in combination with reor- 
ganization. This was effectively accomplished by retaining the best 
organized and most effective units, with good military record, and 
bringing them up to authorized strength by transfer of men from 
units deficient in organization or with no legal status, and eliminat- 
ing such organization from the rolls of the army. During the suc- 
ceeding year this procedure resulted in reducing the number of 
organizations by over 50 per cent. During the same period the num- 
ber of officers was reduced by approximately 4,500, including 110 
generals and about 1,000 field officers. 

Special boards of selected officers were appointed to formulate : 

A basic law for the Federal Army. 

Penal laws and court-martial procedure, revision of army regula- 
tions, and revision of service records and efficiency reports. The 
work accomplished by these boards or commissions has been highly 
instrumental in the promotion of discipline and efficiency and assisted 
in no small measure in the successful carrying out of the reduction 
and reorganization program without disorder or resort to force of 
arms. 

For the larger part of the commissioned personnel retained in the 
army, whose military training lacked the fundamentals of military 
instruction, special tactical organizations were formed in which they 
were enrolled for a period of training and instruction under the di- 
rection and supervision of the national military college. Schools of 
application for infantry and cavalry officers and technical schools 
for officers of the technical branches were organized and are func- 
tioning in a fairly efficient manner. In addition organization train- 
ing centers have been established, to which are sent one company or 
one squadron at a time from the infantry battalions and cavalry regi- 
ments for prescribed period of training. Field maneuvers of the 
separate and combined arms have been attempted, but the actual re- 
sults of these are not known. Eecent war department orders and in- 
structions for the execution of maneuvers, in which all arms and 
communication accessories were to participate, indicated a clear un- 
derstanding of sound military principles in the conduct of this class 
of training. 

Regulations prescribing strength and uniformity of unit organi- 
zation, and territorial and tactical staffs ; clothing and equipment ; 
procedure of courts-martial and administration of military disci- 
pline ; requirement of a higher standard of moral conduct on the part 
of officers, have been issued and earnest effort made for their enforce- 
ment. 

29148—23 5 



60 

During the past year the strength of the army has been further re- 
duced in both officers and men. On December 1, 1922. the army con- 
sisted of approximately 9,000 officers and 64,000 men. The principal 
arms had been reduced to 51 battalions of infantry. 74 regiments of 
cavalry, and 4 regiments of artillery. A committee appointed to 
study the question of a further reduction to 50.000, in accord with 
the announced policy of the administration, recently submitted its 
report to the President in which it was recommended that no fur- 
ther reduction be made in the military force of the nation. 

The successful campaign in which the entire Federal Army was 
recently engaged in the suppression of rebel and bandit disorders 
was characterized b}^ great rapidity of troop movement, concentra- 
tion of sufficient force to successfully carry out the mission assigned, 
and the prompt relief of commanders who showed hesitation in action 
or were guilty of derelictions of duty. In connection with the latter 
it has become an established policy with the present administration 
to make frequent changes in commanders and in the station of troops 
with a view to lessening the chances of troops becoming unduly 
attached to individual leaders or influenced by unscrupulous or 
disgruntled local politicians. 

The Mexican Arnry of to-day represents a real asset to the nation. 
In comparison with military standards of the great powers it would 
receive a low rating, but in comparison with Mexican standards it 
may be considered as the most effective military force produced 
since the time of Diaz. 

Obregon has the unquestioned loyalty of the army ; a congress 
which is distinctly favorable to him in the chamber, and not openly 
antagonistic in the senate; and a certain harmony of purpose within 
his cabinet. Despite rumors of disagreement and personal jealousies. 
Obregon and his two colleagues from his home State. Calles and de la 
Huerta. have maintained throughout the past two years the coopera- 
tion and cohesion of purpose which successfully swept Carranza from 
power. 



RUSSIA. 

PRESENT CONDITION OF BLACK SEA FLEET. 

10 November, 1922. 

Source: Russian naval officer in Constantinople, whose information is con- 
sidered reliable and up-to-date. 

At the present time the only fighting naval units possessed by the 
Bolsheviks in the Black Sea are the submarines. Of these there are 
five, a part of them having a division organization and the remainder 
operating individually. The names are as follows: A. G. 23, A. G. 
24, A. G.2S,A. G. 26, and the Nerpa. The first four are all of the 
Holland type, displacement 350 tons, 13 knots surface speed, 9 knots 



61 

submerged. Their armament consists of 4 bow, 45-cm. torpedoes — 
these being of the last type evolved by the old Russian Navy and 
resembling our Bliss-Leavitt, in that they are equipped with super- 
heaters. On deck is carried one 57-mm. gun of high-angle fire for 
use against ships or planes. The Nerpa is of the Russian type 
Guepad, is of 600 tons displacement, surface speed 16-17 knots, sub- 
merged speed 11.5 knots. Her armament consists of 2 bow torpedo 
tubes and 8 tubes mounted according to the Djevetsky system. 
These are all of 45 cm. and equipped with superheaters. On deck 
she carries two 100-mm. 60-caliber guns and one 57-mm. antiaircraft 
gun. All submarines, in addition, carry two Maxim machine guns. 
All are equipped with 2^-kilowatt radio sets. It is understood that 
the A. G. boats have a very restricted radius of action but that the 
Nerpa is capable of considerable cruising. 

All of these submarines are in good operating condition, their 
supply of torpedoes is well sufficient for their number, and the per- 
sonnel consists mostly of the submarine men of the old navy who 
have had years of training both before and during the war. 

Attached to the submarines is a mother ship, the George. She is 
a former passenger ship, of 700 tons, and of 12 knots speed and 
mounting two 57-mm. antiaircraft guns. It is intended to mount a 
100-mm. 60-caliber gun on her stern. 

In addition to the submarines, there are, in the Black Sea, two 
gunboats, four torpedo boats, and numerous miscellaneous craft. 

The gunboats, named Terets and Koub-anets, were built at Nickolief 
iv. 1888-89. They displace 1,700 tons, have a speed of 10 knots, and 
an armament of two 130-mm. 60-caliber, one 100-mm 60-caliber, and 
two 57-mm. antiaircraft guns. They are equipped with 3-J-kilowatt 
radio sets. The Terets, up to recently, used to transport soviet offi- 
cials around the Black Sea, but recently both boats were used as 
school ships. ( 

Of the torpedo boats, two are of the type of the Sokol (built by^ 
Yarrow). These have a tonnage of 240 and a speed not exceeding 
18 knots. The third is called the Zavetny, is of an improved Sokol 
type, with a displacement of 350 tons and a speed of 24 knots. All 
of these boats carry two torpedo tubes of a 1913-14 design, two 75- 
mm. and one 57-mm. antiaircraft guns. They are fitted for carrying 
20 anchored and 45 floating mines. The fourth boat is the small 
Letchnik, of 90 tons, carrying one 75-mm. and one 47 47-mm. gun, and 
having a speed of 17 knots. All of these boats have been engaged in 
dispatch service around the Black Sea between signal stations. They 
are also engaged as school ships in training seamen for service on 
the larger ships which are now building or being repaired at 
Nickolief. 

There are 32 subchasers, 28 of them being of the American type. 
These 28 carry one 47-mm. and one 37-mm. gun and one machine gun 



62 

and have a speed of about 20 knots and are capable of carrying and 
launching 8 floating mines. They do not operate farther than 120 
miles from their base. There are 4 subchasers of the Speedy type, 
carrying one Whitehead torpedo on the stern and capable of 35 knots 
speed. The Soviets have intended to increase the number in the 
Black Sea by bringing additional ones from Arkangel and Petro- 
grad, but as yet these have not arrived. 

There are several mine sweepers, of a speed of 10 to 13 knots, car- 
rying one 47-mm. and one machine gun. They are also equipped for 
laying 4 anchored mines or 7 floating mines each. 

The motor mine barge Mina has a speed of 7 to 8 knots and can 
transport 80 anchored mines and 200 floating ones. At Sevastopol 
there are at present, in good order, all of the wire nets and equip- 
ment necessary for laying such obstructions in the sea area of Sevas- 
topol. These were constructed in 1916. 

The following ships are being constructed or repaired in the Black 
Sea ports: 

At Nickolief there is the cruiser formerly named the NakMmoff, 
which is of the type of the Wiedaden and which is now about 95 
per cent completed. She is waiting for her armament, and it is 
expected that she will be able to make 29 knots speed. The two tur- 
bine-driven destroyers Levkos and Korfu are in a very poor condi- 
tion. At the beginning of this autumn, repairs were being made to 
the docks at Nickolief but that has been stopped and the workmen 
diverted to making munitions for the Turks. 

At Sevastopol there is the cruiser Pamiat Mercouria and the 
destroyer Zante (of the type of the Novik). On the cruiser the 
main engine cylinders are being replaced by those from the cruiser 
Bogatir or from the Oleg. This cruiser will also be fitted for carry- 
ing and laying mines. On the Zante the 6-inch guns are being re- 
placed by 130 millimeter, 60-caliber guns. Work is progressing very 
slowly, due to the fact that most of the workmen are engaged in 
the manufacture of mine parts and anchors at the works of Troet- 
skaya Balka, where they are being made for the Anatolian ports. 

In addition to the above naval ships, in case of a mobilization, 
there are six large motor barges that would be requisitioned by the 
Black Sea Fleet from the volunteer fleet or from their owners. These 
are of the type of LPD 4 and are numbered as follows : 413 to 4^8, 
inclusive. All of these craft were built at Nickoliev in 1916, displace 
2,000 tons, have two 350-horsepower oil engines with a speed of 10 
knots, and draw 8 feet of water. In case of war they would be 
armed at Nickolief and Sevastopol in about three weeks with two 
130-mm., 60-caliber, one 75-mm., and two 57-mm. guns, and equipped 
with 2^-kilowatt radio plant. They would be used as gunboats, as 
troop transports, or as mine sweepers. They can carry one infantry 



63 

battalion in full equipment or 300 mines in the holds and 60 on 
deck. They are equipped also for sweeping mines and for towing. 

Icebreaker No. 4- with a tonnage of 1,000, develops 2,000 horse- 
power, has a speed of 16 knots, 18 feet draft, has a 2|-kilowatt radio 
outfit, and mounts one 130-mm., one 100-mm., and four 57-mm. guns. 

Also there are six steam river gunboats, with a speed of 10 knots, 
displacing 2,000 tons, and mounting two 6-inch and .two 57-mm. 
guns. These boats rendered good service for the Bolsheviks during the 
civil war, and they are paying especial attention to them now, looking 
to them for hard service in case of war with Rumania. They are kept 
in the mouths of the rivers near Odessa. The equipment and stores for 
these boats are kept in Sevastopol, Nickolief, Kertsh, and Mariouple. 

The " Volunteer Fleet " at time of mobilization must further pro- 
vide 25 steam and 22 motor mine layers and sweepers. Most of 
these are river boats on the Boug, Denieper, and Don Rivers. The 
armament, according to the size of the ship, will consist of one 6- 
inch, 45-caliber gun, or one 75-mm. and one 47-mm. gun, or one 
57-mm. gun. Altogether they are capable of handling 1,000 anchored 
mines and 1,400 floating mines. 

All of the merchant ships are under the control of the " Water Trans- 
port of the Black Sea." The following is the list of Soviet ships in the 
Black Sea to-day that could be used as transports in case of war: 



Name. 



Capacity 
in pouds. 



Capacity 
in men. 



Capacity 
in horses. 



Ai-Petri 

Alexandra 

Aloushta 

Amalia 

Aiou-Dagh 

Vania 

Victor 

Vosroshoenie 

Volodia 

Vietche 

Gourzouf 

Dimitry 

Lelia 

Peter 

Former Prince of Oldenbourg. 

Prorok Iona 

Elbrous 

Pestel 

Poty 

Dsershinsky 

Souvorof 

Nestor Letopiset's 

Tchervonna Ukraina 

Azov 

Anna 

Babonshka 

Dogmara 

Ilia Morosov : 

Pantikopeia 

Guiponis 

Gucorgii 

Ioupiter 

LPD 413 

LPD 414 

LPD 415 

LPD 416 

LPD 417 

LPD 418 



60,000 

150,000 

6,000 

25,000 

60,000 

25,000 

30,000 

30,000 

10,000 

120,000 

2,000 

30,000 

40,000 

10,000 

40,000 

20,000 

50,000 

60,000 

70,000 

5,000 

6,000 

7,000 

5,000 

3,000 

1,500 

2,000 

6,000 

15,000 

25, 000 

15,000 

25, 000 

2,000 



20,000 



1,000 

2,000 
250 
800 

1,000 
800 
600 

1,000 
300 

2,500 
250 

1,100 
400 
500 

1,800 
400 
200 

1,200 

1,800 
400 
400 
500 
600 
300 
300 
300 
200 
200 
400 
300 
600 
500 



1,000 



120 
180 



120 



50 
60 



200 



50 

50 

50 

100 

50 

120 

100 

100 

50 

50 

60 

60 

50 

50 

60 



50 



50 



20 



Total . 



1,072,000 



29,600 



1,950 



(54 

At present, the Black Sea fleet is well supplied with mines and 
ammunition, which munitions are stored at Soukharnaya Balka, near 
Sevastopol. The recent gun-target practice in the Gulf of Tendra 
gave very poor results, but the mining practice, both laying and 
sweeping, was comparatively good. The quantity of submarine nets 
and their accessories are quite sufficient also. At Sevastopol there 
are net outfits for the barge Mina and the ships Danube, Poty, Ai- 
Petri, Elbrous, and Aiou-Dagh. The submarine practice held in the 
Gulf of Tenclra also gave good results. The majority of the crews of 
the U-boats have been in them for a long time and the commanders 
are mostly specialists in their line. The best U-boat commander in 
the Black Sea fleet is ex-Captain Yahktin. 

The air service of the fleet is in a very bad condition. There is one 
brigade consisting of four detachments, each detachment supposedly 
consisting of 6 to 8 seaplanes of a German type FG. But in Sevasto- 
pol there are 6 planes; Odessa, I; Xovorossisk, 2; and Kertch, 2. It 
is intended to form detachments in Soukoum and Batoum, but as yet 
this has not been clone. There have been reports received that ex- 
periments have been carried out on Lake Ladoga with torpedo planes, 
using Whitehead torpedoes, and that a detachment of these planes 
was to be sent to the Black Sea, but this has not yet been confirmed. 

The main operating base of the Black Sea fleet is at Sevastopol, and 
the main repair base at Nickolief. Auxiliary bases are at Xovoros- 
sisk, Odessa, Kertch, and Touapse (which has the workshops of the 
Touapse- Armavir railroad). These bases can supply water and fuel 
and give a shelter. At Nickolief three plants are in operation — 
No vat, Russoud, and Bemsoud — employing about 4,000 men (1,500 
being specialists) . The director of these works is the former assistant 
director of the Baltic Shipbuilding Works — Engineer Gordenin. 
The stores at Sevastopol at present amount to not more than 200,000 
pouds of coal and 5,000 pouds of oil. 

In command of the fleet is the chief of sea forces, who is a mem- 
ber of the revolutionary committee of the fleet and under the juris- 
diction of the committee. This chief of sea forces is also under the 
navy commissariat of the Republic (a member of the revolutionary 
war committee) and in the matter of operations, he is under the 
commander in chief of the Ukraine. This chief of the sea forces is 
in control of all the ships, air forces, and coastal signal stations. 
He has under him a chief of the ports, who is responsible for all 
supplies, personnel quartered on shore, workshops, and repair bases. 
Up to the present this chief of the sea forces is former Lieutenant 
Pantsourshevsky. He is of very ordinary caliber, and is soon to be 
replaced by Captain Vakhtin or Bartenev (gunnery specialist). 
Vakhtin is a very efficient and energetic naval officer. The majority 
of the officers of the fleet are former Czarist officers. 



65 

The enlisted personnel has deteriorated greatly since the demobi- 
lization, but many intelligent men are willing to enter the fleet, 
either to obtain food or to escape the army service. Intoxication has 
spread very greatly. Clothing and food issues are fairly satisfac- 
tory, the ration being about what it was before the revolution. Po- 
litical propaganda is not very popular among the sailors, and they 
are often driven to the meetings of the revolutionary societies. 



RUSSIA. 

EVIDENCES OF IMPROVED CONDITIONS. 
1 December, 1922. 

CHEERFUL NEWS FROM RUSSIA. 

Travelers in and' out of Russia are still so few as to make any first-hand 
evidence of the changing conditions there interesting. One of the Friends' 
relief workers (the London correspondent of the Manchester Guardian) was 
able to see for himself as he traveled about between the famine districts and 
the great cities how much things are changed between the visit he has just 
made and his last visit a year ago. 

His report is cheerful, as showing that Russia is rapidly becoming herself 
in many ways, since the iron doctrine of communism began to weigh less heav- 
ily on the people. He was struck by the improvement in transport, which is 
all-important in Russia. Last year the railway junctions were everywhere 
crowded with worn-out or damaged engines which could not be repaired. The 
noticeable thing now on the lines is the number of new German and Swedish 
engines, which have been bought during the last few months. There has been 
a very great increase, due, it is said, to a large purchase in Leeds, of oil trucks 
distributing the Baku oil throughout Russia. 

The train service generally is very much better. There are now, for in- 
stance, tbree trains a day between Moscow and Petrograd, and the journey 
from' Moscow to the Volga takes 3 days, instead of 10. Last year very few 
shops were open in Moscow ; now they are nearly all reopened, and anyone 
can open a shop without restrictions. 

The Russian owners of mills and factories are getting their property back 
from the government. My informant heard of a Moscow mill owner who last 
year was reduced to receiving food packets from his relatives outside of 
Russia through the American Relief Administration. He has written to say that 
he has received his mills back from the government and can buy anything 
that he needs. 

More private cars are seen about the streets, horses look in better condi- 
tion, and a beginning is being made in Moscow at repairing and repainting the 
dilapidated buildings. The trams are no longer restricted to the workers. 

Referring to the above item, I talked with passengers recently 
arrived in China from Moscow via the Trans-Siberian Railway. The 
statement was made and is undoubtedly correct that the Trans- 
Siberian Railway is now running with fair regularity and the trip 



. 66 

from Moscow to Harbin is made in 14 clays, and that passengers come 
across in that time. It is probable, however, that passengers of other 
nationalities; than Russian would have difficulties with passports, 
which would make the trip longer for them. 

The train service is said to be excellent as regards equipment, 
general track conditions, and service, and the assertion was made by 
a Russian lady that the third-class accommodations of the Trans- 
Siberian Railway equal the first-class arrangements on the Peking- 
Mukden line. The cost of a third-class ticket from Moscow to Harbin 
was given at 65 yen. 

It was further asserted that the service between Moscow and Har- 
bin would soon be a 10-day service with train running at least once 
a week. 

It was further reported by these passengers that the present condi- 
tions in Russia are much improved and that in Moscow conditions are 
like those of 1914. Supplies of all kinds are said to be plentiful and 
most luxuries can be obtained and the jewelry stores find a ready sale 
for diamonds. 



RUSSIA. 

NOTES ON ARMY AND NAVY. 
7 December, 1922. 

Recent newspaper reports state that Trotsky is extending the or- 
ganization of the armored trains in the Soviet Army. According to 
his recent orders one section of armored trains will consist of two 
light and one heavy train. The armament of a light train will con- 
sist of 12 Maxim or Vickers machine guns; that of the heavy train 
will consist of six 15 cm. howitzers and six machine guns. One 
motor division and one auxiliary detachment will be assigned to each 
brigade of these troops. The brigades have been distributed since 
April 1 as follows : 

1st Brigade at Pskow. 

2nd Brigade at Bologoje. 

3rd Brigade at Petrograd. 

4th Brigade at Petrograd. 

5th Brigade at Wjasma. 

6th and 7th Brigades at Oranienbaum. 

8th Brigade at Brjansk. 

9th Brigade at Grjasy. 

10th at Zarizyn. 

11th at Jekaterinoslaw. 

12th at Konatop. 

13th at Tichoretzk. 

14th at Snamemka. 

15th at Odessa. 

16th at Tiflis. 



67 

> 

A further report states that after a recent inspection of the Black 
Sea fleet by Trotsky, the latter stated that conditions in the fleet 
were very bad. There is a great scarcity of clothing and shoes for 
the men. There is no bed linen nor covering available for the men, 
and they have to sleep in their clothing and cover themselves with 
their overcoats at night. 



RUSSIA. 

OBSERVATIONS UPON CONDITIONS IN KAMTCHATKA. 

August, 1922. 

Note. — The following extracts are from the report of an officer who accom- 
panied a recent Government commission to the Orient. 

The U. S. Coast Guard cutter Mojave was placed at the disposition 
of our party. I was put ashore at Petropavlovsk, Kamtchatka, 
August 10, 1922, where I had arranged to return to Alaska on the 
Mazatlan, a trading vessel chartered by Olaf Swenson & Co., of 
Seattle, and then at Okhotsk. After the departure of the Mojave, 
word was received that the Mazatlan would be delayed a month or 
so. I was refused transportation upon a Japanese transport bound 
for Hakodate. The reason alleged was " No room." The Russians 
offered to take me on their gunboat Magnete and drop me off at 
Nome after taking possession of Anadyr, but their movements were 
so uncertain I declined. I finally got away on August 27, 1922, on 
the Japanese tramp Inabasan Maru, bound for Hakodate, and 
returned to Juneau only two weeks later than originally planned. 

During the two weeks that I remained in Petroplavlovsk and 
vicinity I had an opportunity to observe the operations of the Rus- 
sians and to learn something of living conditions on the Kamtchatka 
Peninsula. I obtained a Kamtchadahl guide and made a 90-mile 
trip on horseback into the hinterland, visiting Zavoika, Paratunka 
Hot Springs, and intermediate villages. 

My itinerary: Juneau, Cordova, Chitina, Fairbanks, Nenana, 
Anchorage, Seward, Karluk, Chignik, Kings Cove, Ikatan, False 
Pass, Akutan, Unalaska, Dutch Harbor, St. George Island, St. Paul 
Island, Nome, Emma Harbor, Anadyr, Dutch Harbor, Komandorski 
Islands, Petropavlovsk, Zavoika, Paratunka, Petropavlovsk, Hako- 
date, Aomori, Tokyo, Yokohama, Seattle, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, 
Ketchikan, and Juneau. 

At the time of my visit the Far Eastern Republic or Chita Gov- 
ernment originally organized as a buffer State between Soviet 
Russia and Japan, nominally controlled the three Provinces of 
eastern Siberia, namely, Transbaikalia, Amur, and the Maritime 



. 68 

< 

Province, with an aggregate area of 659,000 square miles, slightly 
larger than Alaska (590,000 square miles). Actually the Maritime 
Province, 266,000 square miles in area, had defected from the Ee- 
public in May, 1921, and was controlled by a secessionist govern- 
ment set up in Vladivostok. This " White " government of Vladi- 
vostok controlled Petropavlovsk and was attempting to extend its 
influence eastward as far as East Cape. Having finally secured coal, 
the " White " gunboat Magnete did finally get away and took pos- 
session of Anadyr late in the fall. 

Alaska occupies a very favorable position from which to engage 
in the Siberian trade. From Nome or Unalaska (Dutch Harbor) 
to Petropavlovsk is about 1,300 miles; from Petropavlovsk to Hako- 
date is 1,100 miles, and to Yokohama is 1,700 miles; from Yokohama 
to Nagasaki is 700 miles: from Unalaska to Seattle is 1.700 miles. 
All of Siberia from Kamtchatka north is nearer to Alaska than it 
is to Japan. Japan extends for a great distance along the coast of 
Asia. From Hakodate in the north to Nagasaki in the south of the 
main group of islands is 1,250 miles: while from the northern end 
of the Kuriles or of Saghalien to Formosa is nearlv 3,000 miles. 

Kamtchatka, in contrast with western Alaska or northwestern 
Siberia, is well wooded, there is no frozen ground, and cattle, horses, 
pigs, fowls, etc., are plentiful. The land is excellent for agricul- 
tural purposes. Considerable agricultural development has taken 
place. But the Kamtchadahl is not much of a worker, not only 
because of the unsettled political situation which, after all, affects 
the interior native to a very small extent, but also because he can 
catch enough fish (salmon) in a few days in the summer to keep 
him all winter, and by trapping two or three sables in the winter he 
can trade the skins for enough flour, sugar, cloth, and other trade 
goods to supply his other wants. Traders were paying as high as 
$125 cash for the best sable skins. 

The principal traders operating in Kamtchatka and the Okhotsk 
Sea were the following: 

Olaf Swenson & Co., American, Seattle; from the Kolyma Eiver 
on the north coast of Siberia around to Okhotsk on the Okhotsk Sea. 

Denbigh & Co., British; Hakodate. Kamtchatka, and Okhotsk Sea. 

Seidenberg & Wittenberg, American, Seattle and Nome; Kam- 
tchatka and Okhotsk Sea. 

Hudson Bay Co., British: same area as Swenson. 

The Kamtchatka Peninsula is about 700 miles long and has an 
average width of 200 miles. It is thus about three times the size 
of the State of Pennsylvania or about the size of Japan. It is very 
sparsely settled. The principal activities at present are stock rais- 
ing, fishing, and trapping. There is no mining. 



69 

I was surprised to find the extent to which the old Imperial Russian 
Government had extended its control to these far eastern and quite 
isolated points. At Petropavlovak there is a fine radio station, with 
high steel towers. There were Government school buildings, a bank, 
a complete battalion army post, and two large groups of buildings 
for the governor and his staff. All buildings were very substantially 
built of wood and were in a good state of preservation. There were 
three monuments, commemorating battles or sieges in which the city 
has figured, one a very elaborate mausoleum with bronze tablets in 
memory of British, French, and Russian sailors and soldiers killed 
there. Another monument commemorated the Bering expedition. 

A 165-mile road extends from Petropavlovak over into the 
Kamtehatka River Valley. The Kamtchatka River is then naviga- 
ble for river boats for about 200 miles to its mouth at Usk-Kam- 
tchatsk. A branch road extends across the peninsula to Bolsherevsk, 
on the Okhotsk Sea. Government telegraph and telephone lines 
extend all over the peninsula. The roads were originally passable 
for the light Russian (narrow gauge) wagons, but many of the 
bridges are now broken down. General repairs are badly needed 
throughout. A flivver could get as far as Zavoika, 19 miles out of 
Petropavlovsk, but there are at present no cars in Kamtchatka. 
Along the Kamtchatka River are a number of trading posts and 
fishing camps. 

When I arrived at Petropavlovsk the district was under the charge 
of a civilian governor, Berich, an ineffective individual, who seemed 
to fear assassination more than anything else. Liquor was abundant, 
the soldiers out of control, and brawls and shooting scrapes of almost 
nightly occurrence. The traders were requisitioned for rifles and 
ammunition, and later the soldiers would sell back these same rifles 
and ammunition, and in one case that came to my notice presented 
a permit from Berich authorizing the sale. One of the traders 
cabled to the States to cancel an order for rifles and ammunition, and 
the censor would not let the message go through, because he said the 
governor wanted the rifles. A few days before I left, Berich was 
replaced by a naval officer from Vladivostok and a stop put to all 
disorder. The soldiers were equipped with military rifles and the 
sporting rifles all turned in. Additional soldiers and sailors were 
brought from Vladivostok, as well as coal, flour, rice, and other sup- 
plies. A noticeable improvement in conditions immediately resulted. 
The first Sunday after the arrival of the new governor all the troops, 
five companies, were paraded and then marched to high mass (Greek 
Catholic). 

The soldiers and sailors were all well dressed and well fed. Their 
uniforms were of good cloth and new looking, their boots, leather 
belts, caps, and other accoutrements of real leather, and sufficient 



70 

gasoline was always on hand to run the official launches. Of course, 
hardly any two soldiers or officers wore the same uniform, nor did 
there seem to be any uniformity in the many colored stripes and 
patches on shoulder straps and collars. Some of the sailors wore 
high leather boots. Many officers and men of both the army and 
navy were wearing one of the Tsar's decorations for service in the 
World War. 

Petropavlovsk is a city of about 1,200 people, of whom about 350 
seemed to be on the Government pay roll, or at least holding Gov- 
ernment jobs and drawing Government rations. I do not think there 
was any pay roll, but the ration allowance seemed to be liberal. Jap- 
anese (and Korean) paper money was used exclusively. A yen was 
worth 50 cents in United States gold. The exchange fluctuates around 
49 cents. The Russians usually counted in rubles, but used a yen as a 
ruble. All Russian paper money of all issues is valueless and out of 
circulation in eastern Siberia. Russian 5-ruble gold coins were still 
in circulation and, of course, worth face value (about $2.53) and 
counted as yen. 

The Government in payment for supplies requisitioned from the 
traders gives checks on the Government bank in which there is no 
money. These checks were deposited and a regular account kept in 
which the bank money was spoken of as " wooden rubles." When- 
ever import, income, trade license, or other taxes are due, the trader 
then gives the Government a check against his wooden ruble account 
in the bank. If the trader can do enough business with outsiders to 
pay more in taxes than the Government requisitions in supplies, he 
can turn his trade goods and his wooden rubles into real money or 
furs. Needless to say, the Government always keeps somewhat 
ahead, but not enough ahead to discourage the trader, who besides is 
tied up with long credits in the fur trade, etc. 

A regular mail boat, the Kobe Maru, operates between Hakodate 
and Kamtchatka points on about a monthly schedule. Trading ves- 
sels not on regular schedules were coming and going continuously. 
The Sechan, a Russian vessel of the former volunteer fleet, brought 
600 tons of coal and an abundance of supplies of all kinds with the 
new governor from Vladivostok. It was generally understood that 
Vladivostok could not hold out against the Chita Government after 
the Japanese effected their evacuation in October. The " whites " 
were planning to move their headquarters from Vladivostok to 
Petropavlovsk, where they could probably hold out till spring, and 
many things might happen during the interim. While I was there 
the Japanese cruiser Niitaga was sunk with all on board (about 385 
officers and sailors drowned) by a typhoon, and one of the two de- 
stroyers in the harbor of Petropavlovsk went aground. 

The city has no light plant, water system, nor paved streets. Bar- 
rel carts deliver water daily. There is a municipal bathhouse and a 



71 

theater. The houses are of wood and very strongly built with dou- 
ble windows. Cattle and pigs were very plentiful and were let run 
loose in the streets. 

There was a Japanese consul and a Swedish vice consul. An 
American vice consul had been transferred from Batavia and was 
on his way north, but had stopped off at Okhotsk to investigate con- 
ditions in the mining district to which a number of Americans had 
stampeded in the spring. A Swedish scientific expedition had been 
working on the peninsula for several years and expected to remain 
for another year. Upon landing I was required to register with the 
chief of police and to get his permission to ride into the back country, 
though 2 miles out of town I passed into the enemy's lines. 

I visited the following villages on my horseback trip : 

Saraglaskij 3 miles north of Petropavlovsk on Avacha Bay; popu- 
lation 200 ; fishing village ; gardens ; live stock. 

Avacha, 10 miles north of Petropavlovsk, near mouth of Avacha 
River ; population 150 ; some agriculture. 

Zavoika, 19 miles north of Petropavlovsk on Avacha River, west 
bank ; road from Petropavlovsk arrives on east bank ; river not ford- 
able ; crossed by boat ; horses swam ; population 200 ; fishing village ; 
big run of salmon in river ; native trap very ingenious ; good agricul- 
tural development; abundance of horses, cattle, and fowls. 

Hooter, 4 miles south of Zavoika on west bank of Avacha River, 
head of launch navigation in dry weather ; 6 houses ; agriculture. 

Nikolaievsk, 11 miles southwest of Zavoika; agricultural village; 
10 houses; counted 85 cattle, possibly 15 horses. 

Mikija, 15 miles southwest of Zavoika; 6 houses. 

Paratunka, 20 miles southwest of Zavoika on Paratunka River, 
about 8 miles above mouth on northwest side of Avacha Bay; hot 
springs and bathhouses; 20 houses; counted 35 cattle. 

The main road from Petropavlovsk to the Kamtchatka River Val- 
ley in general follows the telegraph line. The distances in versts are: 

Versts. 

Petropavlovsk to Zavoika 28 

Zavoika to Nachikee , 58 

Nachikee to Kamtchatka River 145 

Side road from Zavoika to Paratunka 30 

Side road from Nachikee to Bolsherevsk * 120 



RUSSIA. 

REPORTED GERMAN AID IN RECONSTRUCTING BLACK SEA 

FLEET. 

21 December, 1922. 

The following report was obtained from a Russian whose informa- 
tion in the past has proved reliable : 

Early in June of 1922 Soviet Russia concluded an additional secret treaty 
with Germany in regard to regeneration with German help of the Soviet Baltic 



72 

and Black Sea Fleets. According to the details of this agreement all work 
of restoration of Soviet sea power was transferred to the hands of a special 
commission detailed by the German navy staff. The Red Council of Labor 
and Defense provided that the program must consist in gradual issue of new 
ships which qualitatively and numerically will replace all ships destroyed 
during the war and revolution. The ships to be built must be in type similar 
to the lost ones. 

German special commission found this solution of the problem of restoring 
Russia's sea power highly unsatisfactory and the project was turned down. 
The following considerations were submitted by German commission : 

Lack of financial resources, materials, shipbuilding yards, and qualified labor 
will delay the program of Labor and Defense Council providing large number 
of new battleships and battle cruisers taking many years, thus making the 
program valueless as the Soviet Fleet will be unable to take part in the next 
war. Consequently there is no use of building new warships like battleships 
and battle cruisers. The program does not answer interests of Soviet Russia, 
and is out of question at present. 

Instead of this the German commission has presented its own project, sug- 
gested by German navy staff, approved by all German naval specialists, 
which calls for the intensive construction of a large number of submarines 
and a small number of destroyers. The new battleships should not be con- 
structed at all. The work on the ships, construction of which is now in 
progress, should be continued on. 

According to originators of this project, Soviet Russia could quickly and 
without appreciable expenses build powerful flotilla of submarines which 
will enable Soviet Russia to defend her coast line threatened by enemies' fleets, 
as well as conduct active operations against hostile fleets. Technically this 
project, presenting no difficulties, could be achieved in shortest period possible, 
because submarine building facilities of Germany highly developed during the 
war were left practically intact. There is abundance of constructive materials 
for submarine building as well as highly trained bodies of. experienced workers 
and specialists. 

As soon as German program was accepted by the Council of Labor and De- 
fense, Soviet Government concluded a secret treaty with Germany. Germans 
insisted that owing to very complicated and threatening situation in Near East 
the construction of Black Sea Fleet should be put foremost. The plans pro- 
vided for construction of sufficient number of submarines necessary for closing 
down Bosporus, paralyzing enemy's fleet, and preventing its passage into Black 
Sea. The minimum number of submarines was put at 24, which in future 
should be raised to 56 for Black Sea. In order to achieve this program Soviet 
Government has transferred to Germans Nikolaeff Navy Yard. 

Immediately upon arrival at Nikolaev German commission began organization 
of submarine construction. Big plants of Naval Rassul and Remsud. with 
4,000 workers (1,000 skilled labor), were put in operation. Ten per cent of 
workers are German instructors imported from Germany. Well-known navy 
specialist-engineer Gardenin is supervising the work of all three plants. Rus- 
sian workers get their wages in kind and paper currency, while Germans get 
theirs in gold rubles. Germans have suppressed all communist propaganda, re- 
placing it by Nationalist propaganda. The workers are taught that in building 
Russian navy they are uplifting Russia as a sea power which will lead to their 
own happiness and assure their personal welfare. The 8-hour work day does 
not exist any more. The workers work overtime and work usually 10 to 12 
hours daily. 



73 

At present Nikolaev Navy Yard is engaged in completing cruiser Nakhvmov 
and destroyers Korfu and Lcukos. It is probable that the name of Nalchimov 
will be changed to .Mustafa Kemal Pascha. 

Extensive repair work is going on on six gunboats of Epidifor type. The 
guns were removed and are kept at Nikolaev navy base to be ready in case of 
general mobilization. 

So far Germans succeeded in launching at Nikolaeff four submarines of 
American type A. G. — 23, 24, 25, and 26. They are brought to Nikolaeff in parts 
from Baltijsky Ship Building Yard and assembled by Nikolaeff Navy Yard. 
Repairs were completed on old submarine Nerpa. 

Chief of submarine division is Captain of the First Rank Vakhtin. 

First consignment of submarine parts of mixed type has already arrived at 
Nikolaeff from Germany. Storage batteries for this party were sent from Bal- 
tijsky yard. The batteries were taken off old Russian submarines. 

It is expected that by new year Nikolaeff Navy Yard will launch six other 
submarines. 

Simultaneously with the work of assembling the submarines sent from Ger- 
many the yard has laid the keels of two new submarines and one destroyer. 



SPAIN. 

POPULAR UNREST. 
12 December, 1922. 



The situation in Spain to-day is not unlike that following the war 
with the United States in 1898. In reading over the history of those 
times one is struck by the similarity, the same political unrest, and 
popular demands that the responsibility be fixed and someone pun- 
ished for the gross mismanagement of colonial and military affairs. 
Only in 1899 it soon became evident that the country was really 
benefited by the loss of her colonies, and the indignation soon sub- 
sided, while to-day Morocco is still a burning question, many lives 
have been lost, and unless some reforms are made more men and 
money are likely to be sacrificed, and the problem is still far from a 
solution. 

The Spanish people are notoriously patient and long-suffering, but. 
the spirit of discontent among the masses is increasing to an extent 
that may become alarming. They know that something is radically 
wrong, and being unable to place the blame definitely on any one else, 
a strong feeling against the King and the monarchy is developing. 
The "man in the street" is convinced that the King personally or- 
dered the advance of the army in Morocco which led to the disaster, 
and that he should therefore be held responsible. Although this has 
been officially denied, no convincing evidence has been produced to 
substantiate the denial, so it would seem as if the belief may have 
some foundation. 



74 

On Sunday last a lar'ge popular demonstration was held in the 
streets of Madrid to demand that the responsibilities be fixed. Many 
prominent citizens took part and there was no disorder. 



SPAIN. 

POLITICAL UNREST DUE TO INVESTIGATIONS OF MOROCCAN 

DISASTER. 

5 December, 1922. 

The recent developments in Greece have created a great deal of 
interest in Spain. The execution of those found by court-martial 
to have been responsible for the disaster to the Greek Army has 
been the subject for much comment in the press in connection with 
the present discussion and investigation of responsibility for the 
rout of the Spanish Moroccan Army. As a general rule, foreign 
affairs receive very little attention from the Spanish people, whose 
interests are almost entirely local. So the present agitation may be 
rather significant. The Correspondencia Militar, the paper which 
voices the opinions in military circles, has been very forceful in 
demanding that if the military leaders are to be punished for the 
disaster to the Spanish Army, the Government officials in power at 
the time should bear their share of the responsibility, and should 
be punished too. The Senate has reported in favor of turning over 
General Berenguer for trial by court-martial. As a Senator, he is 
immune from trial, without the consent of that body. The ministers 
of the Government of Allendesalazar, who was prime minister before 
the disaster occurred, are also accused of responsibility. As a result, 
two members of the present Government, who were also in the 
cabinet of Allendesalazar, have resigned. The other ministers 
offered their resignations at the same time, but as the king expressed 
his entire confidence in the Government, the resignations were with- 
drawn and the crisis averted. 

The recent rise of the Fascisti to power in Italy has also created 
unusual interest in military circles. The Spanish Army has a large 
and powerful political organization which has probably not lost 
much power by the official abolishment of the " Juntas " ; they are 
always an important factor to be considered. Unlike the Fascisti, 
however, the Spanish military part}^ lacks leaders of energy and 
ability; so there is little probability of any drastic action, though 
the political unrest has increased to a marked degree. There is an 
insistent demand from all quarters that all those who are to blame 
for the inefficiency of the army and the Government, which resulted 
in the loss of thousands of lives, should be punished and that definite 



75 

steps should be taken to reform the existing conditions. Each 
political leader places the blame on a different party, and, as the 
mismanagement of Moroccan affairs has extended over the past 10 
years, during which time many different factions have been in con- 
trol of the Government, the situation is decidedly complicated and 
confused. 



TURKEY. 

CONTRASTING EXPERIENCES OF TWO PARTIES OF REFUGEES. 

November, 1922. 

Note. — These two reports are from neighboring operating areas of the Near 
East Relief. 

1. On November 19 there arrived at Ceasarea 700 Greeks, mostly women 
and children, who have been driven by force on foot from the villages near 
Smyrna. Government had given them no food on the way, their condition may 
be judged from the following facts : One of our American women brought 
into our hospital with truck 29 who had fallen on the road and been left to die. 
Of these 2 died before arrival at hospital ; 14 died in the following 10 days. 
They all cried for bread and suffered most terrible pain ; their mouths were 
bleeding, teeth loose, bodies covered with sores, filth, and lice. Of the 700 
who arrived about 10 die daily. This is a direct result of their exposure 
and starvation on the road. We are helping as much as possible. Large 
proportion are going to die. This group was about 4,000 when they were 
driven from their homes after Turkish victory. Men were separated from 
women and children and not heard from since. Over half of the women died 
on the road. We have seen their bodies by the road. The group of which I 
speak is only one of many. 



2. All Armenian orphans have now been removed from Harppot, Malatia, 
Mezra, etc. Fifteen groups of children have been moved and all have reached 
Syria without serious injuries or suffering excepting one lad who came out 
with Mr. Gregory's party who was drowned in a river to which the youngsters 
rushed before proper protection could be afforded. Turkish officials both of 
high and low degree have vied with each other in protecting our folks as they 
have passed through the villages and over the dangerous mountain trails. 
Kindnesses unnumbered have been shown and very few discourtesies, and these 
only near the southern border of Turkey. In one case the villagers crowded 
about and scared some of the girls, although doing none of them any harm. 
Mrs. Kunzler went at once to the village and told the sheik of the annoyance 
and demanded protection. His response was a great oath that he would kill 
the next villager who annoyed any of her people. I do not know whether 
he killed any villager, but I do know that no company passing through that 
village was ever annoyed again. In fact, it was remarked that even the 
children failed to gather around as the caravans passed through the streets. 

Our reports should give high praise to the Turkish officials for their care 
and to the Turkish populace for their considerate treatment. I seriously 
question whether it would be possible to move a group of American colored 
people through several States in the South without more of embarrassment 
and annoyance. 

29148—23 6 



76 
TURKEY. 

PROMINENT PERSONALITIES AT ANGORA. 

16 December, 1922. 

Source: An American who has been negotiating with the Nationalists for 
certain concessions. 

Turkish deputies are paid $120 a month and cabinet officers get $150, so 
these men, who have given up their personal affairs and comfortable homes, are 
not animated by mercenary motives when accepting positions under the Gov- 
ernment. 

Rouf Bey, the Premier and a naval officer by profession, has lived in America 
and England, and besides being a man of broad ideas, energetic, and patriotic, 
has a wonderful personality. I have never heard anyone, no matter what his 
nationality, say a word of criticism about him. 

Feizi Bey. the Minister of Public Works, with whom I have been thrown 
more intimately than the rest, is a man who would stand out prominently in 
any country and any company. He has neglected large personal interests to 
work for his country, is keen, extremely human, and has a rare personal 
magnetism. 

Adnan Bey. vice president of Parliament and practically head of that boly, 
as Mustapha Kemal Pasha only takes the active presidency on special occasions, 
is exceptionally well fitted for such a position. His quiet, even temper har- 
monizes the different elements of Parliament and, if one can say it about a 
man in a complimentary way, he has a lovable character. Although in poor 
health, he sticks to his post where an ordinary man, less patriotic, would leave 
for a more healthful climate, as he can afford to do. His wife is Halide 
Hanoum, a graduate of the American College in Constantinople, and the leading- 
woman in Turkey. Between them they have a marked influence for good in 
their country. 

And so I could go down the list. There is not a weak link in the chain. 
They work together harmoniously and patriotically with two cardinal aims — 
first, that Turks shall be ruled by the Turks, and second, that their country 
shall prosper by every modern and economical means obtainable. The first 
they have practically accomplished against the greatest odds imaginable, and 
the second they will accomplish in just as decisive a manner. 

It is remarkable that Turkey, of all the nations on both sides of the struggle 
that were down to the bitter end of their resources during the Great War and 
as a result of it, was the only one to withstand the temptation to issue unsecured 
paper money. The Nationalists had the power and every excuse for doing 
so, more than any other country, due to their dire need of money, facing an 
invading nation backed by all the power of England. They did not issue one 
pound in Anatolia and the finances of the country are just as they were when 
the armistice was signed. Economists view this situation with wonder and 
admiration, as being almost unparalleled. 

Two weeks after our arrival Mustapha Kemal Pasha returned to the capital 
for the first time since Greek disastrous defeat. He alone had promised the 
ejection of the enemy. Many in Parliament were skeptical and only hoped 
that they would be driven back to Smyrna. By his personality and perfect 
faith that right would win, he carried the weaker characters with him. 

Three temporary triumphal arches were erected over the road from the sta- 
tion to the Parliament building. An automobile was ready to carry him the 



77 

three-quarters of a mile he had to travel, but, refusing the conveyance, he 
walked up the road surrounded by the cabinet and Parliament's reception com- 
mittee and followed by a mob of delirious admirers. 

I stood on the edge of the Parliament grounds and watched the slow-moving 
mass coming from the station with Mustapha Kemal, hardly discernible from 
the rest, saluting the enthusiastic crowds that lined both sides of the road. 

As they slowly approached I tried to picture what his thoughts must be. 
The recent victory was due to his inspiration, and he was returning after ful- 
filling his promises. Would he, as history has recorded in the case of most of 
the great conquerors, with a trained army back of him, take unto himself the 
powers of a dictator or let Turkey retain a constitutional government? I 
answered my own question subsequently. 

Two days later Kemal Pasha made his report to the Parliament personally. 
I was fortunate in obtaining a front seat in the gallery. For the first time I 
saw the Great National Assembly of Turkey. The assembly room is so rela- 
tively small that the deputies must crowd three on a seat designated to accom- 
modate two, in order to permit the attendance of all. 

Regular parliamentary business was carried on under the chairmanship of 
Adnan Bey. During the proceedings Mustapha Kemal Pasha came in quietly 
and squeezed into a seat with two other deputies in the rear. Routine business 
having been finished, Kemal Pasha's report was announced. Everyone stood 
as he made his way through the narrow aisle to the speaker's platform, below 
and in front of the chairman's desk, perched 6 or 8 feet above the floor level. 

Unfortunately I could not understand Turkish and only scraps here and 
there were translated to me. My time, therefore, was spent in studying the 
man himself. Although a marshal, and the ranking officer in Turkey, he wears 
the ordinary calpack used throughout Turkey, although many of his sub- 
ordinates have quite elaborate head coverings. His uniform is the simplest 
imaginable, aud the only insignia of any kind is a piece of maroon velvet, 2 
inches square, sewed on the two corners of his collar and surrounded by a 
narrow gold band with a small star in the center. In appearance he is tall, 
probably 6 feet, well proportioned, lithe, and active. He is only 37 and from 
the platform he looked younger. His hair is light as also his closely trimmed 
mustache. Every line of his face denoted strength, and, when animated, his 
eyes flash fire. His hands are almost as delicately chiseled as those of a 
woman and he uses them with exceptional grace. The Turk in his gestures 
has the forceful and expressive means between the calisthenic motions of the 
Latin races and the utter disuse of hands for expression of the average 
American, and Kemal Pasha has the ability to express a shade of meaning by 
a simple motion of his hand better than anyone I have ever seen. 

He started his speech by thanking Parliament for its support of the army 
and himself. He had promised that the Greeks would be forced out of Ana- 
tolia and this had been accomplished. He regretted the blood that had been 
shed, and to avoid it he had used 'every means known to diplomacy to stop the 
war, but all his efforts had been misconstrued by the enemy as signs of weak- 
ness. He gave the whole credit for the plan of campaign to his chief of staff, 
Feize Pasha, and his praise for the army and its officers was unstinted. With 
great emotion he described the spirit that animiated the officers and men by 
citing the case of his devoted friend Col. Rechad Bey. It seems that Rechad 
Bey was assigned to take a certain hill, in the action against the Greeks, and 
at the time this was scheduled to be accomplished, Mustapha Kemal called him 
on the telephone to learn of his progress. He replied that the hill had not 
been taken as he had not received the expected support of the artillery, but 



• 78 

that he would take it within half an hour. At the end of that time Kemal 
Pasha called up and a note, written a few minutes before by Reehad Bey, was 
read to him. The note stated that he had been unable to keep his promise 
by taking the hill in half an hour he considered it necessary to kill himself. 
Reehad Bey had shot himself immediately after signing the note. The Pasha 
then described in detail the plan and progress of the campaign, referring con- 
stantly to maps in front of him. 

All this was enunciated in a quiet, clear, though penetrating, voice. Toward 
the end, as he suggested plans and hopes for the future, his true oratorical 
powers became evident and the personality that had carried him up to being 
one of the leading characters of the present day was inspiring, even to those 
of us who could not understand the words he uttered. At the close, and at 
his suggestion, everyone rose and, in unison, a solemn prayer for the dead was 
raised to Allah. 

I left Parliament assured that, at last, Turkey had developed a leader in 
every exalted sense of the word, and its constitution was as safe in his hands 
as ours was in those of Lincoln. 



TURKEY. 

REFUGEES FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF ANATOLIA. 

20 December, 1922. 

The information contained in this dispatch was collected by the 
various destroyers of the Naval Detachment in Turkish Waters. 

1. Total evacuation from Smyrna area (ports from Aivali to Alaya) from 
September 14 to October 20, 262,587 ; destination Greek mainland and islands- 
This does not include those who left Smyrna during Greek retreat before entry 
of Turks, perhaps 20,000 ; only minor evacuations from this area since October 
20, perhaps 2,000. From Brousa area 70,000 were evacuated to Rodosto thence 
to Greece. 

2. (a) Entire non-Moslem population of eastern Thrace evacuated by land 
to western Thrace and Bulgaria and from Marmora ports to Greek mainland, 
amounting approximately to 280,000 besides the Brousa refugees referred to 
above. 

(■&) Department from Constantinople of Greeks and Armenians who can 
pay passage is constant, but there has been nothing in the nature of an evacu- 
ation as yet. Estimate of departures to date 50,000. 

3. Refugees awaiting transportation at Anatolian ports according to latest 
reports : At Trebizond, 3000 ; at Samsoum 8,000 with report that arrivals of 
last few days have been at the rate of 500 daily ; at Mersina 6,000 with daily 
arrivals of 1,000; at Aleppo 35,000 coming from Harpout region. 

About 75,000 Greek prisoners of war including detained Greek males are 
destitute in Asia Minor. Impossible to say yet what percentage of 1,300,000 
Christians now in Anatolia will become refugees and destitute as result of 
present exodus. Christians already evacuated from devastated war area, 
where considerable suffering and destitution exists among approximately 
200,000 Moslems. 

Some of these figures are no more than rough estimates. 



79 
TURKEY. 

RELATIONS WITH SOVIET GOVERNMENT. 
7 December, 1922. 

It is stated that the relations between the Government of Angora 
and the Soviet Government have been very strained lately. 

The growing nervousness of the Soviet Government is very ap- 
parent in its notes and official reports. The climax was reached in a 
very energetic note to the Government of Angora, in which Moscow 
requested information regarding the report recently received there 
to the effect that the Government of Angora had recently accorded 
railroad and other concessions to a group of American financiers. 

In this very explicit note the Moscow Government reminded the 
Government of Angora that these concessions affected public inter- 
ests and that, as a matter of fact, no concession could be accorded to 
strangers without considting the Soviet Government, according to 
the terms of Annex 2 of the Russian-Turkish treaty. 

An exceedingly violent discussion took place in the National 
Assembly as the result of this note, and it was the opinion of most 
of the deputies that the Government of Moscow exceeded its priv- 
ileges and that the note in question represented an interference in the 
interior affairs of Angora. 

The brother of Kemal Pasha, Yousouf Pasha, defended the Soviet 
point of view, and as a result was obliged to tender his resignation. 
The Soviet Government, in another note, gave expression to the. 
suspicion that the Government of Angora sympathized with the 
action of Enver Pasha in Georgia, an action directed against the 
Soviets. Public opinion in Asia Minor and Constantinople is very 
much aroused over the concentration of Red troops in the environs 
of Kars, and such concentration is regarded as an expression of dis- 
satisfaction on the part of the Soviets against the Republic of 
Angora and, at the same time, is considered as a menace against the 
sovereignty of Asiatic Turkey. 



TURKEY. 

TURKISH OPINION REGARDING POSSIBLE RUSSIAN ATTACK. 

15 December, 1922. 

It has been learned from a very reliable Russian source that 
Kiasin Kara Bekir, the commander of the Turkish troops assembled 
on the Caucasian front, opposing the Bolsheviks, has stated in the 
Grand National Assembly in Angora that if the Bolshevik troops 
advance on him he will be unable to oppose them. 

The commander in chief of the southern Caucasian army is known 
to be Remizov, and his chief of staff is Vielov. 



80 

NEAR EAST. 

SUMMARY OF MILITARY SITUATION. 
30 December, 1922. 

The reported hasty return of portions of the British Fleet from 
Malta indicates the possibility of a crisis in the military situation 
in the Near East. 

Press reports state that the Greeks are concentrating 30,000 troops 
at Demir Hissar, just south of the Serbian-Macedonian border. 
Along the Maritza River, which forms the boundary between west- 
ern Thrace and eastern Thrace, the Greeks have an army corps con- 
sisting of 18,000 men and at Gumuldjina there is a supporting corps 
of 25,000 men. In addition there are various artillery and cavalry 
units, bringing the total Greek forces in western Thrace up to 45,700. 

There are 7 battalions of Allied troops, about 4,500 men, stationed 
at various points on the western bank of the Maritza River, and in 
eastern Thrace itself the only military forces, so far as known, are 
12,000 men of the Turkish Gendarmerie. The remainder of the 
Allied forces is concentrated in and around Constantinople and on 
both sides of the Dardanelles. The forces at the latter place consist 
of about 9,000 British, while around Constantinople are 7,000 Brit- 
ish, 1,600 French, and 200 Italians. The Allied air force consists 
of about 80 machines, while the naval landing forces available total 
nearly 3,000 at Constantinople and an equal number at the 
Dardanelles. - . 

The only Turkish armed forces on the European side of the 
Dardanelles and the Bosphorus consist of the 12,000 gendarmes (all 
probably well trained and equipped) in eastern Thrace. In western 
Anatolia the Turkish forces are distributed as follows; the figures 
given are combat strength, which is about 60 per cent of the ratio 
strength : 

Ismid Peninsula 15, 000 

Between Ismid and Chanak 14, 000 

Chanak area 11, 000 

Smyrna area 20, 000 

Total (about) 60, 000- 

The concentration of the Greek forces at Demir Hissar, mentioned 
above, may have some connection with the reported concentration 
of a number of Serbian corps just across the frontier, either as a 
precaution against any Serbian attempt to seize Macedonia and an 
outlet to the sea at Saloniki, or to act in conjunction with the Serbs 
in resistance to any Turkish attempt to seize western Thrace. 

o 



CONFIDENTIAL. Division C. 

OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Washington, D. C. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION 
BULLETIN. 



NUMBER 3—1923. 



1 MARCH, 1923. 



DISTRIBUTION: 

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officers of capital ships, the larger patrols, destroyers, and submarines. 



$ 



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GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1923. 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION BULLETIN. 

NUMBER 3—1923—1 MARCH, 1923. 

FOR CONVENIENCE IN ROUTING. 



Officer. 


Initials. 


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(II) 



The material for the Bulletin is largely derived from service sources, and 
its interest and value are correspondingly dependent upon the number and 
character of the reports received by the Office of Naval Intelligence from 
our own officers. In this connection the observations of officers afloat are of 
great value, particularly if the reports rendered are drawn up in accordance 
with existing intelligence instructions. 

A Specimen Harbor Chart is being issued by the Office of Naval Intelli- 
gence, to be used as a model in making reports on foreign ports. The 
information desired is all of great military value and is vital to the success of 
an operation. 

While political and economic information is undoubtedly of great value, 
the collection of military information should come first in the intelligence 
work of cruising ships. This chart will be used in connection with the Title 
Sheet now issued. 

(in) 



CONTENTS. 



GREAT BRITAIN: Page . 

Handley-Page bombing plane 1 

Handley-Page torpedo plane "- 1 

Miscellaneous ordnance notes 2 

New battleships _ 6 

Retirements of commissioned personnel of navy 6 

Sboeburyness Proving Ground 7 

JAPAN: 

Armor-piercing projectiles 14 

Enlisted personnel of navy 14 

111 health of Admiral Kato : '. ! ; 15 

Modernizing vessels to be retained under naval treaty 15 

Naval units in Chinese waters ' 16 

New aircraft for navy 17 

New artillery material 19 

Reduction in naval personnel 21 

Summary of latest available data on light cruisers 21 

Various naval items 22 

FRANCE: 

Army aviation data 23 

Foreign policy 24 

Loss of morale in the army 30 

Naval gun foundry at Ruelle 31 

St. diamond railway mount 34 

Torpedo production 36 

Vessels under construction or appropriated for ?_ 37 

ARGENTINA: 

Army strength and cost compared with Brazil and Chile 39 

Comment regarding United States Naval Mission to Brazil 40 

CHILE: 

Various n'aval notes . 42 

CHINA: 

A visit to General Feng Yu-Hsiang 43 

Attitude expressed by Sun Yat Sen 45 

Conditions at Tsingtao 47 

General political notes 48 

Personal observations of Wu Pei-Fu 50 

ECUADOR: 

Labor conditions 53 

GERMANY: 

Naval strategy in the World War 54 

(v) 



VI 

GREECE: 

Artillery equipment and reorganization 55 

Mobilized strength of army 57 

Relations with British Government 58 

KOREA: 

General conditions 61 

RUSSIA: 

Observations in Odessa 63 

Strength of army 65 

SPAIN: 

Naval building program 67 

Strategic control of the Straits of Morocco 68 

TURKEY: 

Equipment and troops of Nationalist Army 69 

Morale of Turkish Army 71 

LATIN AMERICA: 

The Pan-American Conference 71 

NEAR EAST: 

Military situation in Anatolia and Thrace 73 

EUROPE: 

Discussion of the general situation 74 



Attention of the service is particularly invited to the following articles 
which appear in this month's Bulletin: 

FRANCE: Ppgc 

Foreign policy 24 

EUROPE : 

Discussion of the general situation 74 

(VII) 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

HANDLEY-PAGE BOMBING PLANE. 
8 January, 1923. 

A new nose for the fuselage of the Handley-Page plane has been 
designed embodying novel features. 

Dual control has been provided and either pilot can readily leave 
his control to take up other duties. The rear pilot has additional 
duties as navigator and bomber. When bombing, he takes station 
in the sighting compartment. He is then provided with a sling 
band in which he rests his chest, part of his weight resting with his 
legs and abdomen on the deck. His head and arms are free to move 
as required to set and align the sights and to release the bombs. 
He has an instrument board in front of him, telling him the altitude 
and speed, and is provided with a handwheel on the face of the in- 
strument board, by which he can correct or steady the course by a 
connection to the rudder bar. He has an excellent range ahead, below 
and laterally. Cowling features to prevent the disturbance of wind 
blasts are yet to be determined. The bomb levers are in a handy 
position at the right side of the sighting trap. 

The wind shield of the second cockpit is split, apparently utilizing 
the head of the forward pilot in conjunction with same. 

The chart room is just over the floor of the bomb compartment 
and is provided with a chart board of liberal dimensions and a com- 
pass centrally located in the fuselage. The lower portion of the 
fuselage is cut away so as to shield bombs within the contour of 
the fuselage, and it is intended to stow the bombs with their axes 
horizontal. 

This nose is intended to be used with the W-8 type of Handley- 
Page plane with two Lion engines. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

HANDLEY-PAGE TORPEDO PLANE. 
8 January, 1923. 

On a recent visit to the Handley-Page plant the slotted-wing tor- 
pedo and bombing plane was examined and the arrangement of the 
stove for heating the torpedo was noted. 
32300—23 2 (1) 



Both engine exhaust mufflers are carried down under the wing and 
alongside the torpedo. A portion of the muffler is given a box-shaped 
form, so that one face conforms closely to the contour of the torpedo, 
and this face is provided with shutters, by means of which the exhaust 
blast can be directed on to the face of the air flask of the torpedo to 
the required degree. When these shutters are closed, the exhaust 
passes on to the tail of the mufflers in the usual manner. The tem- 
perature of the air flask is indicated by means of a thermal couple, 
indications of which are available at a suitable point. There was no 
indication of a special means for keeping the oil warm other than that 
involved in the descriptive arrangement. 

While it may mean nothing, the form of the tail of the dummy 
torpedoes may have some significance. Attention is invited to the 
torwardly tapering frustum of a cone beginning at the rear margin 
of the tail vanes. This frustum is a cast-iron addition to the tail of 
the dummy torpedo. It is suggested that the frustum may indicate 
a form of stabilizer for torpedoes to be dropped from aircraft. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

MISCELLANEOUS ORDNANCE NOTES. 
January, 1923. 

SEMIAUTOMATIC ANTIAIRCRAFT .GUXS. 

A very efficient 4".7 semiautomatic antiaircraft gun with 90° 
elevation was observed. The rate of fire of this gun at the highest 
angles, from 80° to 90°, is 10 rounds per minute. When firing at 
lower angles, it varies between 15 and 20 rounds per minute. The 
total weight of the projectile and charge, which is prepared as fixed 
ammunition, is approximately 80 pounds. One officer stated that 
he thought the projectile was 67 pounds in weight. Later, an- 
other officer stated that he believed the projectile was 50 pounds and 
the charge 30 pounds. They both agreed that the total weight of 
projectile and charge was 80 pounds. 

This is the largest semiautomatic antiaircraft gun that the British 
have produced. In reply to an inquiry as to whether these guns 
would be placed upon the two new battleships, informant said 
that they had no information whatsoever concerning the designs of 
the two new battleships. Practicalh' similar comments were made 
with reference to everything touching upon the new ships, except 
the thickness of turret roofs and the caliber of the main battery 
guns for these ships. 



I did not see any 6-inch antiaircraft guns and it was stated that 
none had been tested. It will be recalled that information concern- 
ing the torpedo defense battery of the two new battleships is to the 
effect that it will consist of 6-inch 50-caliber guns mounted in pairs 
in turrets and capable of very high angle elevation for antiaircraft 
work. 

I\I A.TOU-CAI JBEK G V NS. 

It was stated that the subject of gun construction of major-caliber 
guns is " somewhat in the air " at the present time. It appears that 
the naval ordnance people are having the greatest controversy they 
have ever had with reference to the general principle of manufacture 
of major-caliber guns; that is, wire- wound guns vs. built-up guns. 

From what was gleaned from discussion of the subject, the Ad- 
miralty apparently have reached the decision that their 16-inch guns 
to be installed on the two new battleships must be 50 calibers in 
length in order to avoid placing them at a disadvantage as compared 
with other navies. They have accordingly designed 16-inch, 
50-caliber guns, which were stated to be of about 130 tons weight 
and probably would fire a projectile about 2,300 to 2,400 pounds 
weight. It was stated definitely that the Admiralty have not built 
a 16-inch, 50-caliber gun, even for experimental purposes, but that 
the designs have been approved. They are at present lining down 
two 18-inch guns, which were used in monitors during the war, to 
give them a 16-inch, 50-caliber bore, with which they are going to 
conduct experimental firings before building any 16-inch, 50-caliber 
guns. The opinion was stated that the built-up method of manu- 
facturing heavy guns of long caliber was superior to the wire-wound 
method, and that the tendency of the Admiralty's policy at present 
was toward the built-up method. Informant stated that in order to 
get 16-inch, 50-caliber guns, without very excessive droop, he thought 
they would be forced to adopt the built-up method of manufacture. 
Another factor which was stated to carry considerable weight with 
the Admiralty in contemplating the adoption of built-up major- 
caliber guns was the recent extensive investigation and consider- 
ation of the effect of producing initial k ' stresses " or " tensions " in 
guns, together with their investigation of high-tensile steel in gun 
manufacture. 

It was stated that the longest 15-inch guns which have been pro- 
duced by the Admiralty are 15-inch, 45-caliber guns. My informant 
stated that no work is being clone at the present time, so far as he 
knew, with reference to the development of a long-range gun similar 
to that used by the Germans in firing into Paris. (That is, anything 
like a 90-mile gun.) He stated, however, that the ordnance com- 



mittee had recently inquired as to the feasibility of laying out a 
54,000-yard range from Grain Island, which indicated that they had 
under consideration experimental firings up to those ranges, and inti- 
mated that they must he considering that as a maximum range which 
could be produced with the design of gun they were considering for 
the two new battleships.. He said they doubted the value of indirect 
fire in naval battles, employing airplanes for spotting, but that they 
wished to provide for the possibility in designing their new ships. 

It was stated that the only " long "-range gun development which 
had been attempted since the armistice was to line down to 8".2 <»uns 
two major-caliber guns which I think he said were 18-inch ex- 
monitor guns. Serious experimentation was attempted with only one 
of them, which burst during experimental firing. The other was 
never completed. He said he considered the attempt a miserable 
failure. 

RIFLING. 

Practically all British naval guns are now given uniform twist 
rifling. For major-caliber guns it was stated to be about 1 in 30. 
There is one recent design of I". 7 gun which Avas given increased 
tAvist rifling. 

FUSES. 

There were numerous evidences of very extensiA'e experimental 
fuse Avork of all kinds. My informant volunteered the information 
that the standard seiwice base fuse for major-caliber A. P. pro- 
jectiles in use by the seiwice is of the "pellet" type, which he iden- 
tified as No. 10. The delay feature is obtained by a slow-burning 
specially covered pellet. This information, if correct, is interesting. 
On the contrary, others lnwe indicated that the Admiralty have a 
more satisfactory delayed-action fuse. In reply to my inquiry, it 
Avas stated they had never had any ex-German delayed-action fuse 
here, and that to the best of his knowledge the Admiralty had neA T er 
had one. On the other hand, during a recent A-isit to Sheffield. 
I Avas informed that they had had from the Admiralty detailed 
draAvings of the German delayed-action fuse, which had been used in 
the Battle of Jutland. 

My informant stated that the Admiralty delayed-action fuses 
gave good performance Avhen fired at heavy plates at high A T elocities. 
but that when they shifted to fire at a 1-inch plate with the same 
fuse, the performance Avas not good. As an indication of their 
performance at heavy plates, he said that a Aery large percentage 
of them burst between 20 and 40 feet behind the plate, but that every 



now and then they would get one which would go 200 feet before 
bursting. He did not consider the fuse as satisfactory for firing 
at both thick and thin plates. 

They are experimenting with various types of time fuses for anti- 
aircraft purposes. It was noted that the army has recently begun 
extensive experimental firing in laying smoke barrages. 

PROJECTILES. 

The standard 15-inch Hadfield A. P. projectile appears to be con- 
sidered very satisfactory. Only one rotating band is fitted, the rear 
of it being placed 2 inches from the base of the projectile. The band 
is about 4?J to 5 inches in width.. There appeared to be no new 
features in this driving band. 

Two designs of caps are used, one having been developed by. Had- 
fields, which, is almost exactty the same as that fitted to our 16-inch 
projectiles, and the other a sort of " knob "-shaped design, developed 
and patented by Firth. It was stated at the proving ground that 
they had not been able to discover any advantage between the two. 
The designers of the knob type claim as its chief advantage that it 
is superior at plunging fire attack against horizontal armor. 

Many experimental 6-inch projectiles were observed — A. P., H. E., 
and common. All were fitted with single rotating bands, the design 
of bands being varied. The most interesting type seen were fitted 
with a conical cap about two-thirds the normal length of the projec- 
tile. It was stated that these projectiles gave a considerable increase 
in range and Avere exceptionally steady in flight. 

SHELL FILLER. 

In response to an inquiry as to the kind of shell filler now used for 
major caliber A. P. shells, it was stated that "shellite" is used. 
More detailed information was not available. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, that which struck me most forcibly was the exten- 
sive investigation of the velocity and flight of projectiles, and the 
vast amount of experimental fuse work. It may be concluded that 
the Admiralty have not a satisfactory delayed-action fuse for A. P. 
projectiles and that they experience serious difficulty with the 
" wobbling" of major-caliber projectiles. 



6 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

NEW BATTLESHIPS. 
25 January, 1923. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty has announced that the two 
new battleships laid down in December last will be named H. M. S. 
Nelson (builders. Sir W. G. Armstrong-, "Whit worth & Co., Walker- 
on-Tyne) and H. M. S. Rodney (builders. Messrs. Cammell, Laird 
& Co. (Ltd.), Birkenhead). 

Sheffield's share of the work on the two new battleships is pro- 
ceeding apace. The rolling of the armor plate was begun some days 
ago, and yesterday the casting of the ingots for the 16-inch guns was 
started at Tickers (Ltd.). 

The type greatly resemble the American guns of the same caliber, 
and they weigh 130 tons each. They are the largest long-range naval 
guns yet introduced in the British Navy, the previous record being 
the 15-inch guns with which the Hood was equipped during the war. 

Eighteen-inch guns were made, but they were short range, for 
mounting on monitors. 

The armoring will be practically the same, with special heavy 
armor protection for the decks, a precaution based on the experience 
gained at Jutland. They will be equipped with nine 16-inch guns 
each, together with a number of 6-inch and 4-inch T's. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 
RETIREMENTS OF COMMISSIONED PERSONNEL OF NAVY. 

January, 1923. 

There is summarized below recent information regarding the 
weekly commissioned strength of the British Navy. The detailed 
figures of admissions, deaths, dismissals, etc., are not available. 



Retired 
Date. Active list. , during pre- 

vious week. 



18 Dec, 1922 8,605 

24 Dec-., 1922 8, 593 

l Jan., 1923 8, 590 

8 .1 an . , 1923 X. .->39 

15 Jan., 1923 8, 516 



12 
12 
3 
51 
23 



I 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

SHOEBURYNESS PROVING GROUND. 

January, 1923. 

Shoeburyness, which is situated on the Thames Estuary, is the 
principal British proving ground for both the army and the navy. 
The only strictly naval personnel there consists of two commissioned 
officers, who supervise all naval work which is performed by the 
army and civilian personnel. One of these officers has been in 
charge of the naval work at Shoeburyness for over four years, and 
the Admiralty have just decided to continue him permanently on 
that assignment. An arrangement has been made whereby he gets 
the pay and allowances of a captain of the Royal Navy, but he con- 
tinues in his present rank of lieutenant commander and in future 
will not be eligible for oromotion. 

During the war, the proof and other firings amounted to 70,000 
rounds per month, and reached their height during one month at 
90,000. Under normal conditions at Shoeburyness firing over water 
for recover of projectiles can be undertaken only about 50 per cent 
of the days during the month. Fog, rough weather, and unfavor- 
able tide conditions are the principal causes of interference, which 
can not be overcome. There is another serious cause of daily inter- 
ference with the firings, namely, traffic along a road on the beach 
from the mainland to Foulness Island. This road is the only means 
of communication with Foulness Island, and firing along this range 
frequently has to be stopped on account of people passing to and 
fro. In order to obviate this delay, the Admiralty are building a 
bridge across the two creeks separating Foulness Island from the 
mainland. That area over which the firing ranges extend will then 
be declared a prohibited zone for all purposes other than firings. 
This will materially speed up the Avork at the proving ground. 

The principal new work in hand is the construction of a large 
butt for plate testing, experimentation, and development of the 
ITeape-Grylls rapid cinema machine for photographing projectiles 
in flight, and especially during impact and penetration, and perfect- 
ing instruments for measuring the velocity of projectiles. It was 
also stated that much experimental work was being undertaken. 

RANGES. 

When proving-ground firing first began at Shoeburyness, the 
firing was across the mouth of the Thames toward Black-tail Spit. 
As a maximum range of only 6,000 yards could be obtained, and as 
ranges increased, it was necessary to fire in a more northerly di- 



8 

rection, and gradually they have worked around until the ranges are 
now practically all laid out parallel and close to the beach, on the 
Shoeburyness side. From Shoeburyness ranges up to 24,000 yards 
can be obtained for recovery of projectiles. During the latter part 
of the war long-range firing necessitated establishing a battery for 
proof work on Grain Island. Firing for recovery of projectile can 
be conducted from Grain Island up to 34,000 yards on the Maplin 
and Foulness Sands. The Admiralty are now preparing to lay out 
another range from the (Train Island batter} 7 up to 51.000 yards, 
along the Maplin, Foulness, and Gun Fleet Sands, the other end 
of the range being along the Gun Fleet Sands about opposite 
Clacton-on-Sea. Additional observation stations probably will be 
established if sufficient use of this range justifies. 

Along each of these ranges, a beacon is placed at every 1,000-yard 
interval, and a peg is placed at every 50 yards. Each of these range 
lines is accurately laid out by theodolite. The firing is usually con- 
ducted in groups of about 10 shots. Before firing correction is made 
for drift in order that the projectiles will fall as near as possible to 
the pegged range line. 

The new range of 51.000 yards is to be laid out at the request of 
the ordnance committee. 

At Shoeburyness, the towers which hold the velocity screens can 
be used for angles of elevation up to 11°. On Grain Island, the 
velocity towers are higher, about 220 feet. and. can be used for angles 
of elevation up to 20°. 

EAXGE WORK. 

The triangulation devices are of the " window " type. There are 
six observation stations on shore along the range. 2.0(10 yards apart. 
They are placed in a straight line. A seventh observation station 
has been placed on the opposite side of the range in the Maplin 
Lighthouse. 

This window system is used for observing all brings involving 
measuring horizontal angles and also those involving vertical angles. 
except very high vertical angles, in which ca.se the "mirror" type 
is employed. The officer in charge of the naval work stated that 
the window-type observations gave them accuracy to within 1 yard, 
and that they preferred it to any other system they had ever em- 
ployed. It was the only system in use al (be time (be proving 
ground was visited. 

A "ready reckoner" diagram is employed in the observation 
plotting room for the selection of the observation stations to be used, 
and for the prediction of the approximate bearing of the fall of the 
projectile from each of the observation stations selected for any 
intended range at which a shot, or group of shots, will be fired. 



9 

BUTTS. 

Detailed description of the butts is unnecessary. In general, they 
are of a more permanent nature than ours. They are constructed 
of cement and old armor plates. 

One large new butt for plate tests is nearing completion. It is 
larger and more solidly constructed than any of the other butts at 
Shoeburyness. It was stated to have cost about £10,000. It is lo- 
cated at a considerable distance from any of the other butts, fol- 
lowing the general policy in the layout of the Shoeburyness Proving 
Ground of separating by considerable distances the various kinds 
of work. 

The angle butts have the plate inclined in the vertical plane, with 
the top sloping back and away from the gun, as has been their prac- 
tice for some years. It was stated that all tests of projectiles and 
plate for standard performance are conducted with the plate in- 
clined at 20°. Experimental work is conducted at increased inclina- 
( ion of the plate. 

In response to an inquiry concerning the standard performance, it 
was stated that standard performance for modern 15-inch A. P. 
service projectiles was to penetrate caliber plate at 1,700 foot-seconds 
in condition to burst; and that standard performance for plates was 
to deny penetration of the same caliber projectile at 1,450 foot- 
seconds. (It was stated that these figures might not be the exact 
figures given in the specifications, but that they were the ones that 
obtained as an average in practical results at the proving ground. 
They are repeated herein for such value as may be placed upon 
them by the reader.) 

Firings are still being conducted against the Baden armor plates. 
One 15-inch Baden plate was noted which had been fired at by a 
British standard 15-inch A. P. projectile, at 20° impact, striking 
velocity 1,500 foot-seconds. The projectile penetrated the plate and 
took out a circular section G feet in diameter on the back side of the 
plate. Apparently this was very exceptional, however, as it was the 
subject of some comment and was stated to have been the largest sec- 
tion they had ever seen taken out of the back of a plate under such 

circumstances. 

There are special butts for testing turret roofs. During discussion 

concerning the proper thickness for turret roofs, informant stated that 
he had not seen and did not know what thickness of turret roof would 
be used in the designs for the two new battleships. From work which 
he had been conducting it was his personal opinion that it would 
probably be 7 inches. 
32300—23 3 



10 

NEW MAJOR-CALIBER FIRING BATTERY. 

A new major-caliber firing battery mounting one 18-inch gun and 
one 15-inch railway mount has been installed. Both of these mounts 
are fitted with adapters for mounting guns of smaller caliber. A 
railway track is run down between these two mounts for the special 
purpose of proving railway mounts firing from the rails without 
facilities for traverse. A special 300-ton ciane has been installed 
immediately behind this battery for handling heavy guns. 

INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING VELOCITY OF PROJECTILES. 

Two systems for measuring the velocity of projectiles are em- 
ployed at Shoeburyness, Le Boulenger chronographs and solenoids 
with galtanometers. Broadly speaking, the general principle of the 
latter system is that when the projectile passes through the coil and 
thus causes a small variation in current, this is recorded by a gal- 
vanometer. In these galvanometers there are two very large coils, 
and in the strong magnetic field between them there is a series of 
thin parallel wires. These wires vibrate in the field when a current 
fiows through them. A strong light from a special lantern is thrown 
on them through lenses magnifying their movements. After mag- 
nification, the distance between them is reduced by a special astig- 
matizing lens. The images are recorded on sensitized photographic 
paper, which runs at a speed of about 2 meters per second. Each 
group of solenoid coils is connected in series with the galvanometer. 
Each group of coils now used is 20 feet in diameter (having been 
increased from about 4 feet). There has recently been developed 
an instrument for measuring this record in increments as small as 
100 subdivisions between two consecutive registrations of solenoids, 
thus obtaining a record corresponding to a time interval of 1 \ 
of a second. The instrument is a parallelogram arrangement, and 
is simple and very useful. The fact that they have three of them in 
constant use will give some idea of the amount of work being con- 
ducted in connection with the investigation of the velocity of projec- 
tiles. 

There are two special ballistic ranges fitted with solenoids. The 
first one built, which is the smaller of the two, consists of 6 towers 
containing solenoids, 50 yards apart, the range being 300 yards. 
Their investigation of the velocity of projectiles during the first 
300 yards of flight convinced them that there was so much to be 
learned that they have just completed the construction of the larger 
and much more accurate 1,000-yard ballistic range with 20 specially 
constructed steel towers, each containing circular solenoids, 20 feet 
in diameter. The utmost care and accuracv was observed in laving 



11 

out this range, which was done by special ordnance survey engi- 
neers, who claim it is as accurate as can possibly be constructed. 
The Admiralty have planned extensive firings for ballistic investi- 
gations on this range. It w T as stated that although these ranges Avere 
constructed primarily for the purpose of investigating the velocity 
of the flight of projectiles, their experimental firings in this con- 
nection had brought out the necessity for investigating the sta- 
bility of flight. At the proving ground it was stated that they 
experienced much difficulty with " wobbling" of projectiles. This 
was especially interesting, as Sir Robert Hadfield has upon several 
occasions complained of the " wobbling " of British major-caliber 
projectiles. He stated that our major-caliber projectiles are much 
steadier in flight than the British. At the proving ground it was 
stated that firings of 15-inch A. P. projectiles in this connection gave 
an average diameter of 15". 7. 400 feet from the muzzle. An in- 
formant turned to his record book and then read off numerous ex- 
amples, some running as high as 10 inches. They stated that of 
course they did not know how much this increased at long ranges. 

Investigation of the flight of projectiles by the Admiralty has 
resulted in the development of an experimental machine known 
as the Heape-Grylls rapid cinema machine, designed and developed 
primarily for the purpose of photographing projectiles in flight. 
The progress made with this machine is sufficiently encouraging to 
justify the expectation of early success in photographing projectiles 
in flight. It is hoped also that eventually it can be rendered possible 
to photograph the projectile during impact and penetration. 

The apparatus is mounted upon three small railway freight cars 
of ordinary size. One car carries the rapid cinema machine, in a sec- 
ond car is placed the electrical equipment, and in the third car a 
gasoline-driven engine for motor generator and fuel tanks. The 
rapid cinema machine consists of a steel wheel in the shape of a 
drum, 6 feet in diameter, the periphery of which is about 6 to 8 
inches in width. The surface of the periphery is designed to take 
two cinema films about 1-J inches wide. These films are placed on 
the periphery of the drum and wound around the drum, and have 
their ends just meeting and pasted together with a special prepara- 
tion. The two recording films are separated by about 2 inches. A 
generator driven by a gasoline engine supplies current to a 15- 
kilowatt motor, which rotates the 6-foot steel drum at speeds up to 
1,000 revolutions per minute. Special electrical revolution counters 
are fitted. During experiments the centrifugal force due to the high 
speed of rotation tore the film off the wheel. In order to keep the 
recording film on the drum, special arrangements are necessary. The 
problem of keeping the recording film on the periphery of the wheel 



12 

was solved as follows : Immediately under each recording film are 
two circumferential grooves. At intervals of about 2 inches, small 
steel radial tubes about three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter are 
led from these grooves in the periphery to the center of the drum and 
are there connected to an air pump driven by a small electric motor. 
This air pump creates a vacuum of 26 inches of mercury, thus hold- 
ing the two recording films on the drum. The drum is mounted in a 
special bearing under oil pressure. 

On each side of the drum there is a flat ratchet wheel about 2i 
feet in diameter for driving a small pinion and shaft. Each of these 
shafts drives, through suitable gearing, a steel wheel containing 40 
lenses. These wheels are placed at right angles to the 6-foot steel 
drum, and the two wheels containing the lenses rotate in opposite 
directions from each other. There is a steel shutter containing two 
apertures, one for each recording film. This steel shutter is sus- 
pended and is dropped into place at exactly the correct instant by the 
passage of the projectile through three screens, which drop two 
rods (similar to those used with chronographs) measured distances, 
thus giving the time of exposure. These two wheels containing the 
lenses must revolve at exactly the same speed as the recording films 
on the 6-foot steel drum. 

The rapid cinema machine is mounted behind a 6-inch armor plate, 
with an aperture in front of the lens. A mirror is placed at an angle 
of 45° with the plate in order to reflect the object to be recorded into 
the lens of the camera. 

This high-speed camera is capable of taking pictures at the rate 
of 5,000 exposures per second. In order that this may be possible, 
an enormously high-powered light is required. To produce this 
intense light, 36 pounds of a special illuminating preparation is 
detonated by means of firing through screens. It was stated that 
this preparation consisted principally of magnesium and aluminum 
dust, and the detonation of 36 pounds gives a light 20 times the 
power of the sun. Naturally a very intense heat is developed, 
against which special precautions are necessary. There was much 
evidence of everything in the vicinity of the machine having been 
scorched. The duration of this flash of light is one-tenth of a 
second. 

As the length of the recording film on the 6-foot drum is limited, 
the number of pictures taken is limited. Approximately, there are 
16 pictures to a foot, and as the length of the recording film 
on the drum is about 20 feet the number of pictures taken on each 
recording film is approximately 320. Special arrangements exist 
for " staggering " the two apertures in the shutter in such manner 
that the exposures on one recording film are made just after those on 
the other. In this manner approximately double the number, or 640, 



13 

exposures can be taken. Arrangements exist for taking an exposure 
through both apertures simultaneously with the two recording films, 
thus producing a stereoscopic effect. 

The two principal disadvantages of this machine are: (1) The 
distortion of straight lines in the picture due to the slightly curved 
movement of each lens taking an exposure while passing the aper- 
ture. As these lenses are mounted on the circumference of each 
of the two wheels, their movement while in front of the aperture is 
slightly curved. When this is observed through a magnifying lens, 
of course, the straight lines of the picture are distorted by that 
amount. It is suggested as probably feasible that the introduction 
of projecting lenses of equal but opposite curvature would over- 
come this defect in the design of the instrument. This point of 
(he design is severely criticized by my informant, who emphasized 
this as one point which the designer should have foreseen. (2) The 
other principal disadvantage is that in taking pictures of the im- 
pact of a projectile on a plate, the intense light probably will result 
in such a glare that nothing else will be observable. At least that. 
is the opinion at present of the naval officers at Shoeburyness. No 
pictures of impact or penetration have been attempted up to the 
present time. All the experimentation and development work has 
been in connection with observation of projectiles in flight and with 
the perfection of arrangements for controlling the speed of the 
machine to produce the desired speed of exposures for the velocity 
of the projectile. Considerable progress has been made in this direc- 
tion, and success is confidently expected. It was stated that less 
difficulty was anticipated in connection with obtaining photographs 
of the projectile as it emerges from the back side of the plate. 

Great care is necessary in handling the illuminating preparation. 
They have had to work up the amount of this preparation from 12 
pounds to 36 pounds. Recently a charge was prematurely detonated, 
which came near wrecking the whole machine. Consequently the 
Admiralty have issued instructions suspending its operation until 
suitable precautions can be developed for handling this illuminating 
preparation. 

Informant stated that in bis opinion the Admiralty made a great 
mistake, from an economical point of view, in not insisting upon the 
inventor producing a commercial product which was perfected and 
capable of immediate operation. However, the Admiralty were so 
anxious to pursue this line of investigation that they agreed to finance 
the inventor. My informant estimated that up to the present time the 
Admiralty must have spent £10,000 upon the apparatus. It is to be 
considered jn the experimental stage, and offers great promise of 
successful photographing of projectiles in flight. Further than that, 
if is difficult to predict to what extent it can be perfected, that is. 



14 

in connection with impact and penetration of plates. The Admiralty 
consider that the importance of the subject, however, more than 
justifies the expenditures in connection therewith. 



JAPAN. 

ARMOR-PIERCING PROJECTILES. 
December, 1922. 

The only shells ordered in England in recent years for the Japa- 
nese Navy were " several hundred " 14-inch, 20°, round-nose, armor- 
piercing projectiles. Some of these shells have been received in 
Japan. (This may refer to the test shells only.) 

There is reason to believe that these shells do not contain all the 
improved features of the Hadlield A. P. shells. 

The 16-inch projectiles for the Japanese Navy were all made 
in Japan at Kure Naval Arsenal. They are not thought to be 
of a high degree of omciency. It is probable that the Japanese 
are aware of this, and there is reason to believe that efforts are being- 
made by the Japanese Navy to embody the special features of the 
Hadfield shell in 14 and 16 inch shells built in Japan. The results 
of these efforts are not known, but it is very doubtful if they will be 
entirely successful, at least for some time to come. 

Tokyo Naval Arsenal is gradually being transformed into a naval 
technical research laboratory. An ordnance expert who is held in 
high esteem in the Japanese Navy has been recently ordered there, 
and there is reason to believe that he is now particularly charged 
with the development of a major-caliber A. P. shell to embody 
superior specifications- — in other words, to copy the Hadfield shell. 

There is nothing known indicating that the Japanese Navy has 
an}^ German ordnance experts assisting in the manufacture or devel- 
opment of A. P. shells. As Kure is rather inaccessible and remote 
from Tokyo, such experts might easily be employed without the 
knowledge of the fact becoming known. 



JAPAN. 

ENLISTED PERSONNEL OF NAVY. 
December, 1922. 

The Japanese Navy Department stated that the naval personnel 
on 4 December, 1922, was as follows : " Total enlisted personnel, 
65,184." This is a reduction of 285 since 13 November, 1922. 



15 

The above personnel is distributed as follows: 

(n) At sea in vessels in active commission.- 26,188 

(&) In vessels in commission in reserve , 19,500 

(c) Shore duty 13,490 

(d) Employed at naval stations in mine corps 4,000 

(This is in addition to (c).) 

(e) Attached to vessels under construction 2,000 

(/") Attached to harbor-master's office in naval ports 400 

The 400 men doing- duty in the harbor-master's offices (/) are 
thought to be men of the naval reserve, as it will be seen they are 
not in the total of 65,184 as given by the Japanese Navy Department. 

It has not been so far definitely determined how the Japanese 
Navy mans its seagoing tugs, .yard tugs, etc., though it has been 
ascertained that some of them were manned by naval reservists, and 
it is thought most likely that all of these craft are so manned. 



JAPAN. 

ILL HEALTH OF ADMIRAL KATO. 
December, 1922. 

There are ample reasons to believe that Admiral Baron T. Kato, 
Premier of Japan, is in a serious state of health, despite official 
denials of this condition. 

It is not believed that his grasp of affairs is impaired, but it is 
quite within the range of possibilities that his physical condition may 
force his retirement from public life unless his health improves. 

Admiral Kato's appreciation of the importance to Japan of Amer- 
ica's friendship and cooperation would make his retirement a matter 
of concern to America. 



JAPAN. 

MODERNIZING VESSELS TO BE RETAINED UNDER NAVAL 

TREATY. 

5 January, 1923. 

It does not appear that any work has been done in the Japanese 
Navy toward the modernizing of the capital ships to be retained 
by Japan under section 1 of the naval treaty. On these ships so far 
there seems to be no additional underwater or deck protection, nor 
does anything seem to have been done toward increasing the angles 
of elevation of turret guns. 

The Japanese budget for 1923, as approved by the cabinet, au- 
thorizes the expenditure for the above purposes during the next 



16 

eight years of 50,000,000 yen, of which 2,200,000 yen is to be available 
in 1923. No information is available as to the details of what is 
proposed to be done with this appropriation. 

According to the Japanese press, the following is the yearly ap- 
portionment for improving the present equipment of capital ships 
of the Japanese Navy, total of which is 50,000,000 yen : 

Fiscal year : Yen. 

1923 2, 200, 000 

1924 4, 500.000 

1925 4, 500. 000 

1926 6, 400, 000 



Fiscal year — Continued. Yen. 

1927 6,400.000 

1928 8,300,000 

1929 8, 300, 000 

1930 9, 400, 000 



The work Avill be commenced first on such ships as the Fuso, Yama- 
sMro, and Haruna, which are comparatively old. 

This work will be carried out regardless of the success of the 
Washington treaty. 



JAPAN. 

NAVAL UNITS IN CHINESE WATERS. 
27 December, 1922. 

The Japanese press reports that Avith the withdrawal of Japanese 
Army detachments from middle China and Tsingtau the burden of 
protecting Japanese subjects in China falls entirely on the navy. As 
a result, these authorities have made some changes in the assignment 
of districts to be covered by the fleet and naval stations, which are as 
follows : 

CHINA FLEET. 

Under the direct supervision of the Minister of Marine : Attend to 
protection of Japanese subjects in Yangtse River district and to other 
military matters involving the district. However, as regards the 
assignment of ships in this command, it bears a close relation to 
Sasebo station. The present fleet consists of the Atoka (at Shang- 
hai), Tsushima (Tsingtau), Fushima (Ichang), Sumida (Chang- 
chow), Toba (Changking), Saga (Kiukiang), and Uji (under repairs 
at Sasebo) ; but since these are considered insufficient to meet require- 
ments hereafter the Uji and Sumida will be placed in reserve and the 
Hotsu, Hira, Katata, and Seta, which will be completed next spring, 
will be added to the fleet, making a total of 9 vessels, and second in 
number of vessels, the British having 12. 

Of the naval officers stationed in China, those at Canton and 
Hankow will be withdrawn, leaving only those at Pekin and Shanghai. 



17 
JAPAN. 

NEW AIRCRAFT FOR NAVY. 
11 January, 1923. 

The specifications for the above are as follows: 

" MITSUBISHI " SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER. 

(Experimental machine results.) 

Purpose: Single-seater fighter for work with fleet. 

Engine : 300 h. p. Hispano Suiza. 

Duration: Two and three-fourths hours, full throttle, at 1,000 feet. 

Armament: Two Vickers operated by C. C. gear; 500 rounds per gun. 

Span : 29 feet. 

(Jap : 4 feet 11 inches. 

Length : 22 feet 7 inches. 

Surface : 290 square feet. 

Chord : Top plane G feet, bottom plane 5 feet. 

Total weight (i. e., fully loaded with petrol, ammunition, pilot, etc., as would 

operate under service conditions) : 2,580 pounds. 
Wing section : Halbron. 
Speed : 

1,100—1424 m. p. h. 
5,000—142 m. p. h. 

10,000 — 140.5 m. p. h. 

15,000—137 m. p. h. 
Climb : 

5,000 s. h., 3-24. 

10,000 s. h., 7-56. 

15,000 s. h., 14-18. 
Construction : 

Normal, i. e., usual wood and wire constructions. 

Single bay. Steel interplane struts. 

Steel V under carriage. 

Top plane mounted on steel center section struts in the normal fashion 
and not attached directly to fuselage. 

Adjustable tail plane. 

All controls not balanced and of standard shape and construction. 
Radiator : Standard honeycomb radiator at present. Possibly Lamblin radiator 
later. 

" MITSUBISHI " TWO-SEATER RECONNAISSANCE MACHINE. 

(Experimental machine results.) 

Purpose : Two-seater reconnaissance machine for work with fleet. 

Engine: 300 h. p. Hispano Suiza. 

Duration : Three and three-fourths hours, full throttle, at 1,000 feet. 

Armament: Two Vickers operated by C. C. gear; 500 rounds per gun; for 

pilot one Lewis gun, and scarf ring for observer. 
Span : 39 feet G inches. 
32300—23 4 



18 

Gap : 4 feet 8 inches. 

Length : 26 feet. 

.Surface : 405 square feet. 

Chord : Top plane 6 feet, bottom plane 5 feet. 

Total weight (i. e., fully loaded with petrol, ammunition, pilot, observer, etc., 

as would be operated under service conditions) : 3,250 pounds. 
Wing section: Somewhat similar to single seater, and of quite ordinary shape 

for moderately thin wings. 
Speed : 

1,000—130.5 m. p. h. 
5,000—130.5 in. p. h. 
10,000—125 m. p. h. 
15,000. 
Climb : 

5,000 s. h., 4-36. 
10,000 s. h., 9-54. 
15,000 s. h., 17-3. 
Construction : 

Normal, i. e., usual wood and wire constructions. Two bays. Steel inter- 
plane struts. Steel V undercarriage. 
Top plane mounted on steel center section struts in the normal fashion and 

not attached directly to fuselage. 
Adjustable tail plane. 

All controls not balanced and of standard shape and construction. 
Radiator: Standard honeycomb radiator at present. Possibly Lamblin radiator 
later. 

MITSUBISHI SINGLE SKATER TORPEDO MACHINE (TRIPI.ANE). 

(Experimental machine results.) 

Purpose : Torpedo carrier. 

Engine : Napier 450. 

Duration : Two and one-half hours, full throttle, 1,000 feet. 

Armaments: One torpedo of 1,500 pounds (approx. 14-inch). No guns. 

Span : 43 feet 6 inches. 

Gap : 4 feet 8 inches. 

Length : 32 feet. 

Surface : 750 square feet. 

Chord: 6 feet (all planes). 

Total weight (i. e., with torpedo and full petrol) : 5,250 pounds (approx.). 

Wing section : Somewhat similar to single seater. 

Speed : 

1,000 feet, 128 m. p. h. 

5,000 feet, 128 m. p. h. 

10,000 feet, 126 m. p. h. 

15,000 feet, 109 m. p. h. 

Climb : 

5,000 s. h., 5-45. 
10,000 s. h., 13-30. 
15,000 s. h., 28-0. 
Construction: Normal. Steel interplane struts. Undercarriage mounted so 
that landing stresses taken through first set of interplane struts, then through 
flying wires to fuselage. Adjustable tail plane. Other controls normal. 
Radiator : Standard honeycomb radiator at. present. Possibly Lamblin later. 



19 
JAPAN. 

NEW ARTILLERY MATERIAL. 
20 December, 1922. 

150-MM. SIEGE GUNS. 

Carriage with a metal limber bolster (" sellette ").. Are undoubt- 
edly the ordinary 150-nim. guns. 

150-MM. HOWITZER. 

A 150-mm. howitzer mounted on a single carriage is being tried 
out. This piece is intended to replace the one now in use which is 
mounted on two carriages. 

The known characteristics are as follows : 

Breechblock with a horizontal lock. 

Hydropneumatic brake with a variable recoil. The recoil varies 
according to the elevation and is controlled by a lever which turns 
in a cup valve. 

Split trail and a top carriage ('' petit-affut "). This permits of 
aiming 20° to each side of the axis and a vertical elevation from minus 
10° to plus 45°. 

80 0-MM. GUN OR HOWITZER. 

Length, 30 or 32 calibers. It is not a siege gun as was at first 
believed, but a seacoast gun under experiment. 

Central pintle carriage, traversing rack 6 meters in diameter, rotat- 
ing on bearings. Vickers breechblock. This piece will have a range 
of only 12 km. 

Experiments have been carried on in the manufacture of a 400-mm. 
gun or howitzer of the same length and characteristics as the fore- 
going gun, but up to the present the results have not been satisfactory.' 

7 5 -MM. MOUNTAIN GUN. 

This piece is in the process of manufacture and is intended to 
replace the present 75-mm. mountain gun, which is not satisfactory. 

This new gun has the following characteristics : 

Rotating breechblock of the truncated-cone type with semicircular 
slotted threads. The rifling is uniform. Initial velocity of pro- 
jectiles, 330 meters per second; range, 6,000 meters. Glycerine is 
used in the recoil brake, while the recuperator is actuated by a 
helical spring. A counterrecoil rod is provided to lessen the shock 
when returning into battery after firing. Length of recoil, 1.10 
meters. 



20 

The barrel has a sliding support which varies with the top car- 
riage in elevation and direction. Field of fire, 20° to each side of 
the axis. 

A line of sight, which is not affected by the difference in level of 
wheels, is obtained by two pieces, one of which turns within the 
other. This has been obtained as follows: The top carriage (a) 
pivots at (6) to the right side of the axle (<?). The screw (d) 
operated by the horizontal handwheel permits the adjustment of the 
upper carriage so as to compensate for difference of level of 
wheels. 

The carriage proper has a bent anxle to which are attached a split 
trail, the arms of which are made of tubular steel. Each of the trail 
arms is attached to the axle in such a manner that it can be moved 
in a vertical or horizontal plane. This arrangement permits of firing 
on very rough ground. 

To move the gun assembled, the split trail forms a shaft which 
is held together by means of the supports of the cannoneers' seats. 
In addition the split trails are jointed at (/) and (/'). which permits 
the shafts being given any desired inclination. 

The arrangement of breechblock and the upper carriage permits 
of fire from minus 9° to plus 45°. However, the variable recoil is 
not well regulated, for when the gun is fired at elevations greater 
than 30° it is necessary to dig a trench to permit the recoil of the gun. 

To transport the gun on pack saddles, it is divided into six parts — 
gun barrel; slide; brake; upper carriage and axles; split trails; 
wheels and gun shield. 

The tests with this piece have been considered to be satisfactory. 

TRENCH MORTAR. 

Experiments are being carried on for the manufacture of a 
270-mm. trench mortar having a range of 2,000 meters. The pro- 
jectile is provided with wings. The barrel has not yet been seen. 

The mount is made of two cast-steel tubes, which can be given any 
desired elevation. The axis of the gun barrel, which enters a groove 
in the steel tubes, rests on helical springs that take up the recoil 
and return the gun into battery. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

There has been seen from a distance : 

Some Renault tanks. However, there is no talk regarding the 
construction of any Japanese tanks. 

Antiaircraft guns mounted on caterpillar tractors. 



.0,:; 



21 
JAPAN. 

REDUCTION IN NAVAL PERSONNEL. 
16 December, 1922. 

The Japanese Navy Department has made public the following 
information : 

Reduction in number of petty officers and men of Japanese Navy from 1 Decem- 
ber, 1921, to 1 December, 1922. 



Branch of service. 


Yokosuka. 


Kure. 


Sasebo. 


Maizuru. 


Executive branch 


2,220 

1,120 

40 

39 

64 

111 


1,688 
1, 134 


1,073 
733 


2,014 
1,138 


Mechanical branch 






Carpenter branch 


51 

45 

107 


3 
36 
50 


62 


Wardmasters 


50 


Writers 


140 








3,594 


3,025 


1,895 


3,404 



This gives a total reduction of 11,918 enlisted men and petty officers. 

During the year 6,205 additional men severed their connection Avith 

the service, due to discharge, death, etc., but were replaced by recruits. 

This about completes the proposed reduction in enlisted personnel. 



JAPAN. 

SUMMARY OF LATEST AVAILABLE DATA ON LIGHT CRUISERS. 

1 February, 1923. 

Cruisers. 
BUILT. 



Name. 


Date. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Speed. 


Guns. 


Radius. 


Asama 


1899 
1900 
1900 
1900 
1904 
1904 


9,885 
9,735 
9,826 
9, 826 
7,700 
7,700 


21.5 
20.5 
20.7 

20.7 

20 

20 


4-8", 14-6" 

4-8", 12-6" 

4-8", 14-6" 

4-8", 14-6" 

1-10", 2-8", 14-6" 


6,480 
4,480 
5 280 


Yakunio 


Iznmo 


Iwate 


5, 280 


ICasuga 


Nisshin 


4-8", 14-6" 


6 100 







PROJECTED. 

Four sbips of 10,000 tons. No details. 



22 

Light cruisers. 

BUILT. 



Name. 



Suma 

Akashi . . . 
Chitose . . . 
Tsushima 

Tone 

Chikuma . 

Hirato 

Yahagi . . . 
Tenryu. . . 
Tatsuta . . 

Kuma 

Tama 

Kitakami 

Kiso 

Oi 

Nagara . . . 

Natori 

Kinu 



Date. 



1896 
1899 
1899 
1904 
1910 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1919 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1921 
192) 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1922 



Displace- 
ment. 



2,700 
2,800 
4,992 
3. 420 
4,100 
4,950 
4,950 
4, 950 
3,500 
3,500 
5, 500 
5,500 
5,500 
5, 500 
5,500 
5, 570 
5, 570 
5,570 



Speed. 



Guns. 



20 

19.5 

22.5 

20 

23 

26 

26 

26 
31-33 
31-33 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 
34-36 



2-6", 6-4.7". 
2-6", 6-4.7". 
2-8", 10-4.7" 

6-6" 

2-6", 10-4.7" 

8-6" 

8-6" 

8-6" 

4-5.5", 6TT . 
4-5.5", 6TT. 
7-5.5", xTT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 
7-5.5", 8TT. 



Jintsu-U.. 

Kako 

Furutaka. 
Kinugasa. 



5, 570 


34-36 


7,500 


(') 


7,500 


(') 


7, 500 


(') 



PROJECTED. 
One ship of 7,500 tons. No details. 



Radius. 



7-5.5", 8TT 

(') 

(') 

(') 



5,250 
5,250 
6,900 
4,140 
7,340 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6; 000 
6,000 
6,000 



LAUNCHED. 


Isuzu 


1921 
1922 
1922 


5, 570 
5, 570 
5,570 


34-36 
34-36 
34-36 


7-5.5", 8TT 

7-5.5", 8TT 

7-5.5", 8TT 


6,000 


Yura 


6,000 


Abukuma 


6,000 




I 


.AID DOWN. 








Naka 

Sendai 

Yubari 


1922 
1922 
1922 


5,570 
59570 
3, 100 


34-36 
34-36 


7-5.5", 8TT 

7-5.5", 8TT 

(i) 


6,000 
6,000 








ORDERED. 



6,000 
(') 
(') 



1 No details. 



According to the Japanese press, the Japanese light cruiser 
Abukuma was launched on 1 December, 1922, at the Uruga Dock- 
yard. 

The displacement of the Abukuma is 5,500 tons. 



JAPAN. 

VARIOUS NAVAL ITEMS. 
December, 1922. 



NOTE. — From Vernacular Press. 

The Japanese submarine No. 68 was launched at the Kure Navy 
Yard on 5 December, 1922. 



23 

It is reported that the tonnage of this submarine is: Surface, 750 
tons; submerged, 1,000 tons. 

The Japanese destroyer No. 3 was launched at the Nagasaki Ship- 
building Yard on 8 December, 1922. 

The No. 3 destroyer is of the same type as the No. i, i. e. : Dis- 
placement, 1,400 tons; length, 320 feet; beam, 30 feet; draft, 9 feet 
7 inches; speed, 34 knots; engines, two turbine. 



The Jananese destroyers Fuji, Flag I, Suzuki, and Tsuta have been 
assigned as training vessels for the torpedo and engineering schools, 
These ships are to leave the Kure Naval Station on 23 December, 
1922, for the Yokosuka Naval Station. 



Japanese submarine No. 68 was laid down in .June, 1922, and 
launched 5 December, 1922. 



There arrived at Yokosuka December 6, 1922, on board the Tosa 
Maru, a coastal motor boat built for the Japanese Navy in England. 

She is reported to have a displacement of 17 tons, a length of 60 
feet, and a speed of 45 knots. 



The Hosho having successfully completed all acceptance trials 
was accepted by the navy December 27, 1922. 

On her final speed trial the Hosho made approximately 26 knots. 
The Hosho is an aircraft carrier. 



Submarine No. 59 was launched at the Mitsubishi Shipyard, Kobe, 
on 21 December, 1922. 



FRANCE. 

ARMY AVIATION DATA. 
31 December, 1922. 



Number of planes in service (budgetary effectives) in metropolitan 

France 1,217 

Total number in stock at end of year 1922 (of wliicb 140 are military- 
school machines) 4,200 

In Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Levant, Constantinople, in service, ap- 
proximately , 250 



24 

In France, including colonies, on December 31, 1922, there were 
130 squadrons (escadrilles) , of which 105 squadrons in France (met- 
ropolitan). 

Number of officers, metropolitan and colonial, approximately 
1,350; men, 32,000, of which in France (metropolitan) 4,000 were 
noncommissioned officers. The number of men includes those in 
regimental formations and all others on military aviation duty. 

Although these numbers are found in official parliamentary pub- 
lications, they should be taken as being very approximate only. 



FRANCE. 

FOREIGN POLICY. 
29 January, 1923. 

The following report has been received in this office : 

American public opinion as to foreign affairs is largely formed by the press 
and by American politicians seeking to make capital in their districts. 

Thus the mere use of a common language, and by the most effective propa- 
ganda service of the present day, renders it entirely simple for the British 
view to be fully expressed in the American press ; and large communities of 
people of German descent and sympathies, again exploited by active propa- 
ganda in the United States, serve to express a German view in Congress and 
in the press. 

The French point of view, however, has little hearing, not alone because of 
the foreign language but more particularly because the voters in America of 
French antecedents and sympathies are so few as to concern no politicians ; 
their case is not even presented, much less heard. 

This is not to say that this paper is prepared with the idea of presenting the 
French case, excepting as Americans are fair-minded enough to want to hear 
the " other side," and the French case happens in this instance to be that other 
side. It is therefore only the French side which will be presented in what 
follows : 

No word written on European affairs of to-day, and particularly on the 
French viewpoint, should fail to make mention at the outset, and to keep 
always prominent in the American mind, the fact that Europe, and especially 
France, suffered bitter disappointment when Mr. Wilson, professing to bear the 
mandate of American people at the peace conference, exacted of Europe cer- 
tain things in that conference which the- United States themselves later repudi- 
ated. In America we are inclined to forget this cardinal point, and it is only 
with a start of surprise that we hear anew from Europeans that America 
occupies the unenviable position of a quitter. 

Not that the writer would have America do otherwise than we have done in 
declining to ratify the treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. The 
former is iniquitous, while the latter has sunk into the realm of selfish politics 
and thereby lost all claim to usefulness, fallen into the hands of an ir- 
responsible majority which overrules the minority which is composed of the 
powerful and therefore responsible nations. 



25 

Tims |<i the mind of the writer, and from the American point of view, we 
have very good reason for keeping out of the European mess just as long as 
possible; but we must always bear in mind the fact that Europe does not 
see our point of view. 

In particular does France not see it, since it is France whose position 
suffers most from our not ratifying the treaty of Versailles and the treaty 
by which, with England, we were to assure her of our armed support in the 
event of German aggression; the promise of this support prompted M. 
Clemehceau to give up' certain vital military safeguards urged by Marshal 
Foch, but when we had failed to ratify there was no means of recovering those 
safeguards. Add to this the fact that by denying our own support to France 
we automatically absolved England from similar obligation to come to the 
rescue of France. 

The failure of America and England to make good on the treaty of support 
makes it imperative that the French keep up a large peace army which 
German propaganda in America seeks to decry as imperialism. No oratory in 
the American Congress or newspaper articles can have as, much weight with 
the French people in their earnest desire to reduce their army costs as 
does their dire need for man power in their activities in France (ill spared 
to military purposes), nor as has this year's deficit of nearly 4,000,000,000 
francs in their budget. Meantime they have cut in two the term of military 
service. 

This same budget deficit makes it a matter of no material concern whatever 
to America whether France ratifies the limitation of ships agreement or 
not. Long years will pass before France can even dream of keeping up to 
the low standard set her by the Washington agreements and equally many 
years must pass before she can build a submarine flotilla that could cause 
an anxious moment to anyone in England. 

AXGLO-FKENCH RELATIONS. 

The rivalries of these two countries date back through the centuries. To many 
of the comparatively few Americans who have read of the Battle of Hastings 
and the Norman conquest those events mark — almost the dawn of history — 
100 years before we were discovered! Yet the French and English had long 
been rivals even at that early date. 

Following the Napoleonic wars, England's hand is seen in placing the Rhine 
well within the German borders, lest France again engage in what propa- 
gandists would call her favorite sport of mak.ng war on Europe. But a 
crushed France in 1871 did not prompt England to intervene when Bismark 
demanded Alsace-Lorraine. 

In the immediate past it was only under the benign influence of the late King 
Edward the Seventh that the Entente was possible, and found England and 
France side by side in the Great War against a common enemy. But an inside 
history of the jealousies and rivalries experienced between them during the 
war would read as though they had been fighting on opposite sides of the 
conflict. 

Only the desperateness of the situation forced them, after frightful losses. 
to accept unified command of the allied armies. This fact, with last-minute 
resources and men from America, made the victory possible. But the defeat 
of the enemy left the two rivals without that bond that had held them united 
during the last -0 years. Men who had grown to maturity during that time 

32300—23 5 



. 26 

were shocked because they had lived only daring that period of comparative 
unity, to see battle brothers no longer on good terms. 

But the mainspring of thought and action by nations lies not in the minds 
and hearts of those who tight their battles. It lies rather in their relative 
economic positions. And we find England and France confronting one another 
from the age-old points of difference, excepting that during these last 20 years 
they had lost the habit of being at odds, and the relapse is the more difficult 
for them to appreciate. 

To the French people England is best known as Perfidious Albion ; from one 
diplomatic encounter to another France returns with the conviction that she 
has been worsted ; and the rupture of this last conference, reconvened in Paris 
2 January, 1923, is but one more repetition. While points of difference were 
known to exist at the time of adjournment in December, there was no faint 
thought in the French public mind that Bonar Law would come to Paris with a 
plan of action that he and his cabinet could but know was wholly impossible 
of acceptance by France. 

Let me interpolate a parenthetical paragraph : 

The French say that America in her own conference at Washington, and on 
her own ground, was beaten by England in much this same manner. The 
lesson to both France and America is, of course, the development of trained 
diplomats and well-considered national policies for their guidance. 

The first point of fundamental difference is whether a moratorium of, say, 
four years shall be granted Germany with or without guarantees. France 
claims that Germany's present financial position is due to her own fault and 
that further trust in the good faith of Germany to make good on reparations 
or to restore her own credit were futile. England, on the other hand, claims 
that Germany's credit must be reestablished for the economic welfare of 
Europe before reparations should be exacted, and that for the Allies to 
exact guarantees would be to defer revival of German credit. But the British 
press are far from being a unit with their Government, and it is even said 
that Bonar Law's proposition was directed by financial interests and presented 
to France in the absence of Foreign Office approval. 

Now, referring to earlier comments herein on propaganda and the influence 
of the press on public opinion in America, appeal is made to us that Europe 
is confronted with a bad debtor and that every-day practice in business affair's 
is to give the debtor a chance before foreclosing on him. So why not do thus 
by Germany? The United States are interested in this because the payment to 
us of allied war debts is largely dependent upon payment of reparations to 
the Allies by Germany. American and British bankers and investing public 
are interested in German credit to the amount of nearly $2,000,000,000 that 
were invested in German bonds, in 1919, when the mark was worth 5 cents. 
Why, then, be too hard on Germany? Let the French come to the more con- 
siderate view, say the British, their own case being well presented in the 
American press and in American Government circles. 

Being thus considerate means of course further delay on Germany's part in 
mak-'ng payments on reparations account. England makes no proposition to 
restore economic resources to Germany, such as German colonies that fell to 
England by the treaty of Versailles or of merchant shipping that changed 
hands under the same authority. In other words, this project of being con- 
siderate to the bankrupt has in mind major sacrifice on France's part, and but 
minor sacrifice by England. 

Another point in England's recent proposal as to reparations is that the 
Reparations Commission be abolished and another body be set up in its place. 



27 

The treaty of Versailles sels up a soil of executive tribunal, t lie Reparations 
Commission, which interprets the reparations clauses of the treaty and informs 
Germany of her detailed obligations. It also informs the Allies' governments 
concerned when, in its opinion, Germany has failed to make good. The pre- 
siding officer of this commission is French, other allied countries are repre- 
sented by members, and England names the secretary general, who is said to 
exercise no small control as to the agenda for meetings. 

A few days after resuming the conference of premiers in Paris on 2 January, 
1923, the Reparations Commission voted on a question of Germany's default in 
a comparatively small matter, but one involving a fundamental principle. 
The majority, including all others than the English member, voted against the 
latter in adjudging Germany willfully delinquent. The English member left 
promptly for London and did not return until in company with Mr. Bonar 
Law and the English proposition that the Reparations Commission be abol- 
ished ! (If England can't run it, then abolish it.) Worse yet, that it be replaced 
by a body presided over by a German and with the dated States invited to sit in 
as a member, this latter by way of seeking American support to the whole 
proposition. 

Needless to say, M. Poincare rejected the English plan (he could not have 
done otherwise and remained in office over night) ; and the English scored a 
point in America by executing this coup at the very moment when the British 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and the president of the Bank of England were 
landing in New York on a mission to get easier terms on their debt to us, 
their thought being: 

" You see how utterly hopeless the French are, Sam, old dear, and as long 
as they persist in pressing the debtor we are going to be awfully hard pressed 
to pay our debt to you." 

What they are quoted as actually saying is : 

" The world is sitting on an anxious seat, for there is danger of revolution 
in France as well as in Germany. The depression of currencies that is cer- 
tain to follow the break up of negotiations may include the franc and that coin 
may go the way of the mark." 

Whether Mr. Stanley Baldwin really said this or not, it is the most absolute 
bosh and was published to influence the American public against France, in 
a desperate bid for American sympathy for England. Nor does it make men- 
tion of the fact that Belgium and Italy stand with France on the whole ques- 
tion, that it is England and not France that is isolated. 

Coincident with the rupture of the conference of premiers in Paris on 4 
January, British officials gave publicity to the fact that some millions gold of 
French and Italian money had been placed in the British treasury during the 
war against a loan, and that this gold had now been discovered to have beer 
transferred to the United States before the armistice. The publication of thi* 
fact, together with the quotations from prominent British officials, such as " I 
fear the realization of the French public of this fact will serve to depreciate the 
franc," savors very strongly of anti-French propaganda, for the reason that for 
the few days following the French and British papers have< thoroughly aired the 
subject, and it now appears that there was nothing irregular in the transaction 
and that there is no cause for the French public to show concern over it. Nor 
do they. 

The British press wonders how France is go'ng to make good in her isolation. 
France is not worried about it. Nor is France disturbed when the British press 
charge her with being "unwilling to compromise." France has come to lie! »■ 
that compromise, as understood in England, has much the same meaning t\s 



28 

The family where the husband was anxious to keep a dog and the wife wanted 
to keep a cat, whereupon they compromised and kept a cat. The French quote 
many incidents since the armistice to support this conviction. 

LAUSANNE. 

There has been speculation as to what effect the split in Paris would have on 
the proceedings of the conference at Lausanne. To date, it appears that the 
interests involved at Lausanne are so intimately related among themselves as 
to be well nigh independent of other issues. Thus, France has financial interest 
in large sums due from Turkey on the Ottoman debt, and this is one of the 
subjects Under serious consideration at Lausanne. To have British backing in 
this serious matter, France is expected to play England's game at Lausanne, 
a solid allied front against the Turk, now haughty as well as terrible. 

But the French do not fail to comment on England's grasp of the oil fields in 
Mosul, and it is of interest to note that in a recent interview the British general. 
Townsend, states to the British public that England has no business in Mosul; 
that it was not occupied by England at the time of the armistice, nor included 
in the terms of the latter, but ruthlessly occupied by England later, and that, 
in any event, the oil region is so far removed from water and other communica- 
tions as to be wholly beyond reach of support in case of attack. 

Nevertheless, claim the French, the vital bone of contention upon which con- 
ferences failed at Cannes, Genoa, and elsewhere is the possession of oil fields, 
and there are those who expect to see the conference at Lusanne fail to agree, 
and on the Mosul oil fields. 

But it does not need the question of oil resources in Mosul to split the 
Lausanne Conference. The silent but ever-increasingly strong wave of Pan- 
Islamism is giving the Turkish delegates such confidence in their power and 
such inspiration to labor for the triumph of their cause that we should not be 
surprised if the Lausanne Conference were to fail on any one of a dozen issues. 
I have been told by one eminently qualified to talk on the subject that of all 
the peoples of the world only the Turks are prepared to-day to fight, and that 
they look with perfect equanimity upon the prospect of a break at Lausanne. 
Europe is unprepared financially to carry on a war, and in no country in 
Europe would a war against the Turks receive popular support. Thus the Turk 
is in a position to carry on an interminable guerrilla warfare whether Europe 
likes it or not. 

AMERICA'S PAST. 

Europe looks to America to come to the economic rescue; in other words to 
pay the bill. A certain group of Americans living in Paris long since voted 
their opinion to be that in the end America would pay for the war. Intelligent 
and farseeing Americans living in Europe are divided as to what is America's 
duty. They are in agreement that the task of the mediator is a heavy one, 
particularly if he be the creditor. They agree that each of the debtors will 
seek special consideration, and that we can expect no pleasant smile from any 
of them for which we do not pay in cash, and which will turn sour the moment 
we seem to tighten up on the purse strings. We shall be despised for 
every dollar we give up. It is not what England or France may do with the 
money, not how large an army France believes she needs for protection against 
( kTinany, but rather how much they can do us out of. AVe came into the war 
seeking no advantage, material or otherwise. We find ourselves in the 
unhappy position of world creditor. England and France hold strategic and 



29 

other advantages at our door that can serve them in no way other than as 
points upon which to base aggression directed at us. 

Just as wars result from economic clashes between nations, the world now 
finds its economic balance very much disturbed as a result of the Great War 
and of the failure of the treaty of Versailles to meet the needs of the situation. 
Instead of ameliorating the economic conditions resulting from the war, the 
treaty was framed with the view of giving economic advantages to one and 
another of those [towers whose delegates sal in the charmed circle and could 
manage to divide the spoils in such manner as not to interfere with one 
another. 

The iniquity and injustice of such a treaty is demonstrated in its utter failure 
lo accomplish the peace of the world. 

So we find Europe casting about for a formula that will accomplish economic 
restoration, but every nation looking to the others to make the necessary 
sacrifices. 

Germany, shorn of her colonies as a source of revenue, offers passive re- 
sistance to her creditors. 

F'rance, restoring millions of devastation caused by Germany, expends from 
her own pocket and hopes to collect from Germany. 

England, having acquired the choicest of German colonial resources, having 
seen the German fleet sunk at Scapa and with the German merchant marine 
as yet crippled, is taxing her wealthier and middle classes in order to pay un- 
employment doles to thousands of idle workpeople. 

America, with bumper crops, and billions of money owing her, is unable to 
market her produce. 

To some the answer is certainly clear — let America cancel the debts. 

To others there presents itself the question as to why America, having 
accepted no colonial or other advantage resulting from the war, should make 
this enormous gift to those nations whose material profits and increased re- 
sources have been enormous. To these latter, and perhaps to the great majority 
of Americans, the answer is, or will be when better understood — let us cancel 
the debts, for a price. 

Let us then come out with the utmost publicity in a statement and propose 
the cancellation of all allied debts in the interest of restored European and 
world economics, on the conditions that — 

(a) All allied territory and islands south of Canadian shores and in the 
Caribbean Sea be transferred to American sovereignty in perpetuity. 

(b) All oil concessions whatsoever held by any of the Allies within a radius 
of 2,000 miles of the Panama Canal be made over to the United States Govern- 
ment for all time, and that all future oil interests within that radius be recog- 
nized as essentially, primarily, and exclusively American. 

Governmental backing of private enterprise in matters of national interest 
is a British characteristic that has been productive of great national strength. 
To cite but one such interest, we find the British nation not only backing pri- 
vate oil interests but actually engaging one of its governmental departments 
(navy) in the exploitation, production, etc., of oil. On the other hand, let a 
member of the United States Government or a Senator or Congressman so 
much as utter a kind word in- behalf of the Standard Oil Co., for instance, 
and he is immediately damned as being a tool of the " interests." Indeed, since 
the Standard Oil Co. has been singled out perhaps more than any other Ameri- 
can institution for this form of attack, we may well ask if perchance such 
systematic attack through the years has not been prompted by British propa- 
ganda. There may be more logic in this thought when we consider the 
national determination of the British to monopolize all the oil in the world. 



30 

OCCUPYING THE KTJHlt. 

French are taking measures sufficient to insure deliveries of coal from the 
Ruhr, and this action will put them in position to exert further pressure as may 
he necessary to force Germany to meet other obligations. 

Being already on the Rhine with troops, this will involve very small troop 
movement unless met by German opposition, winch is not to be expected. 

Perhaps the greatest protest, greatest because the loudest, comes from Eng- 
lish sources, since this French move in the Ruhr means cheaper coal delivered 
to French industries, and thereby restricts if it does not close French markets 
to British coal ; at the same time that it puts French industries in better 
position to compete with German, on a basis more nearly approaching pre-war 
conditions before the German invasion worked such havoc on French industries. 



FRANCE. 

LOSS OF MORALE IN THE ARMY. 
20 December, 1922. 

As in most armies the morale of the French Army has suffered 
since the conclusions of the war due to" reduction in the number of 
organizations, officers, and noncommissioned officers. 

Every three months the commanding officers of regiments, etc., 
forward reports concerning the morale of their organizations. It 
has been evident for some time that especially in the garrisons in 
France itself, where organizations have been reduced to skeletonized 
units, the morale is at a low ebb, and more especially so in regiments 
of infantry. 

The officers and noncommissioned officers of the infantry regi- 
ments have particular reasons for being worried about their future, 
and dissatisfied with the past. In the last two years, 46 infantry 
regiments have been dropped from the active list, and the majority 
of the officers and noncommissioned officers of these regiments have 
been forced to change station. This has been an extremely costly 
process for them, and the Government allowance for change of sta- 
tion in no way covered the expenses incurred. Moreover, an officer 
or noncommissioned officer arriving at a new garrison was almost 
certain to find the question of obtaining a house or apartment 
almost unsolvable. 

The present army reorganization bill pending before the House of 
Deputies calls for the elimination of an additional 50 regiments of in- 
fantry. In consequence this arm of the service is suffering from a new 
period of depression due to the uncertainty as to their future, as no in- 
fantry regiment is sure to be continued. The morale of the infantry 
officers and noncommissioned officers is consequently very low, and 
no immediate amelioration seems possible, 



31 
FRANCE. 

NAVAL GUN FOUNDRY AT RUELLE. 
2 January, 1923. 

The Ruelle foundry is located near Angouleme in the small village 
of Ruelle, about 7 km. from the former city. The arsenal is pri- 
marily a gun-finishing plant for guns of all calibers up to the 45-cm. 
gun, which will be constructed here in the near future. There is 
also a cast-iron foundry, a small crucible-steel plant for making high- 
grade steel for breechblocks and other small parts of guns, a small 
cartridge-case shop, and a projectile shop. The capacity of the iron 
foundry is about a 50-ton casting, while a 25-ton casting can be 
poured in the steel plant. The shrink pit in the gun plant will ac- 
commodate a tube 25 m. in length. 

A new steel plant is now under construction, approximately 90 m. 
by 35 m. It will contain a 5 and a 2| ton Vickers electric converter 
for making small-gun forgings, etc. It was also understood that 
additional shops would soon be built near the same site for housing 
the new forging equipment. 

A fine new laboratory building has just been completed. This 
building is approximately 46 m. by 13 m., two stories high (each 
story 4.5 m. high), and will house the new chemical and metallurgi- 
cal laboratories. 

There are at present about 1,100 men employed at Ruelle, working 
eight hours a day. During the war about 6,000 men were employed 
here. Most of the routine work now in progress consists in repairing 
old 320 and 340 mm. guns, which it is now intended to mount on rail- 
way carriages for seacoast-defense purposes. 

HIGH -VELOCITY GUNS. 

The most interesting work now in progress at Ruelle is the con- 
struction of two new high- velocity guns. A 100-cal. 57-mm. gun was 
completed at Ruelle some time ago and tested. It was stated that 
these tests are still in progress. Using the information obtained from 
these tests, two additional high-velocity guns are now being con- 
structed. One gun consists of an old 270-mm. gun which is being 
retubed to 100 mm. and will have a length of 160 calibers. It is ex- 
pected that a muzzle velocity of 1,400 m. per second will be obtained 
with this gun. A projectile Aveighing about 16 kg. will be used. 

The second gun is of entirely new construction. It is a 50-mm. 
gun and will have a length of 200 calibers. This new gun will be 
constructed by radial expansion. The French hope to obtain a 
muzzle velocity of 2,000 m., or about 6,500 feet per second, with this 



32 

gun. To obtain this astonishing muzzle velocity, it is expected to 
test this gun up to about 10,000 kg. per square cm., or approximately 
140,000 pounds per square inch. It was stated that it had not yet 
been definitely decided what slope of rifling would be used with this 
gun. but that the slope would probably lie between 1° and 5°. The 
ordnance engineer in charge of this work stated that undoubtedly 
excessive 1 erosion would take place with both of these guns. 

NEW 137-MM. GUN 7 5 CALIBERS LONG. 

The new experimental 137-mm. gun was seen under construction. 
The rifling in this cannon was unusual, as each land was approxi- 
mately three-fourths of an inch wide. The gun will be used to experi- 
ment with rifled projectiles. The slope of the rifling was 11° uni- 
form. For a distance of about 6 inches ahead of the forcing cone all 
the lands except two were being cut away. It was stated that this 
unusual arrangement would permit the projectile to be more easily 
loaded into the gun at the breech end. 

FRENCH RIFLING PRAGTIGE. 

No changes have been made in the French rifling practice since the 
war, except that all new guns are rifled with a uniform slope. A 
3I0-mm. gun was observed in the rifling lathe. The width of the land 
was 3 mm., depth of groove 1.9 mm., radius of fillet at the bottom of 
the groove 1.9 mm.; number of lands=102, or three times the caliber 
of the gun in c/m. : twist uniform and at 7°. 

RIFLED PROJECTILES. 

Several rifled projectiles 137 mm. for the 137-mm. gun referred to 
above were seen in the projectile shop under construction. The 
rifling on the projectile extended from the junction of the boat-tailed 
portion. Avith the body of the shell, to the beginning of the ogive. 
Several 135-mm rifled projectiles were also seen, but these were rifled 
with the ordinary rifling. At the beginning of the rifling near the 
base of the shell were cut four recesses, which housed four steel but- 
tons, which were urged outward by springs. These buttons are 
used to stop the projectile at the forcing cone. When the projectile is 
fired the buttons are pushed into the recesses in the shell, out of the 
way. Other rifled projectiles were seen which had one narrow rotat- 
ing band in the usual location. 

While it was evident that considerable energy and money are 
being expended at Ruelle on experimental rifled projectiles, the tech- 
nical officers there do not regard rifled projectiles favorably and 
do not consider them practical. They are of course necessary for 



33 

the very high muzzle velocities expected with the long experi- 
mental guns. 

PROJECTILES. 

The French naval service uses two or three copper rotating bands, 
each relatively narrow, say three-fourths of an inch. One band is 
placed as near the boat-tailed portion as possible, while in the case 
of the 155-mm shell, for example, the third band is placed about 1 
caliber from the first, with the second band between but just in rear 
of the third band. The latest models of projectiles seemed to be 
equipped with only two rotating bands of the same width. The 
rotating bands are at present made of pure copper and are put on 
cold under a hammer and then turned off in a lathe. 

The boat-tailed end is conical. The boat-tailing is at an angle 
of 7° and one-half of a caliber in length. 

CARTRIDGE CASES. 

In the cartridge-case shop cartridge cases for guns up to 155 mm. 
are made. For larger guns obturating breech plugs are used. Some 
experimental cartridge cases for 155-mm. guns and smaller were 
seen which had steel bases. The steel bases are machined separately. 
The cartridge bodies are drawn to size in the usual manner except 
that the base end is only about one-half closed in. A bronze washer 
(its between the end of the body and the steel base. The body of the 
case is pushed into the steel base and expanded. It was stated that 
such bases withstand high chamber pressures without deformation 
and prevent the case from sticking. Experimental cases of welded 
steel and draAvn aluminum were also seen. It was stated that these 
latter cases were not very satisfactory. 

RADIxVL EXPANSION. 

Considerable experimental work in radial expansion is now in 
progress at the Ruelle Foundry. Preparations are now being made 
for the manufacture of the 45-cm. naval gun by this process. 

Experimental forgings about 6 inches outside diameter by 15 feet 
long are being subjected to internal pressure of 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 
etc., up to 10,000 kg. per square cm. The tube is subjected to an 
internal pressure of say 3,000 kgs. per square cm.; then the apparatus 
is dismantled and complete measurements taken. The apparatus is 
then again assembled and the next pressure applied, etc., in 1,000 
kgm. steps. The tube under test is supplied with cylinder heads 
which are equipped with two loose steel rings and two rings of 

32300—23 6 



34 

dermotine packing similar to the arrangement used for a recuperator 
piston head. The two heads are held in place by six long rods 
which pass through the cylinder-head forgings and lie parallel to 
the axis of the tube. These bolts are threaded at both ends and pro- 
vided with nuts to enable the heads to be forced into the cylinders. 
They can also be readily disassembled. The table under test is 
covered the entire length with loose forged-steel rings about 1 foot 
wide. These rings protect the personnel conducting the tests, in 
case the tube is ruptured. The liquid is introduced through one of 
the steel c/vlincler heads by means of a small steel pipe. The high 
pressures used are obtained by means of a small power pump and 
accumulator. 

The ordnance engineer in charge stated that it was his opinion 
that this process would be used in the future in the construction of 
all guns except possibly the larger guns. The work of constructing 
the 45-cm. gun by radial expansion has not been started at Ruelle, 
but is in progress at the Schneider plant at Le Creusot. He is fol- 
lowing this woik and visits that plant once every two weeks. He 
stated that the main tube had been completed- and that two of the 
smaller forgings had been expanded at a pressure of 3,500 kgs. per 
square cm. Serious difficulty has. however, been encountered in this 
work due to the lack of uniformity of the forgings. Small spots 
were encountered in one of the large forgings which result in the 
formation of pockets due to a lack of homogeneous metal. The 
only remedy is to rebore the tube to a new inside diameter, cutting 
out enough metal to remove the pocket. If large forgings can be 
made sufficiently homogeneous, the largest guns can be successfully 
built by this new process. 



FRANCE. 

ST. CHAMOND RAILWAY MOUNT. 
13 December, 1922. 

Two guns of this model are being constructed by the autofrettage 
process by Schneider at Le Creusot. (Special attention is invited 
to the high chamber pressure used in this gun and the corresponding 
unusually high muzzle velocity.) 

Caliber of gun 240 mm. 

Length in calibers 51. 

Weight of projectile 160 kgs. 352 pounds. 

Weight of powder 100 kgs. 220 pounds. 

Maximum gun-chamber pressure 4.000 kgs. 56,500 pounds (per sq. 

cm.) per square inch. 
M. V 1.200 m. s. 3,940 f. s. 



35 

Height gun axis above rails 3.5 meters 11.47 feet. 

Firing limits elev . +15° to +50°. 

Azimuth 360° from track. 

Total p:ston-rod pull at 15° 177 tons. 

Recoil of gun in cradle 19.7 inches. 

Recoil of top carriage on chassis 59.2 inches. 

Inclination of chassis rails 5*\ 

Total weight recoiling parts . 120,000 pounds. 

Total weight tipping parts 106,000 pounds. 

Total weight, rotating parts (without 7 

rounds reserve ammunition) 165,000. 

Total weight rotating parts (with 7 

rounds reserve ammunition) . 169,025. 

Total over-all length of amount 48 feet. 

Number of axles - 8. 

Load per axle "_, 37,000 pounds. 

Outriggers 4. 

Distance between axles 34.5 inches. 

Number charges on loading tray 7. 

The gun is mounted in a cradle which in turn is supported on a 
sliding-top carriage, so that two distinct recoil systems are used. 
This system of double recoil greatly reduces the firing load and makes 
it possible to obtain all-around fire with this type of carriage and 
anchorage. The cradle trunnions are placed far to the rear, and the 
balance is restored by a horizontal hydropneumatic equilibrator (St. 
diamond type) similar in design to that used on the 14-inch Arm- 
strong railway mount. 

The top carriage occupies a position to the rear for transportation 
in order to equalize axle loads. The top carriage is brought to this 
position by means of a long horizontal screw connected through suit- 
able gearing to an electric motor. For firing, the top carriage is 
moved forward about 5 feet to its lowest position on the chassis rails. 
The top carriage is of cast steel, while the remainder of the carriage 
is mostly of structural steel. The racer consists of a thin steel cast- 
ing, bolted to the chassis girders, traversing on conical rollers of the 
usual type. The base ring is a similar light casting bolted to the car 
body proper. 

The car body is of the drop-frame type quite similar to that used 
for the 8-inch gun railway mount, model 1918. 

In firing, the mount is supported by means of four screw outrig- 
gers bolted to the side frames of the car, and located almost verti- 
cally under the roller path. These outriggers are inclined not more 
than 15° to the vertical, being placed as near the vertical as the end 
of the railroad ties would permit. These outriggers reduce the bend- 
ing moment on the car sills due to the vertical component of the 
firing load. , 

The horizontal component of the firing load is taken up by means 
of rail clamps placed in rear of each wheel of the rear truck, and in 



36 

rear of the four rear wheels of the front truck. In front of the 
other four wheels of the forward truck are placed similar rail clamps 
to absorb the horizontal component of the counterrecoil, 

LOADING ARRANGEMENTS. 

The projectiles are carried in a separate ammunition car which is 
coupled directly in rear of the gun mount. The projectiles are 
raised by means of an overhead hand hoist on to a loading tray and 
slid forward on to a loading platform attached to the rotating parts 
of the carriage. This tray has storage space for seven projectiles. 
A short separate loading tray connects the storage platform with 
the breech of the gun. The ammunition is loaded into the gun by 
hand. Ammunition can only be transferred from ammunition car 
to loading platform of the gun carriage when the gun is parallel to 
the longitudinal axis of mount. 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. 

Electric motors are provided for moving the top carriage from 
the traveling to the firing position, for elevating and for traversing. 
Electric motors are also located on the front and rear trucks. These 
motors are connected through a chain drive and suitable reduction 
gearing to the truck axles, thus providing a means of moving the 
mount along the track at a slow rate of speed. The electric current 
for these motors is not generated on the gun mount. 



FRANCE. 

TORPEDO PRODUCTION. 
13 January, 1923. 



In a discussion concerning the naval budget which was held on 
the 14th of December, 1922, before the Chamber of Deputies, Mr. 
Henri Aiguier stated as follows : 

The torpedo shops of Toulon, with a personnel of 450 workmen and 2 engi- 
neers plus an understudy, are called upon to manufacture 140 torpedoes per 
year, as 60 come from. the Saint-Tropez shop. 

There should be — it is no mystery for anybody, and I shall not be contra- 
dicted by the Government representative — at Toulon at least 700 men and a rea- 
sonable number of engineers, of technical agents and leading men, in order to 
properly carry out the fabrication of the necessary torpedoes for the French 
Navy. 

The question is how much should the peace fabrication be augmented in time 
of war? 

I am not the custodian of the secrets pertaining to the national defense ; but 
I think I may affirm that if our needs in rime of peace are 200 torpedoes per 



37 

year, in time of war the monthly demand would be equivalent to the annual 
demand in time of peace. 

The above indicates from very authentic source that the French 
Navy count on the production of 200 torpedoes per year during peace 
time. 



FRANCE. 

VESSELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR APPROPRIATED FOR. 

19 January, 1923. 

The characteristics of the Duguay-Trouin class of light cruisers, of 
which three were appropriated for in the 1922 program, are as 
follows : 

Length : 

P. p., 175 m.=574 feet 2 inches. 

Over all, 181.6 m.=595 feet 10 inches. 
Breadth : 17.2m.=56 feet 5 inches. 
Draft : 

Mean, 5.10 m.=16 feet 9 inches. 

Full load, 5.70 m.=18 feet 11 inches. 
Displacement : 

8,000 normal =7,873 Eng. 

9,075 full load=8,931 Eng. 
Complement : 492. 
Guns : 

8—155 mm. (6.1-inch), 4/53. 1920. In pairs. 

4 — 75 mm. (3-inch). 

4 triple tubes (12 tubes). 

1 seaplane. 
Freeboard : 

10 m. (32 feet 10 inches) forward. 

7 m. (23 feet) amidships. 

7.25 m. (23 feet 9 inches) aft. ' 
Parsons turbines. Three screws. 
Endurance : 5,000 miles at 15 knots. 

The characteristics of flotilla leaders, Jaguar class, of which six 
were appropriated for in the 1922 program, are as follows: 

Length : 

P. p., 119.70 m.=392 feet 9 inches. 

Over all, 121.90 in. =399 feet 11 inches. 
Breadth: 11.16 m.=36 feet 7 inches. 
Draft : 

3.65 m.=12 feet. 

Full load, 4.00 in. =13 feet 1 inch. 
Displacement : 

2,400 normal=2,362 Eng. tons. 

2,780 full load =2,736 Eng. tons. 
Complement : S officers, 19S men ; total, 206. 



38 



Armament : 

6 — 130 mm. (5.1-inch) twin mounts. 

2 — 75 mm. (3-inch). 

6 T. T., 55 cm. (triple mounts; 21.6-inch). 
Oil fuel: 

250 tons normal=246 Eng. tons. 

540 tons maximum=531 Eng. tons. 
Two screws. 
Endurance : 

2,600 miles at 8 knots. 
TOO' miles at full speed. 
H. P. : 48,000=35.5 knots. 



The characteristics of destroyers of the Bourrasque class, of which 
12 were appropriated for in the 1922 program and 6 only of which 
were to be laid down in 1922, are as follows : 



Length : 

P. p., 99.30 m.=325 feet 9 inches. 

Over all, 105.60 m.=346 feet 5 inches. 
Beam: 9.74 m. =31 feet 11 inches. 
Draft : 

3.00 m.=9 feet 10 inches. 

Full load, 3.35 m.=ll feet. 
Displacement : 

1,400 tons normal=l,378 Eng. tons. 

1,475 tons full load=l,452 Eng. tons. 
Complement : 7 officers, 133 men ; total 140. 
Armament: 

4—130 mm. (5.1-inch). 

4 torpedo tubes (twin mounts), 550 mm. 
Oil fuel: 

165 tons norinal=162 Eng. tons. 

350 tons maximum=344 Eng. tons. 
H. P. : 30,000=33 knots. 



The characteristics of the submarines of the Requhi class, appro- 
priated for in the 1922 program, first-class submarines, six in number, 



1,100 tons, are as follows : 

Length : 

P. p., 75 m.=246 feet. 

W. L., 75.75 m.=248 feet 6 inches. 
Beam : 6.80 m.=22 feet 3 inches. 
Draft : 4.50 m.=14 feet 9 inches. 
Complement : 48. 
Displacement : 

Surface, 1,100=1,082 Eng. tons. 

Submerged, 1,410=1,388 Eng. tons. 
Engine : 

Schneider (2), 2,900. 

Carels, 1,800. 



39 

Electric motors. 

speed: lfi surface, 10 submerged. 
Endurance: 7,000 at 9 knots, 10,500 at 5 knots. 
Armament : 

1- — 4-inch gun (probable). 
■8 — 18-inch torpedo lubes (probable), (4 forward, 2 aft, 2 upper deck). 

The characteristics of the Sirens class submarines, second-class 
boats, GOO tons, appropriated for in the 1922 program, six in number, 
are as follows : 

Length: 60-62 m.=196 feet 10 inclies=203 feet 5 inches. 

Beam: 5.40 m. =17 feet 9 inches. 

Draft: 3.20 m.=10 feet 6 inches. 

Complement : 39. 

Displacement: 

Surface, 580=570 Eng. tons. 

Submerged, 735=723 Eng. tons. 
Diesel engines : 2 ; 1,000. 
Electric motors : 2 ; 900. 
Speed : 14 surface, 9.5 submerged. 
Endurance : 

2,000 at 10 knots. 

9,000 at 5 knots. 
Armament : 

7 — 18-inch torpedo tubes (probable). 

Guns — Unknown. 



ARGENTINA. 



ARMY STRENGTH AND COST COMPARED WITH BRAZIL AND 

CHILE. 

January, 1923. 

NOTE. — One Argentine nacional=40 cents United States currency (ap- 
proximately) ; 1 Brazilian canto=$114.10 United States currency (approxi- 
mately); 1 Chilean peso=gold, 36 cents, paper, 12 cents United States cur- 
rency (approximately). 

The following tables, while taken from the press, may be consid- 
ered as fairly accurate in comparing the strength and cost of the 
armies of Chile, Argentina, and Brazil: 



Country. 


Surface, 

square 
kilometers. 


Population. 


Inhabitants 
per square 
kilometers. 


Coasts, 
kilometers. 


Frontiers, 
kilometers. 


Argentina 


2,797,113 

8,485,824 
750, 572 


8, 094, 084 
30,635,605 

3, 754, 723 


2.89 
3.61 
5.002 


4,200 
6,700 
5,500 


7,600 


Brazil 


10,500 
5, 200 


Chile 







40 



FINANCES. 



General budget of the nation. 



Argentina, 1923: 549,029,013 nac. 

Brazil, 1923: 800,000 contos 

Chile, 1922: 

348,709,365.61 paper 

74,239,878.79 gold 



Army budget. 



72,716,497 nac 

200,000 contos 

68,729,896.66 paper. 
120,933.40 gold 



Percent- 
age for 
national 
defense, 
army. 

13.2 

25 

!■ 12.8 



Note. — To the Argentine army budget has been added the amount designated for pensions, or about 
13,477,419, in order that the budget be made up under the same conditions as that of Chile and Brazil. 

Note.— The percentage of the national-defense budget which will correspond to the army (Chilean) for 
1923 can not be given because as yet the general budget of Chile has not been definitely fixed, nor the quotas 
corresponding to the different ministries. However, the percentage corresponding to the army budget 
will be less, as great economies are being introduced in this ministry. 

OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Argentina : 

Officers 1,070 

Staff officers 521 

Troops 9, 607 

Conscripts 21, 000 

Total : =. 32, 798 

Brazil : 

Officers and staff officers . 4, 436 

Noncommissioned officers 17, 693 

Soldiers 6, 540 

Musicians 1,262 

Civilian employees , — 350 

Conscripts 1 48, 965 

Total 79, 246 

Chile : 

Officers : 1, 085 

Staff officers 166 

Civilian employees 243 

Cadets 193 

Noncommissioned officers 4, 829 

Soldiers 4, 220 

Conscripts! : 9, 368 

Total 20, 104 

Note. — The number stated as the total of the Brazilian Army corresponds to the 
number stipulated in the projected reorganization of the army. At the present time the 
total strength of the army is 66,200. 



ARGENTINA. 

COMMENT REGARDING UNITED STATES NAVAL MISSION TO 

BRAZIL. 

20 December, 1922. 

The United States naval mission to Brazil is occupying a great 
deal of space in the public press of Buenos Aires just now. Most of 
the comment is unfriendly to the United States and can be summed 
up about as follows: 



41 

The United States talks about peace and disarmament and then 
sends a naval mission to Brazil to increase the size and efficiency of 
the Brazilian Navy. This will, force the other South American 
countries to increase their naval forces and thus instead of dis- 
armament we have the opposite. 

This morning I had an appointment with the Minister of Marine, 
Admiral Domecq Garcia, and during the course of our conversation 
this subject was discussed. 

The admiral, who is very pro United States, spoke quite freely on 
the subject. 

According to him Argentina looks upon the United States-Bra- 
zilian agreement as a sort of an alliance and not merely as a naval 
mission. He says that they can not see it any other way on account 
of its very official status and the fact that it was signed by the high 
officials of the two Governments. 

Consequent^ 7 Argentina feels hurt, and while it may not be a 
display of ill will on our part still it is an unfriendly and unneigh- 
borly act. 

He then spoke of the extremely cordial relations between our two 
countries; how he had always been a great friend and admirer of the 
United States and the United States Navy ; how 10 or more years ago 
he had persuaded the owner of the Prensa to start a campaign for 
better relations between the two countries ; how he had been instru- 
mental in having the Moreno and Rivadavia built in the United 
States rather than Europe; Avhat wonderful treatment he and his 
officers had received in the United States; how they were more than 
satisfied with the two ships; what good material and workmanship 
had gone into their construction, and what excellent shape they are 
in at the present time. 

" But now," he said, " with this new alliance we do not know just 
where we are ; we can not properly orient ourselves." 

He said one ship was probably to be sent abroad for new installa- 
tions, and he had hoped to send it to the United States ; but now it 
would probably be necessary to send it elsewhere, to Europe or 
England. 

The point he came back to frequently was that the mission was 
an official agreement between thetwO' Governments and that we were 
sending a hand-picked bunch of officers for the job. 

He showed me the list of officers and commented on the positions 
they held prior to joining the mission. 

He is quite sure that the friendly feeling between the officers of the 
United States and Argentine Navies will still remain. 

He repeated that Argentina and the United States had more in 
common than any other two countries in the Western Hemisphere, 



42 

and that there was every reason for our becoming better friends as 
time went on. 

In regard to missions in general, he was of the opinion that coun- 
tries that asked for or received foreign missions of this type were 
lacking in self-respect. 

CHILE. 

VARIOUS NAVAL NOTES. 
January. 1923. 

BRITISH OFFICERS IN CHILE. 

On the 1st of January, 1923, the following officers were under 
contract with the Chilean Navy : 

Capt. Geo. 1ST. Tomlin, K. N., director of the Naval War College. 
Contract extends from 31 May, 1922, to 1 March, 1921, salary, £180 
per month. 

Commander A. C. Domville, R. N., gunnery instructor. Contract 
extends from 23 December, 1920, until 30 August, 1923; salary, 
£1,500 per year. 

Col. James L. Travers, E. A. F., instructor in aviation. Contract 
extends from 29 April, .1922, until 23 April, 1923; salary, £2,000 
per year. 

In addition to the above, there is an employee, Mr. W. J. Hagley, 
formerly in the English dockyard service, contracted as an electrical 
engineer from 21 July, 1922, to 24 September, 1923, at a salary of 
£600 per year. 

NAVAL AVIATION BASE. 

The project has been approved to establish the principal naval 
aviation base of Chile at Quintero, a small port about 20 miles to 
the northward of Valparaiso. 

For the initial expenditures 100,000 pesos have already been al- 
lotted, and construction work is now in progress. 

NAVAL BUDGET. 

The budget as approved for the Chilean Navy for 1923, and which 
will now be sent to the Congress for approval, is : 

Moneda corrieute _ *.-_-___ $37, 234, 501. 22 

Chile gold pesos .__ _ - 7,038,753.00 

The budget passed for 1922 amounted to: 

Moneda corriente i $48. 189, 672. 12 

Gold pesos 7, 220, 815. 14 



43 



SHIPS IN COMMISSION. 



With the above budget for 1923 they propose to keep in active 
commission during the current year the following ships : 
Almirante Latorre 



Captain Prat J 



I Battleships. 



-Mtfl 



Destroyers. 



O'Higgins ~ . 

„ , n ^ Cruisers. 

Esmeralda : J 

Zenteno Surveying ship. 

Blanco Encalada , School ship. 

Cochrane Gunnery training ship 

Uribe 

Lynch 

Williams 

Riveros 

Condell 

H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5, and H-6 .' Submarines 

Rancagua _ 

Maipo 

Angamos 

Lautaro Training ship. 

And 10 tugs. 



Transports. 



CHINA. 

A VISIT TO GEN. FENG YU-HSIANG. 

December, 1922. 

NOTE. — Gen. Feng Yu-Hsiang' has been closely associated with Wu Pei Fu 
and is generally regarded as the latter's " right-hand man." See article that 
follows on "General Political Notes" (p. 48). 

General Feng's headquarters are situated on the outskirts of 
Kaifeng. 

CAMPS AND BARRACKS. 

He has a large camp and barracks here capable of holding about 
18,000 men with kitchens and messing arrangements. Undoubt- 
edly many more could be accommodated in the immediate vicinity. 
The barracks of the troops are of recent construction, the work hav- 
ing been done by General Feng's soldiers. They are in the most 
excellent condition and entirely sanitary. 

Close to the camp is a drill ground and athletic field of about one- 
half mile square. Arranged along the side of this are administrative 
offices, officers' mess halls, large buildings for schools and lecture 
rooms, etc. 

REVIEW, ATHLETIC EXHIBITIONS, ETC. 

A review of some 2,000 troops was held. These troops consist of 
held artillery and machine guns and infantry. The soldiers were 
well drilled and the equipment looked in good condition. It is 



44 

apparent, however, that it had been frequently used for drills. The 
men did not seem to have much pep. 

After the review the troops were put through athletic exercises 
in much the same manner as they had been at Loyang. One inter- 
esting feature was the singing of the soldiers while marching. 

General Feng believes in keeping his officers in good physical con- 
dition as well as his men; and after the athletic exercises of the 
enlisted forces 225 of his officers of all ranks, including colonels, gave 
an athletic competition. This was in the form of a hurdle race of 
something over a quarter of a mile ; and the hurdles consist of ditches, 
high stone walls, and wooden fences. These were all taken at a run. 

fejstg's peopagaxda and methods. 

Probably the most interesting feature in General Feng's division 
is his propaganda to improve his soldiers. This is largely commu- 
nistic in character and consists of printed instructions dealing with 
moral character, conduct, duties of soldiers, etc. This feature is 
extended to the citizens as well as the soldiers, and the walls of 
Kaifeng. the gateways, all empty wall spaces inside the city, barrack 
walls in the compound, and the Avails of rooms are covered with 
mottoes. These are from Confucius, from the Bible, and sayings of 
Feng himself. These are ordinarily short sentences dealing with 
personal conduct, not such sentences as " This is my busy day," but 
rather " Evil be to him who evil thinks." These quotations meet the 
eye on all sides, and it must be admitted disfigure the view much as 
our advertisements do at home. Just how much good will be done 
by them is doubtful. The missionary in charge of the largest 
Chinese school at Kaifeng estimated that the percentage of illiteracy 
Avas as high as 90. This was considered exaggerated by some others. 
aaIio said 75 to 80 per cent. It would, of course, be true, however, 
that those who could read would pass the material on to others. 

In keeping Avith the aboA'e idea, the rooms in the barracks of the 
soldiers AA-ere each furnished with a table for study purposes, and on 
these tables Avere a number of books dealing with instructions for sol- 
diers in regard to their duties, in regard to moral conduct, and other 
similar subjects; a copy of the P>ible ATas also supplied, and a small 
stiff folder containing General Feng's picture on one side and a text 
from St. Matthew on the other. Samples of these books are here- 
with forAvarded. On the AA'alls of the mess rooms and the halls used 
for instruction purposes were large AA-all maps, with pictures of Aari- 
ous objects, from vegetables to machines of all kinds. These AA'ere 
labeled with their names in Chinese. The idea is exactly similar to 
that used in our own primary schools. 



45 

There is no doubt but that General Feng- fosters among his soldiers 
a feeling and attitude of equality of all. commissioned personnel as 
well as enlisted. He carries out the idea to some extent himself. 
For instance, he wears the same uniform as his own soldiers (i. e., 
same material), with his marks of rank attached. From one or two 
things that I saw. free comment by all hands on military matters was 
common and criticisms of superiors the accepted thing. One lieu- 
tenant colonel commented freely to us on General Feng's conduct, and 
said very frankly that " General Feng was a local character, whereas 
of course General \Yu Pei-fu was a national one." 

General Feng himself is a large, good-looking Chinese of 41. He 
is energetic, active, alert, and a hard worker. He is a very good 
speaker and displays, more than Wu Pei-fu, qualities of leadership. 
I should say that he is fully able to hold the loyalty and support of 
his officers and men. Considering that he could not read until he 
was 21 and that he started at that time as a common soldier with 
no education, he has made wonderful advancement, and this almost 
entirely by his own efforts. He is, however, badly handicapped by 
his lack of education and his lack of experience in ordinary matters 
of administration and intercourse with educated people of his own 
race and foreign races. He had the appearance of not trusting his 
own judgment and having to appeal to others for advice or in- 
formation. 

He has been known as the " Christian general " for some years 
and became a Christian convert about 10 years ago. I am in no posi- 
tion to form a judgment of his sincerity in this matter. Speaking 
broadly, I think he is somewhat distrusted by his own race and by 
foreigners in China generally. He is, however, trusted by the mis- 
sionary elment and thought a great deal of by those missionaries 
who have been close to him. 

I got a very distinct impression that General Feng suffered 

seriously from lack of competent advisers and a competent staff. 

Note. — Since the above, General Feng lias been shifted from the Tuchunshlp 
of Hoiian to Peking as inspector general of the army. 



CHINA. 

ATTITUDE EXPRESSED BY SUN YAT-SEN. 
8 December, 1922. 

The following speech of Dr. Sun regarding the relations of Japan 
with occidental powers, together with comments thereon by im- 
portant British newspaper men in China, are quoted beloAv : 

"If Japan had aided the Teutonic powers in the World War, all Asia would 
have risen against the whites, and to-day there would have been an Asia con- 



46 

trolled by the Asiatics," Dr. Sun Vat-sen, former "president" <>r the Gantoh 
government, has declared in an interview with a representative of the .li.ji :ii 
Shanghai. 

"In joining in the World War on the side of the allied powers, Japan failed 
to utilize the golden opportunity of making Asia exclusive for the Asiatics," 
said Dr. Sun. " Such an Asia would have opposed the whites, especially the 
Anglo-Saxons. At the beginning of the World War, I wrote Mr. Inukai, 
president of the Kokuminto, urging Japan to assist the Teutonic powers, 
thereby impairing the relative strength of the Anglo-Saxcns and balancing 
the power of the world. The result of such a situation would have been the 
promotion of the position of Japan to the real leadership of the Asiatics. But 
Japan did not accept my advice, thus letting slip a heaven-sent opportunity 
of making herself the leader of the Orient. 

"If Japan had understood what is called high politics, and if she had 
been bold enough to declare war against the Allies, Annain and Singapore 
would have risen to arms against France and England. Ththe is not the 
slightest doubt but that the Indians would have revolted against Great 
Britain and that the Turks and Chinese would have recovered their national 
consciousness and supported her in her effort to unite Asia. 

"As it is, Japan participated in the war on the side of the allied countries, 
with the result that realization of the pan-Asiatic plan has been delayed 
indefinitely. As Japan has shown herself incapable of seizing this oppor- 
tunity, it will be China that will be called upon to make Asia a place for 
Asiatics in the future. 

" In the early days of the World War I called upon various Japanese 
statesmen of influence and urged them to use their weight in influencing 
public opinion in favor of participation on the side of Germany. They, how- 
ever, refused to listen to me seriously. Some of them, indeed, showed agree- 
ment with my view, but when it came to action they hesitated. And the result 
is that the best opportunity of making Asia Asiatic in every sense has 
been lost. 

" It is not too late for Japan to undo what she did blindly during the war. 
If Japan really wishes to see Asia controlled by the Asiatics, she must promote 
relations with the Russians. Russians are Asiatics. There run in their veins 
Asiatic blood. Japan must make common cause with the Russians in opposing 
the aggression of the Anglo-Saxons. In shaking hands with Russia in the 
work of asserting the rights of the Asiatic alone lies hope of salvation from 
the catastrophe to which Japan and the other oriental countries are being 
forced by the unsatiable ambition of Anglo-Saxons." 

Dr. Sim Yat-sen again appeared in the role of the enemy of Britain 
in the remarkable interview which he gave to the representative of a 
Japanese newspaper and which Ave reproduced yesterday. In that 
interview, Dr. Sun stated that in the early days of the war he urged 
various Japanese statesmen to use their weight so as to insure Japan's 
participation on the side of Germany, the result of which, he says, 
would have been revolts in Annam and Singapore against the French 
and British, respectively, as well as revolution in India, culminating 
in the Turks and Chinese recovering their national consciousness 
and supporting Japan in her efforts to unite Asia. "Asia for the 
Asiatics " was Dr. Smrs idea, with Asiatic opposition to the whites, 



"■ 4-? 

• 

"especially the Anglo-Saxons.* 3 That was Dr. Sun's dream in t lie 
early days of the war, and it is evidently still his fond hope, inas- 
much as he remarks that " it is not too late for Japan to undo what 
she did blindly during the Avar." He then advocates closer rela- 
tionship with the Russians, who, he says, are really Asiatics, and 
with whom Japan should make common cause "in opposing the 
aggression of the Anglo-Saxons." 

By degrees we are getting to know exactly where Dr. Sun stands. 
He is obviously antiforeign in-,- the sense of being opposed to most 
of the European powers, with special reference to Britain. He con- 
veniently forgets that his life has twice been saved through the 
good offices of the British, the latest occasion being his recent flight 
from Canton, when he was glad enough to take refuge aboard a 
British warship and get away as a passenger on a British liner. Inci- 
dentally it is worth noting that political refugees in almost every 
part of the world find British warships quite convenient when it 
comes to saving their skins — witness the recent flight of the Sultan 
of Turkey and members of the Greek royal family. As we were 
saying, Dr. Sun has much for which to thank Britain, but that appar- 
ently does not temper his hatred of us. That is ingratitude, if 
you like. 

Another fact disclosed by this interview is in line with our recent 
exposure of secret documents found at Canton, namely, that Dr. Sun 
is working for, all he knows how, to link up China (and Japan as 
well) with Russia. He wants an understanding between Russia and 
China, and he also wants Japan to •"■shake hands" with the soviet. 
And what is his main object ? Opposition to European interests in 
the east. With him antiforeign ideas have become a mania. By and 
by we shall know the whole truth. 



CHINA. 

CONDITIONS AT TSINGTAO. 
20 December, 1922. 

The necessary arms and ammunition for safeguarding Tsingtao 
were unloaded from the Shikotan Maru and handed over to the 
Chinese guards by the Japanese consul general. The Japanese troops 
are expected to evacuate as soon as affairs in connection with the 
transfer have been completed. 

There are now in Tsingtao and within the leased territory the 
following well-armed soldiers and police: 000 regular police; 500 



. 48 

military police; 300 murine police, and 1,200 regular soldiers, taken 
in Iry Civil Gov. Hsiung Pingehi as he went down to receive the 
city.' 

Civil Gov. Hsiung is apparently going to gefkhis idea of recruiting- 
some of the bandits " put across." It is learned from official sources 
that he is planning to incorporate from 1,000 to 1,500 of these 
bandits in the regiments of soldiers stationed in the vicinity of 
Tsingtao. This move is opposed by C. T. Wang and Gen. Liang 
Shang-tung, of which the latter has* resigned his position on account 
of this bandit issue. ' : ■ . 

On the 13th instant the Tsingtao Supplement of the Tsinan Jin 
Pao said, "On December 10, at V2 o'clock, the Japanese consulate 
was opened with due ceremonies- by the consul and the chief oc 
police. There will be five police centers in the port ; namely, on 
Hsin Tan Street, on New Street, on Shantung Street, on Malcuan 
Street, and on Tsang Kou Street. In addition to ail these there will 
be four police centers outside of the port ; namely, at Ro River 
Street, at Si Fang, at Tai Dung Chen, and at Li Tsun. It is hoped 
to open these centers within a few days." 

The Japanese consulate in Tsingtao has attached to it 68 consular 
police. There are police boxes in different parts of the city, accord- 
ing to the Japanese papers at nine different places. This is causing 
friction, because Governor Hsiung objects to their presence, while 
C. T. Wang is supposed to have agreed to let the Japanese have 
them. 

The Japanese also have consular police in Tsinan; supposedly 
about 30 men. Although they have had them for a long time, it is 
only recently that they started to -appear on the. streets in uniform. ! ' 
Now a Japanese consular police in uniform, carrying a sword, goes 
to the Shantung Railway station every time a train leaves or arrives. 



CHINA. 

GENERAL POLITICAL NOTES. 

December, 1922. 

NOTE. — The following observations were obtained from various foreign 
residents in China: 

During the past month there has been no improvement in the 
political situation and nothing has been done toward establishing a 
sound government or bettering the finances of the country. The 
hopes that were placed upon President Li Yuan-heng when he 
assumed the office of President have not been realized ; and as yet he 



49 

has not shown himself to be any improvement over his predecessor, 
Hsu Shih-chang. Several incidents have happened which are of 
significance : 

The enemies of Gen. Wu Pei-fu have succeeded in having his right- 
hand man, Gen. Feng Yu-hsiang (so-called Christian general), trans- 
ferred with his troops from Honan to Peking. Neither Wu nor Feng- 
wished the transfer, but were the victims of outside influence, which 
tried to prove that Wu was double-crossing Feng, and vice versa. 
This has left Honan Province in a very precarious state, on account 
of the activities of bandits, who have interrupted traffic on the 
Peking-Hankow line and taken captive eight foreigners, whom they 
still hold. A joint protest from all the legations in Peking to release 
these foreigners has been of no avail. 

Ten days ago the Minister of Finance, Dr. Lo Wen-kan, was 
illegally arrested on instructions of the President, who accused him 
of having accepted a bribe in connection with an Austrian loan of 
£5,700,000 for financing warships bought previous to the war. Doctor 
Lo's accusers have been unable to substantiate their case, and Presi- 
dent Li has tried to smooth things over and asked Doctor Lo to 
resume office and forget, but Doctor Lo has insisted on remaining 
in jail and having his case tried. Dr. Wang Chung-hui, Premier, 
and Dr. Wellington Koo, Minister for Foreign Affairs, have hotly 
protested to the President against his action, resigned their offices 
and asked to be put in jail along with Dr. Lo Wen-kan. Doctors 
Wang and Koo were undoubtedly two of the most capable men in 
the old cabinet. The President is now trying to appoint a new Pre- 
mier, but has not yet prevailed on anyone to take office and form a 
new cabinet. 

On the surface, Chang Tso-lin is taking no part at present in 
Peking politics, but is engaged with affairs of the three eastern 
Provinces and is building up a large army. 

Parliament has done nothing constructive since it resumed its 
sessions. Its latest action has been to impeach Dr. Wang Chung- 
hui and Dr. Wellington Koo. 

One of the most discouraging facts about the present government 
is their lack of principle and disinclination to properly use what 
money there is at their disposal. This is exemplified by the Peking- 
Hankow Railway, which monthly pays $800,000 to militarists at 
Loyang and Paotingfu and is barely able to put aside $120,000 for 
the purchase of current supplies for the railway. Practically all of 
this $120,000 goes to Chinese firms from which the railway officials 
are able to make purchases to their personal advantage. Foreign 
linns arc given little or no consideration. 



50 

CHINA. 

PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS OF WU PEI-FU. 
December, 1922. 

NOTE. — Extracts from a recent official report. 

On Thursday Wu, commanding: in person, took his entire third 
division (about 11,000 rifles) on an all-day hike. The men and 
mounts observed appeared in good shape in spite of a nine hours' 
hike without food, and there were evidences of good discipline in 
Wu's division. 

On Friday Wu came to our yamen and breakfasted with us. re- 
maining with us until we left his headquarters. 

Wu is a small man physically, but evidently a man of good' 
physical endurance ; age about 49. Pretty much all his upper front 
teeth are replaced by porcelains, each porcelain tooth set in a gold 
frame. This is not a common way to set in false teeth, and in con- 
sequence, seems noticeable when one meets him. Other striking 
features are his large brown eyes, light but ruddy coloring, and 
sandy mustache, an unusual combination in a Chinese. He might 
be called a blonde Chinaman. He has an alert mind. 

During our visit Wu continued to carry on at his desk, working 
with his secretaries, going over his mail, endorsing letters and 
telegrams to indicate the replies, signing letters and telegrams. 
All the while his mind was not entirely off the conversation. He 
would offer observations, ask questions, and he gave the impression 
that he had lost nothing of the subject under discussion, at least 
nothing essential. He said that he had to do that with all his 
visitors, that many people came to see him at all hours, some came 
unexpectedly, and that he had to make a practice and routine of 
cleaning up business with his secretaries, and allow nothing to 
interrupt this, otherwise important matters would not receive the 
prompt attention that they deserved. This conscientious attention 
to business can only speak of a good quality. He seems to be alive 
to the civilizing and unifying influence of good communications, 
for he said that one of the first things that he would undertake 
to recommend when the country became " reunified " was to clear 
the upper Yangtse rapids of the rocks and to seek to improve that 
channel and thus to invite an increase in steamer traffic. 

Wu is a poor man. His staff said that Wu's troops are now ten 
months in arrears of pay, but that they are contented; that they 
all liked Wu and had faith in him. That Wu has to "borrow" 
frequently from his merchant friends funds necessary to maintain 



51 

his private home and his headquarters. A prominent American, 
who lately visited Wu and was domiciled in Wu's home, said that 
Madame Wu had to take charge of the house money each month 
to keep Wu from spending it on his headquarters. This is in contrast 
to all other Chinese military chieftains, who, together with their 
henchmen, put into their own pockets yearly, so his staff said, a 
total of probably 50 millions (local currency) of the people's 
money. 

In conversation with his chief of staff it was suggested that the 
most promising course of action looking to " reunification " would 
seem to be for Wu to make himself Minister of War and then clean 
up the rebel Tuchuns. The chief of staff said that Wu would take 
no office until he could go there in accordance with constitutional 
requirements. This was not intended to imply that Wu has political 
ambitions. Perhaps he has none, for Wu said that as soon as the 
country was " reunified " he and his chief of staff were going to tour 
the United States. This also isolates Wu from all the other military 
chieftains who have set up autocracies and are suppressing provincial 
assemblies. In seeking to find out how this man's mind stands quite 
apart from the mentalities of his colleagues, it was found that Wu 
has always been a student of the great religions, of politics, and of 
constitutional government. He is such an authority on the religions 
that a year ago, in Hankow, Wu addressed the Chinese Young Men's 
Christian Association for more than an hour on the differences and 
resemblances of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity and which 
held out most for the world at large. But the impression was not 
gained that Wu professes Christianity, although during the farewell 
" banquet " Thursday evening one of the selections played by his band 
was the old evangelical tune to " God be with you till we meet 
again." When it was suggested that Wu got that from Feng (the 
" Christian general ") Wu laughed. Another subject of conversa- 
tion was the disposal of disbanded troops after " reunification." At 
Loyang they said that Wu's idea was to colonize the sparsely settled 
regions of northwest China. When they said that the men were not 
allowed to take their women, the observation was offered that they 
could not be contented ; that woman was necessary to pioneering, to 
now home building. They said that they thought they could send 
out the women in three years. It is safe to predict that this will not 
succeed, that farmers can not be made out of soldiers unless they 
have their wives and can set up normal homes. 

Something was learned of fundamental Chinese politics. 

(a) The Kuomintmig is the party demanding provincial autonomy. 
The present strong man is Chien Chung-ming (Canton), who drove 



52 

out Sun Yat-sen last summer. This group seems fairly well solidified 
only in the sense that each wants autonomy, but each is maintaining 
practical independence now and occasionally each gets to fighting 
the other. They are not solidified in the sense that they obey an out- 
sider. Curiously enough it is somewhat analogous to our Confederate 
States. The idea is States rights. At Loyang they said that progress 
was being made toward some sort of compromise with the Chihli 
Party. 

( b ) The ( 'hihli Party, of which Tsao Kun is the leader but in which 
Wu Pei-fu is the strong man, stands for a strong central government 
and a union of the Provinces. It is evident that this party molds its 
ideas on our own system. This party understands that the motive of 
the Kuomintang leaders is the perpetuation of provincial feudal 
autocracies for the benefit of the man who can gain power, and that 
Kuomintang means no less than constant intraprovincial fighting for 
the procincial Tuchunate, such as went on in Szechwan last summer, 
in Fuikan a few weeks ago, in Kwangtung Avhen Chien drove out 
Sun. At Loj^ang they are working to compromise differences with 
Kuomintang. The Chihli Party has practically solidified the north- 
ern Provinces (less Manchuria and Szechwan). The Provinces of 
Hunan and Kiangsi are standing between the Chihli Party group 
and the Kuomintang group, being partially encircled by the latter. 
Their very position strategically makes them lean toward the stronger 
party of the two for the time being. 

(c) The Anfu Party, headed by "Little Hsu" (Hsu Shu-tseng). 
to-day stands for nothing constructive and as a party has not a large 
following. Originally it stood for the restoration of the dynasty. 
As a political party it is now in disrepute throughout practically the 
whole of China because of its subordination to Japanese influences. 
Its few known members, such as " Little Hsu," are simply tools of 
Japan, directly and possibly indirectly through Chang Tso-lin, to stir 
up internal troubles to prevent unification. It was stated at Loyang 
that Sun Yat-sen, who continues to have some personal following, 
might join forces with "Little Hsu" against Wu in the event of a 
renewed attack by Chang Tso-lin. 

(d) The Fengtien Party, Chang Tso-lin, stands for the restora- 
tion of the Manchu dynasty, so Loyang says. At Loyang the}^ claim 
that if ever Chang gets into Peking he will set up the " boy emperor " 
one day, strangle him the next, and then declare himself the founder 
of the Chang dynasty. At Loyang they are evidently very much 
worried that Chang recently got 22 carloads of munitions of war, 
including 100,000 rifles, 300 machine guns, besides ammunition, field 
artillery, and two aeroplanes. 



53 

The Fengtien Party and Ruwmintang both standing for autocracy, 
the former for the restoration of the dynasty, the latter for out-and- 
out autocracy without any particular name, it is easy to understand 
how it was, last spring, that Sun, then leader of Kuomintang, could 
ally himself with Chang, and attempt to attack the northern Prov- 
inces in the rear while Wu was busy with Chang. At Loyang they 
firmly believe that Chang will attack in the spring, and that he will 
be much stronger than he was in the spring of 1922 ; that he is burn- 
ing to wipe out the beating Wu gave him last spring. They say that 
Chang has over 100 Japanese Army officers in his armies wearing 
Chinese uniforms, and they think that Japan wishes to recover lost 
prestige by having Chang win the next time; incidentally it might 
be mentioned that at Loyang they say that there are a great number 
of Japenese Army officers in China, posing as civilians, nominally in 
trade and commerce, and learning the country and the Chinese 
tongue. 



ECUADOR. 

LABOR CONDITIONS. 
4 January, 1923. 



For some time it has been known that attempts were being made 
by an international band of conspirators to foment revolutions and 
labor troubles throughout South America. Details are now at hand 
in regard to the results of their work in Ecuador, which ended with 
such disastrous consequences the 15th of November, 1922. 

The laboring classes in Ecuador during the past few months have 
become greatly dissatisfied due to the lowering of the exchange and 
no corresponding increase in wages. For that reason, about the 5th 
of November, a strike started amongst the railroad employees. It 
rapidly extended itself to practically all the laboring element in the 
city of Guayaquil and was participated in to such an extent that by 
the 12th of November all the public utilities of the city, such as 
water works, tram cars, telephones, electric light and gas companies, 
etc., had ceased to function. 

On the 15th of November a crowd of laboring people and their 
sympathizers, variously estimated between twenty and thirty thou- 
sand, gathered in the public square for the purpose of demonstration 
and listening to speeches by their leaders. The crowd, due undoubt- 
edly to paid agitators, became more and more unruly and finally 
transformed itself into a mob and started toward the barracks of the 
town, where some disturbers of the public peace who had been arrested 



54 

for disorderly conduct were incarcerated. A skirmish soon occurred 
between the numerous troops that had been brought into the city 
and the mob. In the course of the fighting about 500 people, men, 
women, and children, were killed and about 2,000 wounded. The 
outbreaks of the mob continued in the city for about three days, 
during which Guayaquil passed through practically a reign of terror, 
there being numerous shops looted, robberies committed, etc. Finally 
the authorities succeeded in getting control of the situation, and the 
abortive attempt at revolution may be said to have come to an end. 

The supposed leader of the revolution, Sefior Enrique Baquerizo 
Moreno, was arrested immediately as soon as the fighting in the 
streets became general and has since been deported, together with 
Jose Vicente Trujillo and Carlos Puig V., lawyers of Guayaquil, 
who have been acting extensively as paid attorneys of the laboring 
element. 

The following facts in regard to Sefior Baquerizo are interesting : 
The first time he was deported was in 1882, at which time he was 
18 years of age. In the year 1895 he was deported once more to the 
United States; in 1896 again to Guatemala; and in 1898 again to 
Peru. In 1907 he was deported to Panama. Up to the time of his 
present deportation he was a senator and one of the leaders of the 
opposing party. 



GERMANY. 

NAVAL STRATEGY IN THE WORLD WAR. 
12 December, 1922. 

It has been developed that a considerable number of lectures and dis- 
cussions have been held in the Admiralty regarding the German naval 
strategy during the war. As shown by the official publications of the 
Admiralty, the commander in chief of the fleet, Admiral Ingenohl, 
had been severely criticized for his lack of initiative on numerous 
occasions in the early part of the war, and very particularly for his 
overcautious retreat on the occasion of the German bombardment of 
Scarborough and Whitby on 15 September, 1914. 

Although Admiral Ingenohl, the commander in chief, had been 
severely criticized, it developed later that the German Admiralty 
more or less fixed the blame for this attitude on the fleet commander 
and his own staff. The admiral was apparently influenced by his 
torpedo officer, who urged excessive caution in all operations against 
the British fleet, and appeared to be particularly overcautious in 
regard to submarine and torpedo attacks. From the best criticism 



55 

in the Admiralty, it appears that this attitude was due to the fad 
that the staff of Admiral Ingenohl had served in this capacity for a 
period of at least five years without change and that the officers had 
not had sufficient line and executive duty to permit them to advise 
Hie commander in chief in the capacity of experts. 

It is hoped that the translation of the German official publications 
on the war at sea may be made at an early date and made available 
for study of the naval service in the Naval War College in particular, 
sis the Germans undoubtedly lost their best opportunities for winning 
the war by their overcaution, as exemplified in this particular 
engagement. 



GREECE. 

ARTILLERY EQUIPMENT AND REORGANIZATION. 

December, 1922. 

According to the GrefcK general staff, the following artillery is 
now in use in the Army: 

Mountain artillery: Pieces. 

12 batteries of 75-nim. Schneider-Dang] is 48 

25 batteries of 65-mni. Schneider-Canet 100 

9 batteries, model not known 36 

Total (46 batteries) 184 

Field artillery: 

First regiment, 3 batteries 75-mm. Krupp 12 

Second regiment — 

3 batteries 75-mm. Schneider-Canet 12 

3 batteries 75-mm. Krupp 12 

Third regiment, 6 batteries 75-mm. Schneider-Canet 24 

Fourth regiment, 6 batteries 77-mm. Schneider-Canet 24 

With V corps, 1 battery 75-mm. Krupp 4 

With cavalry division, 1 battery 75-mm. Schneider-Canet 4 

Total (23 batteries) 92 

Heavy artillery : 

First heavy regiment, 6 batteries 6-inch English howitzers 18 

Second heavy regiment- — 

3 batteries 150-mm. Skoda howitzers 12 

2 batteries 105-mm. Skoda howitzers 8 

2 batteries 120 long, guns 8 

Total (13 batteries) 46 

While the above statement has not been accurately checked, it is 
believed to be substantially correct. A slight difference may later 
be found in the question of model in the field and mountain category. 

The work of reorganizing the artillery in the army of Thrace 
is now about complete. The new Minister of War, General Pangalos, 



56 

has given to the work of reconstruction of the army a special im- 
pulse for the reason that he expects in a few days to personally take 
the command of it. The present aim of the Greek staff is to com- 
plete the organization of the second, third, and fourth corps, which 
compose the army of Trace, as soon as possible. As far as the 
artillery is concerned, its reorganization is effected in recent orders 
and is as follows : 

Heavy artillery. — The first regiment of heavy artilleiw is to con- 
sist of the 6-inch English organized into two groups of three bat- 
teries each, each batteiy having three guns. The second regiment 
will consist of one group of three batteries of four guns each of 
150-mm. Skoda howitzers, which were brought out of the storage 
of captured material ; one group of two batteries of four guns each 
of 105-mm. Skoda howitzers; one group of two batteries of four 
guns each of 120-mm. French guns. All of the heavy artillery of the 
Greek Army is thus assigned to the army of Thrace. 

Field artillery. — The field artillery is as before all assigned ah 
corps artillery. The regimental organization has been reduced to six 
batteries per regiment, in place of nine as in the past. The third 
and fourth regiments, which are assigned to the third and fourth 
corps, are already complete. The second corps had only two batteries 
of 75's, but four new one are being created for it, principally from 
the artillery of the first corps, which is leaving Athens for Saloniki 
to-daj-. In forming that regiment, which will be called the " second 
regiment," the nucleus of the personnel for three batteries will be 
given by the first corps and completed by recruits from the class of 
t 1923. 

One battery is to be organized by the commander of the army of 
Thrace, the nucleus being given by the two batteries which are al- 
ready at Saloniki. Thus in a few days the three corps will each 
have as corps artillery, one regiment of 75-mm. field guns of six 
batteries each. The first regiment belonging to the first corps will 
have only three batteries and in them there will exist only a bare 
nucleus for the present. The fifth corps in Epirus has one battery 
of 75-mm. Krupp guns and will not be increased. 

The material for the increase in field guns has been obtained 
chiefly by bringing out of storage and putting into service a number 
of Krupp guns which were captured from the Bulgarians and Turks. 
The chief of artillery states that these Krupp guns are in as good, 
if not better, than their old 75 French pieces, but the question of 
ammunition for them is not assured. They have on hand enough 
to give the batteries a limited amount and they hope later to obtain 
reserve stock from the French or Czecho-Slovaks. 

The question of animals for the new batteries is even more pinched 
than that of ammunition. Horses are being drawn from every pos- 



57 

sible unit, but even with the greatest economies the batteries will 
not be completely equipped and will have to get along for the present 
as best they can. 

Mountain artillery. — In the plan of reorganization General Pan- 
galos directed that all of the divisions in the army of Thrace be 
immediately supplied with the required amount of mountain artil- 
lery, namely, two groups of two batteries each. To effect this the 
first corps was ordered to provide the skeleton personnel for six 
batteries, to which were added drafts from the 1923 class. The 
commander of the army in Thrace was directed to similarly con- 
struct three batteries from the personnel of the mountain batteries 
in his army. This work is now about completed. The necessary 
guns were secured mostly from bringing into service captured guns 
which had been in storage. Thus according to the Greek staff, all 
of the divisions in the Greek Army will in a few days have four bat- 
teries of mountain artillery each, with the exception of the divisions 
in the tirst corps, which will only have six batteries for the four 
divisions and thus will be in a decidedly stripped condition. 



GREECE. 

MOBILIZED STRENGTH OF ARMY. 
14 December, 1922. 

From the operations carried on in Asia Minor during the past 
three years it was evident that the Greek Army could mobilize for 
offensive operations about 500,000 men, counting all categories. At 
that time there were available for operations the following men : 

First-line troops (men from 20 to 41) 370,000 

Territorials (men from 41 to 51) 75,000 

Untrained troops (men from 18 to 19) 63,000 

Total 508, 000 

The present strength available for mobilization under the same 
circumstances would be as follows : 

First-line troops 354, 000 

Territorials 75, 000 

Untrained 1 31,000 

Total 460, 000 

K is to be noted that the class of 1923 has already been trained. 

It is believed that on a defensive campaign about ten per cent 
could be added to the totals of the men in the category of first-line 
troops, for the reason that in such a case fewer exemptions would be 
given to the men in the older classes. 



58 

Due to the great loss of material in Asia Minor and the difficulty 
the Greeks are having in replacing it, it is not believed that the 
Greeks could equip for field service over 250,000 men, and even this 
number would call for their being armed with a lot of obsolete 
weapons. 



GREECE. 

RELATIONS WITH BRITISH GOVERNMENT. 
6 December, 1922. 

The incidents surrounding the departure of Mr. Lindley, the 
British minister in Athens, are of peculiar interest, and substantially 
as follows: 

For reasons to be explained later Mr. Lindley took a very strong 
stand against the intention of the revolutionary Government to 
execute the leaders of the ex-royalist regime who were charged with 
being guilty of creating the disaster which recently befell Greece 
in Asia Minor. The revolutionary committee did not receive very 
kindly the overtures of Mr. Lindley. first, for the reason that they 
felt very strongly against the prisoners: and, secondly, because they 
likewise felt that England herself was a good deal to blame in 
creating the situation which permitted the catastrophe, and therefore 
resented further interference. Mr. Lindley was constantly besieged 
by friends and relatives of the accused, urging him to intercede in 
their behalf. They felt no hesitancy in asking this of him, for the 
reason that they could say to him. that the prisoners were in their 
present dilemma due to the fact that their policy had been greatly 
influenced by him. When the trial actually commenced Mr. Lindley 
became more insistent and threatening in his attitude toward the 
revolutionarv committee, followed by stating to them in a formal 
letter written about the 16th of November that England would not 
permit the execution of the prisoners and threatening them with 
some sort of intervention in case they attempted it. This note 
brought on a temporary crisis in the Government, for the reason 
that no one wished to reply to the note and all felt incensed over 
the attitude taken by the British minister. The news about the note 
got out and almost caused public disturbances. As the news was 
circulated it was given all sorts of meanings, which caused the people 
who before had not been insistent upon the execution to demand of 
the revolutionary committee to carry out with a free hand the order 
of the court so as to show the independence of the Greek nation. 

The situation was temporarily calmed down by the statement from 
Mr. Lindley that he would ask his Government to withdraw the note. 
It was believed, hoAvever, that the note was written almost entirely 



59 

on his own initiative. Mr. Lindley, however, let the revolutionary 
committee understand clearly his attitude regarding the execution 
of the prisoners. Previous to this note the revolutionary committee 
had given out secretly to several of the other ministers who were coun- 
seling moderation that for political reasons they were compelled to 
go ahead with the trial, but that in the end a way would be found 
to avoid their actual execution. After the incident of the note the 
revolutionary committee was threatened by delegations from the 
army and navy that if they weakened they themselves would take 
matters in hand and proceed with the execution. The day before the 
trial was to finish it was seen clearly that the revolutionary committee 
was determined to take matters into its own hands regarding the 
execution and re-formed the Government so that its members took 
all of the prominent posts. 

The impression Avas quite current that the action of Mr. Lindley 
was almost entirety personal and carried with it a good deal of bluff. 
The immediate execution of the prisoners without giving any con- 
sideration to the advice of the foreign diplomats appeared particu- 
larly as a slap at Mr. Lindley. He thereupon immediately informed 
them that diplomatic relations were broken and left the same evening. 
None of the other members of the legation personnel have left or have 
given out anything regarding their status in Athens. How far the 
incident will be actually carried is still in doubt. The local members 
of the British colony try to give out the impression that the rupture 
will be complete. On the other hand, the Greeks give out the infor- 
mation that the action is mostly personal and that it will not greatly 
upset the relations with this country and England. There is a great 
deal in support of the latter argument. From the discussion in the 
British Parliament one is led to believe that such action as the Brit- 
ish Government has taken was mostly in the nature of backing up its 
minister to maintain his prestige. 

It would appear that the British press and public have not ap- 
proved of the action taken: in fact, it has quite severely criticized it. 
Tt is noted that Mr. Bonar Law evaded the point when asked whether 
the Greek minister would be sent from London, and was not very 
ardent in Ids defense of the action and allowed it to be understood 
that it was greatly due to the initiative of the minister. The tele- 
grams received by Mr. Lindley from his Government would indicate 
that they consisted in an acquiescence to his propositions rather than 
instructions directing his actions. Again, the events seem to have 
caused no serious change in the relations between Lord Curzon and 
Yenizelos at the Peace Conference. It would seem that there is no 
doubt that the British Government felt the necessity of doing 
something to back up its minister and that the action taken will no 



60 

doubt have a good effect, but it is not believed that it will take on 
all the character which some wish to attribute to it. 

There are a lot of events in Mr. Lindley's career in Athens which 
may throw some light on the situation. Mr. Lindley found himself 
in a very peculiar situation with the prisoners, due to his attitude 
toward them while in power. Mr. Lindley followed Lord Granville, 
who had been through the awkward days of the return of King Con- 
stantine, during which he had to maintain an attitude of ignoring the 
presence of the royal family and having only strictly official rela- 
tions with any of the members of the royalist Government. Up to 
the time of the departure of Lord Granville the English officials had 
carefully refrained from any overtures either in a political or social 
way toward any members of the royalist Government or even those 
out of the Government who were known to be rank royalists in their 
sympathies. This same attitude was being followed by all of the 
other allied representatives in Athens. Mr. Lindley's arrival came 
at a time when Greece was making a great effort to obtain English 
recognition, and his arrival was heralded as the opening gun toward 
that recognition. 

He not only allowed that impression to exist, but immediately 
changed the policy of the legation regarding their relation with the 
royalist regime. He commenced a series of entertainments to which 
well-known royalist families were invited and eventually gave a 
reception to which even members of the royalist Government were in- 
vited. All of this greatly astonished the other allied representatives 
and was naturally taken by everyone to indicate a change of policy 
and the prospective recognition of the King. The members of the 
royalist Government were of course overjoyed at these overtures and 
their pessimistic feeling regarding the recognition changed to that 
of decided optimism. At the same time two young Englishmen 
named Mr. Drummond-Smith and Capt. Stuart Hays arrived in a 
private capacity; however, everyone knew that they were really 
closely related to the British Government. These two men cir- 
culated freely in court circles and told all the members of the court 
that they were there to work for recognition. Everyone was quite 
convinced that the English legation was for recognition ; in fact, Mr. . 
Lindley approached our representative suggesting that we break the 
ice on that question so as to give them an excuse for following suit. 

Opinion is that this action on the part of Mr. Lindley and 
other members of his entourage was chiefly responsible for the many 
otherwise inexplicable decisions taken by the Government regarding 
the Asia Minor campaign, all of which were made with the hope 
of being the final bait for causing England to leave the allied bloc 
and come out with recognition. All of the campaigns in Asia 
Minor in the summer of 1921 were clearly made for the purpose of 



61 

convincing England that she could safely and openly espouse the 
Greek cause. Thus it is easy to see why Mr. Lindley found himself 
in such an embarrassing position regarding the royalist prisoners. 
He could not help but feel that a good deal of the burden for 
their being in that position fell on his own shoulders. It is 
well known that the royalist Government came to power with the 
intention of abandoning the Asia Minor project, but that it com- 
mitted itself to a continuation, and even extension, of that project 
through the misleading encouragement given by British statesmen. 

The impression created in Athens by Mr. Lindley did not. how- 
ever, always correspond with the attitude of the English Govern- 
ment in London. One was convinced that the atmosphere created 
in Athens by Mr. Lindley was due in a great part to his own initia- 
tive. In that way one can not help but be convinced that he is guilty 
of misleading the Greeks into false situations. As a result of all 
this, when the disaster came in Asia Minor public opinion placed 
the blame as much, if not more, on the shoulders of the British 
than on the royalist Government, and British prestige suffered a 
severe shock. Of course the people of Greece could not punish thfo 
British Government, but they could punish their own Govern- 
ment. Knowing all this, it is easy to see why Mr. Lindley felt im- 
pelled to defend the royalist ministers and could not remain after 
their execution. 

It is therefore believed that there were several underlying reasons 
for the British Government " permitting Mr. Lindley to withdraw," 
the first being the necessity for the maintenance of British prestige by 
backing up its minister in his position before the Government of a 
smaller power ; the second being that it gave to the new British Gov- 
ernment a chance to free itself from the obligations toward Greece 
created by the past Government of England ; and the third being that 
it gave an opportunity to relieve Mr. Lindley from a post where he 
had made no success as a diplomat. 

In its present position the Bonar Law Government is now quite 
free to act as it wishes regarding the Orient question. 



KOREA. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS. 
2 January, 1923. 

NOTE. — Extracts from the report of an official observer. 

One can not fail to realize the difficult problems of the Japanese 
in Korea when he sees the Korean in his native habitat. Lazy, slov- 
enly, without ambition or ideas of sanitation, devoid of even a desire 



62 

for progress, and imbued only with the pride of an ancient race, the 
Koreans seem as but a stagnant backwater in the sea of progress of 
the twentieth century. Clothed in white, with a zero temperature, 
the men with tiny gauze hats covering their " topknots," balloon 
trousers, and straw sandals, and the women clothed in a lower gar- 
ment, half skirt half trousers, and entirely nondescript, and an upper 
garment like a very short close-fitting jacket, and frequently between 
the two a " holiday " of several inches, exposing the bare flesh to the 
chilling breezes, they look and seem to be the acme of ineffectualness 
and impracticability. 

Their small towns and villages are usualty located at the bottom of 
a valley, and the individual houses as well as the communities are 
almost wholly devoid of human comforts. The usual dwelling is a 
small one-room mud hut with a small yard inclosed by a mud wall 
The room, almost without furniture of any description, is dark, 
unventilated, and evil smelling, and is used chiefly as a family sleep- 
ing place, where the family huddles together without beds or bedding, 
with no distinction as to sex. In the yard are a number of earthen- 
ware crocks in which food, clothing, etc., are stowed, and there also 
the cooking is done, the cows, pigs, etc., are tethered, and the many 
activities of a home are carried on. This applies in almost equal 
degree to the homes of all classes. All alike are almost devoid of 
comforts. No light, nor water, nor toilet arrangements. Nothing 
to mitigate the bleakness of colorless da,ys and nights except the heat 
from a flue that, opening outside, extends beneath the dirt floor and 
thus, to a certain degree, heats the sleeping chamber. Streets are 
narrow and crooked, and often the filth seems to be the accumulation 
of ages. Small wonder that often when the price can be acquired 
the adults stupefy themselves with some form of alcoholic drink. 

Since Japan annexed Korea in 1910 there have been three gov- 
ernors general. The first two, covering a period of approximately 
10 years, were generals on the active list of the Japanese Army. 
They ruled with a rod of iron, and without doubt Koreans were often 
subject to severe mistreatment and were looked upon as almost with- 
out rights. This regime culminated in 1920 in severe rioting and 
rather serious uprisings. 

The present governor general is Admiral Baron M. Saito, and in 
many essentials he has reversed the policies of his predecessors. The 
civil side of the government is emphasized. The admiral wears ci- 
vilian clothes entirely, as do the other officials. Palace guards have 
been abolished and many functions formerly performed by the army 
have been turned over to civilians, either Japanese or Koreans. The 
governor general has particularly interested himself in preventing 
maltreatment of Koreans by Japanese and in seeing punishment 



63 

awarded to Japanese found guilty of such treatment. On all sides 
in Korea only praise was heard for Admiral Saito and his policies. 

Unquestionably, the Japanese have improved Korea in many ways. 
Schools have been established, roads and bridges built, new irriga- 
tion projects undertaken, flood protection extended, extensive re- 
forestation carried out, telegraphs and telephones installed, streets 
widened and straightened, etc. Many evidences of the foregoing 
were seen even in the most remote rural districts visited. 

About half of the provinces in Korea have Japanese governors 
with Korean vice governors. In some towns the government includes 
a few Japanese, in others, Koreans only, except in all towns of any 
size a few Japanese policemen are present. I heard only favorable 
reports of the relations between the police and natives at present, 
though such was far from true a few years ago. 

One very interesting feature is the apparent enormous extension 
of the Christian influence in Korea, and apparently the Japanese 
officials are no longer opposed to this. The number of Christian 
Koreans is now estimated to be about 350,000, and the number of 
children attending Sunday schools is enormous, and this will neces- 
sarily have a big influence on the next generation. I asked one .Jap- 
anese official what he considered the religion of Korea. He replied, 
" The Christian religion more nearly than any other." 

The influence of Japan in Korea is much more apparent in physi- 
cal features than in the persons of the natives, which is only natural 
considering how much more quickly material things can be built 
than personal character can be changed. The present policy, if con- 
sistently followed and developed, will no doubt produce results in 
the future very beneficial to both Japan and Korea. 



RUSSIA. 

OBSERVATIONS IN ODESSA. 

28 December, 1922. 

NOTE. — The following is a report of observations made by the command- 
ing officer of a destroyer in connection with a trip to Odessa in November 
last. Although this was the first visit made by this officer to Odessa, his 
observations are of considerable interest. This vessel is the last destroyer 
to have visited Russia. It appears doubtful if there will be any more 
American destroyers to visit Russia in the near future. 

Conditions in general. — Not so bad as I had expected. 

Clothes. — Second hand. People are not so ragged as I had ex- 
pected to see them. 

Comparison with pre-war Russia. — Russia before the war was 
probably 50 years behind western Europe in industrial progress and 



64 

advancement in modern civilization. Odessa does not give the im- 
pression of being behind more than that. 

Sanitation. — Clean. 

Poverty. — A few persons in rags. I estimate about 30 per cent 
of the adults to be undernourished. 

People — Characteristics. — Greater variety of physiognomy than I 
expected to see. There is hardly a type-face characteristic of the 
place. Kindly dispositions. Few vicious faces, or faces indicating 
the qualities associated With the idea of Bolshevism as it is under- 
stood in the United States. 

Mien of the people. — Principal quality shown in the mien of the 
people is resignation. It is impossible to tell how much of this is 
due to un intelligence and how much to loss of hope. 

Activity. — The streets are fairly well filled with people going 
about, not aimlessly, but as if they had something definite to do. 
There is little loafing in groups. 

Diversion. — On Sunday afternoon great crowds promenaded on 
the streets. I saw one soccer game in a large square or court. 

Shops.— Stock small and of medium or low grade. Largely sec 
ond-hand goods. There is considerable of fruits and an abundance 
of flowers. There is plenty of fresh meat. 

Attitude of authorities. — Friendly, but accompanied by a persist- 
ent coldness (assumed dignity), which, in my opinion, is the result 
of inexperience in the exercise of authority and of a desire to impress 
one with the fact that they have the power. In addition one always 
gets the impression that the authorities are not yet schooled in busi- 
nesslike methods of doing things. Delays are due more to ignorance 
and incompetency and lack of organization in the chain of command 
than to animosity toward us. There are much too many officials 
and clerks. 

Attitude of the people. — Smiles on our part were always recipro- 
cated generally with sincerity. 

Military. — Soldiers are on duty around the docks and in many 
other places. Apparently soldiers are necessary to keep the business 
of the government going. Jews seem to predominate in all military 
affairs. 

Bocks and railroads. — Docks are clean and in good condition. 
Rails in good condition and defective ties being replaced. 

Delay. — Much delay is the result of incapacity and inexperience 
in administrative matters. 

Chief of the foreign office, Mr. Kosura. — Kosura realizes the neces- 
sity for the economic rehabilitation of Russia. I think that he is 
smart enough to see that any political regime for his country must 
be such as will permit early economic recovery. He also realizes 



65 

that Russia lias a vital interest in the Bosporus and the Darda- 
nelles. He yearns for recognition by the United States. 

Marine control. — The marine control, or harbor-master organiza- 
tion, effect delay in order that they may impress yon with the fact 
that they have power. 

Spies. — The longer wc stayed the more people we found who 
wanted to he friendly and who were willing to tell us that they were 
not in sympathy with the present government. I don't know 
whether they were honest people or spies. I recommend being wary 
of them and not expressing any opinions one way or the other when 
visiting there. 

Counterrevolution. — In my opinion, there is no great probability 
of a counterrevolution. Whatever may be the theory of the com- 
munists, it is certain that their business is assuming to a considerable 
extent the aspect of private enterprise. 

.1 prophecy. — Russia's salvation will come, and it will come about 
through gradual evolution from the present regime. A step-by-step 
recognition of private enterprise will create initiative anew. The 
brains of the country will gradually assert itself: The speed with 
which the evolution will come about will be in proportion to the 
foreign capital that is put into the country and the guaranties that 
the soviet government can give to the investors of that capital. 

Caution. — Destroyer captains should be on their guard to give rea- 
sons for our visits to Russian ports. Xo matter what reasons we 
may give for visiting Russian ports in the future, the break with 
the American relief administration means that Ave deal directly with 
the soviet authorities, and the effect is a measure of recognition. If 
the Bolshevists can not carry the recognition further, they may con- 
front us with the accusation that Ave are in their ports merely as 
spies. We should be fortunate if they choose to believe that our 
continual presence in their ports will result in good to them. The 
chief of foreign affairs, Kosura. at Odessa, is smart. Apparently 
lie Wants to obtain our friendship with a vieAv to hastening the eco- 
nomic rehabilitation of his country. 



RUSSIA. 



I 



STRENGTH OF ARMY. f^KAlftJU 

27 January, 1923. V 

As (o the present total strength of the Russian Army, it has been 
generally determined by the intelligence agencies of practically all 
interested poAvers as between 800,000 to 825,000 men. These figures 
are for ration strength and should be reduced to 600,000 to 620,000 



66 

for combatant strength and to 300,000 to 310,000 for rifle and saber 
strength. In these figures are included 57 infantry and 15 cavalry 
divisions, 4 independent cavalry brigades, and auxiliary arms and 
services for the tactical armies and army corps. Up to December, 
1922, Russia's Army was disposed as follows, on her critical fronts, 
and in potential reserve for these fronts: 

V district (Lithuanian-Polish front) : 7 infantry and 1 cavalry 

division with a total ration strength of 57,000. 
IX district (Polish-Rumanian front) : 13 infantry and 3 cav- 
alry divisions and 1 cavalry brigade, with a total ration 
strength of 118,000 men. 
XI district (Caucasus and north Caucasus) : 12 infantry and I 
cavalry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades, with a total ration 
strength of 119,000 men. 
It is thus seen that on Russian fronts where there is the greatest 
possibility of operations there are 32 infantry, and (the equivalent 
of) 10 cavalry divisions out of a total of 57 and 17, respectively. 
Other forces, totaling G infantry divisions, located east of and adja- 
cent to the Y and IX military districts might be regarded as a pos- 
sible reserve for western-front operations with a ration strength of 
40,000, while in the YII district (Volga region) are 3 infantry divi- 
sions and 1 cavalry brigade which might be considered as available 
for the reenforcement of the Caucasus front with a ration strength 
of 23,000 men. The remaining Russian divisions are distributed on 
the northwest, southeast, and far eastern fronts, and in the interior, 
and probably could not, under existing conditions, be made avail- 
able for early operations on other fronts. 

Assuming that Russia's intentions were to be directed against any 
one of her three critical fronts and that the present force on the re- 
mainder could be reduced hj one-half if charged with a defensive 
mission, Russia's probable initial maximum effort would be: 

(a) Against Poland, 25 infantry and 5 cavalry divisions. 
(h) Against Rumania, 22 infantry and 4 cavalry divisions, 
(c) From the Caucasus, 27 infantry and 8 cavalry divisions. 

If a campaign involving both Rumania and Poland were consid- 
ered, Russia could probably count for early operations on 32 in- 
fantry and 7 cavalry divisions. 

Existing peace strength (in divisions) of the powers to whom 
Russian military activity on the west front would be of interest is: 





Infantry. 


Cavalry. 




30 
26 


{. 











Total 


56 


11 







G7 

If Kussia contemplates action against both Rumania and Poland, 
and assuming that these powers could safely employ one-half to 
two-thirds of their available armies against Russia, the latter would 
encounter with 32 infantry and 7 cavalry divisions an opposing 
force of 28 to 37 infantry and 5 to 8 cavalry divisions. 

It is estimated that the battle efficiency of the Polish forces, and 
probably of the Rumanian, is generally superior to that of the Rus- 
sian Army; the former are at least much better situated with respect 
to equipment, transportation and ability to procure munitions ade- 
quate for major operations; hence Russia, even if her transporta- 
tion, food, and munition situation were favorable, could hope to 
meet with slight success in a war with either Poland or Rumania 
or a combination of the two. 

In the Caucasus, Russia possesses greater freedom of military 
action due to the absence of potential enemies of any considerable 
strength on her front or flanks; her present force in that region is 
much greater than would appear necessary for the defense of her 
frontier, and considering that she can increase that force by 75 per 
cent without materially weakening her western front, and by 100 
per cent by a reduction of only 15 per cent on her western front, it 
would appear from a military standpoint that there is greater prob- 
ability of the employment of Russian forces from the Caucasus than 
elsewhere. 

The foregoing is based on the assumption that Russia is in a posi- 
tion to provide munitions sufficient for major operations, and trans- 
portation for the necessary concentrations as well as for the 
maintenance of her armies in campaign. Available information in- 
dicates that none of these assumptions are well founded. 



SPAIN. 

NAVAL BUILDING PROGRAM. 
3 January, 1923. 

Information has been received that the firms of Vickers and Barr 
& Stroud are now working together in Spain. It is understood that 
three battleships, a number of cruisers, and somewhat over twenty 
submarines are to be built there in the very near future by the engi- 
neers and constructors of Vickers. Barr & Stroud has been bidding 
on range finders; it is understood that they have offered the coast 
artillery a rangefinder of 42 meters base, self-contained, on the coinci- 
dence principle. This proposal of Barr & Stroud was rejected by the 
Spanish Government. 

It is understood that Vickers is constructing dockyards at Ferrol 
and also at Vigo for the construction of these battleships and sub- 



68 

marines. It is understood that the armament will be entirely British 
and also that Tickers has even offered the British fire control. In- 
formant states further that he had offered to the Spanish Govern- . 
ment the German fire-control system. In this connection he was 
competing with Vickers and stated that he had Avon out in this com- 
petition. It would appear therefore that the Spanish Navy is to be 
equipped with the German fire-control system: probably manufac- 
tured in Holland. It was further understood that the Spanish Gov- 
ernment had ordered from Carl Zeiss through the hitter's subsidiary 
concern in Holland. 20 submarine periscopes for the Spanish sub- 
marines now under construction. 

Informant stated that while in Madrid he had been approached 
by Tickers" engineers with the idea of a combination between 
Sieinens-Halske and a British syndicate (Coventry Syndicate) for 
the purpose of manufacturing and selling German fire control to 
foreign navies. The offer was refused by the German concern. It 
Avas the opinion of informant that Great' Britain was doing her 
utmost to build up the Spanish Army and Navy. He stated the 
Spanish Government was appropriating large sums of money for 
the rehabilitation of both branches of the service, that the Spanish 
Army Avas being equipped with British uniforms! and that all possible 
technical aid Avas being given the Spanish Navy through the firms 
of Vickers and Barr & Stroud. 

Informant stated further that the idea of this was England's 
attempt to recreate a balance of power on the Continent against 
France and that England would devote every effort to the building- 
up of the Spanish Army and Navy with this end in view. 

Informant stated that he had found considerable feeling in Spain 
against France, and that a number of instances arising from the 
Spanish campaign in Morocco had caused Spanish feeling to be very 
bitter against France. Informant stated further that a big Spanish 
gas factory had been established just north of Madrid under the 
control of the Spanish Government; the technical employees of this 
plant were practically all German chemical engineers who had been 
brought into Spain for the purpose of developing this particular 
plant. 



SPAIN. 

STRATEGIC CONTROL OF THE STRAITS OF MOROCCO. 

11 December, 1922. 

In general it may be said that the acts of the Sultan seem to be 
effectiA-ely controlled by the French. His influence in Spanish Mo- 
rocco has never been A T erv great : the natives of this section have never 



69 

submitted with consistency to distant authority, preferring the au- 
thority of their own chiefs and leaders. This statement applies to 
a surprising extent even to religious matters. The authority of the 
Sultan is exercised in the Spanish zone by a jalifa, who, having his 
residence at Tetuan, is naturally amenable to Spanish authority. 
An attempt to assert the principle of the direct authority of the 
Sultan throughout all Morocco was recently made by the French. 
It was energetically denied by the Spanish authorities, who insisted 
that his authority would have to be exercised through the jalifa. In 
the western part of the Spanish zone the influence of the famous 
liaisuni (or Raisuli) is probably at least as important as that of the 
jalifa. 

In this connection the Spanish zone is of the greatest importance 
since possession of Ceuta by, any nation offers the possibility of a 
challenge by that nation for the control of the Straits. Suitable 
development of Ceuta would promise a supervision of shipping 
equal to that afforded the British by Gibraltar. As long as the 
Spanish zone remains in Spanish hands and Tangier remains under 
international control — that is, as long as the present situation con- 
iinues — the control of the Straits by the British is not to be disputed 
by any other nation than Spain, and a serious attempt at control by 
Spain is highly improbable. 



TURKEY. 

EQUIPMENT AND TROOPS OF NATIONALIST ARMY. 

9 January, 1923. 

A few days ago an excellent film was shown in one of the local 
cinema houses, showing the nationalist army in action in Anatolia. 
Doubtless the best troops were picked for this picture. In any. 
event, the general effect was to give one a very good impression of 
the army. The troops were shown in various positions; first, a divi- 
sion advancing along the road in column. The staff was all mounted 
and rode at the head of the column; the infantry followed in col- 
umns of squads and was followed in turn by the artillery. Of 
course, in a picture it is not always possible to make a close exami- 
nation; however, the general appearance of this division was very 
favorable. The men marched well, there was apparently no strag- 
gling or men stringing out at the end of the column, uniforms looked 
neat and clean, and officers and noncommissioned officers handled 
their men in excellent shape. Heavy machine guns were in evidence 
and were carried on small carts drawn by mules. As to the number 
of artillery pieces and machine guns, it is difficult to state, because 



70 

the same troops passed several times in the same scene, perhaps with 
a view to making the number of men and guns appear much larger 
than it really was. 

MUNITIONS. 

British intelligence officers who saw the film stated that the Turks 
had two batteries of British 18 lbs. (late models received from 
Kussia), some German 7.7-mm. guns and 10.5-mm. howitzers. Ap- 
parently they also had with each battalion four heavy machine guns, 
sledge mount, and, as stated above, drawn by mules. The British 
officers also stated that the divisions shown in the picture were the 
eighteenth and sixty-first. 

TRAINING. 

One of the headlines stated that Gen. Nourredine Pasha would re- 
view his cavalry troops. The picture then showed the general in- 
specting his troops and at the same time riding around six artillery 
pieces which were about 3-inch caliber. The review was well car- 
ried out and gave the impression of well-trained and efficient cavalry- 
men. The best riders were shown doing some rather difficult work in 
going up and down steep hills. 

The infantry was shown in action as it went over the top to take 
the Greek trenches. This was undoubtedly faked; however, in the 
picture the men dashed forward with fixed bayonets and the Greeks 
met them, holding up their hands in surrender and crying " Cam- 
arade." An infantry line advancing over open ground often went 
forward as in our own army, by rushes of small detachments from 
the right or left. The machine gunners in action were apparently 
rapid and most efficient. They used what appeared to be the old 
type of heavy Maxim gun, and seemed to have a knack of dismount- 
ing the gun, mounting it again in a new place, and begin firing in 
an astonishingly short space of time. 

The action of all concerned in the artillery was also very good. 
The gunners went into action quickly and easily and appeared to be 
quite familiar with their duties. Only one squad was shown doing 
this, however, so it is no indication that all of the artillery gunners 
and section chiefs could do so well. 

TRANSPORT. 

One scene showed about 10 large automobile trucks, covered, used 
for transportation purposes. These trucks were in perfect condition 
and moved out in single file at the word of command. They were 
not American cars. 

CLOTHING. 

The clothing and personal equipment of the men was in excellent 
shape except that the footAvear was badly worn. 



71 



EQUIPAGE. 



It is of interest to note that British intelligence officers who 
studied this picture were greatly surprised to find nationalist troops 
so well equipped. 



TURKEY. 

MORALE OF TURKISH ARMY. 
27 December, 1922. 

Foreign intelligence officers in Constantinople agree that the 
morale of the Turkish Army has been somewhat lowered by their 
inactivity during the past three months. Transportation facilities 
have been lacking, and as a consequence the troops have not been 
well fed, even according to Turkish standards. They also lack suf- 
ficient clothing and shelter. They have not been paid since October. 
Many of them would like to go home to prepare their lands for the 
spring planting. * 

There is also some discontent among the officers, but it is based on 
what they consider to be lack of appreciation of their services, and 
on political favoritism, rather than on their inactivity. The army 
is decidedly in politics in Turkey. 

It is generally believed, however, that the discontent in the Turk- 
ish Army does not greatly worry the nationalist authorities. " Men 
do not count in Turkey," as one French officer put it. Nor should 
the lowered morale of the troops be taken too seriously, for the 
Turks have great powers of recuperation, and if it became necessary 
to move them forward against the allied troops it is probable that 
they would go almost as willingly as they would have gone in 
October. 



LATIN AMERICA. 

THE PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE. 

31 January, 1923. 

The trend of the situation is disclosed by attitude of the important 
powers toward the major issues, as follows : 

LIMITATION OF ARMAMENT. 

The Chilean proposal to limit armament is the outgrowth of a 
policy of expediency. She aspires to military and naval supremacy 
to support her desire to possess the hegemony of South America. 
The. limitations proposal is an indication of Chile's alarm over the 



72 

growing power of Argentina and Brazil. Such a course is calcu- 
lated to neutralize the effect of her political isolation and to increase 
her prestige by propitiating the United States. 

The rapprochement between Argentina and Chile, born of com- 
mon pro-Germanism during the World War, was nullified when 
Argentina grew suspicious of the very considerable additions made 
to Chile's naval strength. Later, Argentina evidenced a desire to 
cultivate traditional enemies of Chile, Peru, and Bolivia, based on a 
desire for a Pacific outlet for northern Argentina, and perhaps upon 
the realization that Chile's isolation would make her a doubtful 
friend. 

For many years Chile and Brazil were very close, meeting on the 
common ground of an alliance against Argentina, antagonism toward 
whom was intensified by acute boundary disputes. The Chilean 
dispute has been settled; and neither Argentina nor Brazil seems 
disposed to press their difference, or their competition for influence 
in Paraguay to the point of a serious quarrel. Brazil has evidenced 
a desire for more or less 'complete international independence in 
South America, has entered on an ambitious naval program, has 
evidenced a desire for American friendship, and has met Chile's 
recent advances and proposals as regards naval limitation, with a 
decided coolness. All of which indicates that Brazil no longer 
chooses to be regarded as an associate of Chile either as against 
Argentina or others. 

The original draft of the Chilean proposal calling for limitation 
of armament " in equal proportion," which brought no comment 
from Argentina, but which met immediate obstruction on the part 
of Brazil, was changed in the final draft to read "on a just and 
practicable basis " at the suggestion of the United States. 

Brazil's subsequent invitation to Chile and to Argentina to meet 
in preliminary conference to clear up the point of view as to a 
"just and practicable basis" of armament limitation met with im- 
mediate and eager response by Chile and with suspicion and refusal 
by Argentina. Argentina's refusal reveals her position as opposing 
" partial reunions concerning questions which are intended for gen- 
eral discussion." a policy of independence, and a widening of the 
breach between herself and Brazil over the latter's naval policy. 
Argentina is particularly resentful over the choice of an American 
naval mission. 

THE PROPOSAL FOR A CLOSER POLITICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN 

NATIONS. 

Considerable interest and suspicion has been aroused in Chile and 
Argentina in the effort of Uruguay to secure declaration of prin- 
ciples regarding American solidarity as a part of .the program of 



73 



the conference. Her desire for a league of American nations is 
interpreted by the A B C countries generally as a play for diplo- 
matic recognition to offset the hampered position she occupies as 
a small buffer State. A league based upon complete equality of 
all the nations represented, under the hegemony of the United 
States, is considered to her advantage. The general drift of inter- 
national opinion apparently favors an amplification of the scope 
of the fan American Union by adding political functions to its 
present exclusively. 

Argentina. Brazil, and the United States have formally accepted 
Chile's invitation to attend the conference, and the remainder are 
likely to follow, excepting Peru and Mexico, who have definitely 
refused. 



NEAR EAST. 

MILITARY SITUATION IN ANATOLIA AND THRACE. 

13 January, 1923. 

In order to meet any crisis arising from negotiations, considerable 
troop movements are going on in the Near East. The Greeks still 
have two corps just west of the Maritza River, and are reported to 
have moved one division into Karaghatch, just across the river from 
Andrianople. This movement has been protested against by the 
French as violating one of the neutral zones agreed upon between 
the Greeks and the Allies along the west bank of the Maritza River. 

The Turks are infiltrating more and more into Constantinople 
and eastern Thrace, and the latest information available indicates 
that there .are 20,000 individual soldiers in Constantinople and an 
equal number in Thrace, including three battalions of artillery. The 
Turkish forces in western Anatolia are still estimated at 60,000 ; the 
20,000 around Smyrna have been moved northward, so that there 
are now facing Chanak and Ismid between 50,000 and 60,000 combat 
infantry and between 5,000 and 6,000 cavalry. The amount of ar- 
tillery with these forces is estimated at 270 light and 100 medium 
pieces, probably none over 6 inches .in caliber and with a limited 
ammunition supply. There has been no change in the Allied forces 
around Constantinople, Ismid, and the Dardanelles, except that ac- 
cording to the press a brigade of British artillery recentty arrived 
at Constantinople. A brigade of field artillery consists of about 
four batteries and would increase the garrison by about 500; if this 
was a brigade of heavy artillery the number of batteries might be 
less. In the case of an attack by the Turks from the Ismid front, 
official information is conflicting as to whether the British will with- 
draw from Constantinople or will stay and fight it out. Information 



74 

from British military sources, however, states as follows: That the 
British will hold Constantinople as long as they can and that no 
notice has been given British residents to leave; that the British 
expect no assistance in resisting the Turks; that the Ismid Peninsula 
can be held as long as the army is supported by the fleet; that the 
nationalits are believed to be bringing troops up, and the present 
military situation is regarded as difficult. 

Unconfirmed information received about January 1 stated that 
revolution had broken out in Mosul and that the hangars of the Brit- 
ish royal air force had been burned. Other information about the 
-same date stated that 6,000 Turkish troops had left Van in the direc- 
tion of Mosul. This information is also unconfirmed, but so far as 
the number of troops is concerned this movement is entirely possible, 
as the Turkish combat forces on the Caucasus and Mesopotamian 
fronts is about 13,000, with 3,000 more on the Syrian front. 

As recently stated it is believed that the British have recently been 
forced to evacuate certain parts on northern' Mesopotamia under pres- 
sure from Kurdish bands with more or less Turkish direction, and 
that to offset this the British are trying to organize as many of these 
Kurdish tribes as possible into a pro-British protectorate. 

That the British military forces are still at Mosul, however, is 
likely, as the British Monthly Army List for November, 1922, shows 
a district headquarters still in operation at this place. The protec- 
tion of Mesopotamia, or Iraq, is wholly under the British royal air 
force, which has in this area 3,000 officers and men with four ar- 
mored-car companies, an armored train, and eight squadrons of air- 
planes, consisting of 18 planes each, a considerable number of which 
are troop-carrying machines. Besides the royal air force there are 
the following forces in Mesopotamia : 

British Army 3, 500 

Indian Army 8, 000 

Iraq levies _ , 5, 000 

Iraq Army 4, 000 



EUROPE. 

DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL SITUATION. 

1 February, 1923. 

NOTE. — Extracts from the report of a competent civilian observer who 
is in constant touch with the countries of western Europe. 

The political situation here is very peculiar. ISTo one exactly 
knows whether the movement of the French is going to be a very 
good thing or a very bad one. My observations over here make me 
think it will be a good thing. The result of the Avar reaction on the 



politicians and the people of Europe was to create a state of anarchy. 
Everybody wanted to be freed from the restraints of war time; every 
person, every State wanted to run loose and do whatever they felt 
like. The result has been that Europe has become a mass of indi- 
vidual people and States, each one thinking only of himself and 
doing only what he wants himself. This has spread through all 
classes of society, and the politicians have played to this in order to 
get support, but there is now a reaction from this. The people are 
perfectly disgusted with the prevalent anarchy, which does not get 
anywhere and simply continues confusion. There is a great deal of 
tax evasion, and the people who pay their taxes are beginning to be 
furious against the people who do not pay them. Governments have 
played to this desire for freedom to the extent that they are not try- 
ing to enforce their tax payment, and there is slowly growing a sort 
of feeling of determination to end this disorder on the part of those 
people who have the responsibilities. 

The first sign of this reaction was Mussolini in Italy. Mussolini 
brought in the firm hand of a dictator, and the Italian people are 
absolutely delighted and seem to have picked themselves up: and 
Italy is one of the only countries in Europe that at this moment 
looks like a real country. If this movement of France is another 
step toward discipline and order, it will be a good thing and will get 
behind it all those people who are looking for return to order. That 
is the good aspect of the French move. When the war was over, 
everybody shouted for liberty and self-determination. Now there 
are more and more people getting sick of liberty and self-determina- 
tion and asking for somebody to come in and make order. What 
they want now is to be allowed to make their living and to establish 
some mode of life. Self-determination and humanitarianism make 
this impossible. It looks as if the next swing of the wave will be to- 
ward a very strict repression of these sentiments; just how it will 
come I do not know. Mussolini is the first evidence and this French 
move may be the second. (Europe is populated by so many different 
races and so many different classes of people of different ideas that 
if there is not a strong police of material force all these different 
elements begin to clash and each one tries more or less to destroy the 
other, and since the war there has been no authority and no disci- 
pline.) The hopeful sign is that there are a number of people one 
meets who want to get back to order. They are not the people that 
you- hear in groups, they are not the politicians, and they are not 
the labor leaders: but they are the mass of industrial people, middle- 
class people, and people who carry material responsibilities. 

For a description of the European situation up to the first of the 
year, which appears to me to be very closely in accordance with fact, 
see the article by Frank H. Simonds in the Review of Reviews of 



7G 

^January, 1923. Simoncls's article is pretty correct as to the Euro- 
pean situation in all ways up to date. During this month there 
appears to be a decided change in the situation. The French have 
moved into the Ruhr; the Conference of Lausanne has failed; the 
Turks are getting everything they ask for and the European nations 
are simply trying to get out gracefully. One of the symptoms of 
this is the fact that all news from Lausanne is now being slowly 
suppressed in the newspapers. The Russians are showing great 
eagerness to get mixed into European difficulties. They have offered 
to help the Turks and are mobilizing large forces on the Rumanian 
frontier. The Turks, however, show no more signs of being friendly 
with the Russians than any other European nation and do not seem 
to be inclined to accept the Russian offer of assistance. The Rus- 
sians are also mobolizing troops on the north and are offering to 
help Germany. The Germans, however, do not want the Russian 
help either. Russia has been pursuing the policy of offering their 
assistance to anybody against the Allies, but nobody wants the 
Russian help. It looks as if the failure of the Lausanne Confer- 
ence will be the end of all attempts to conduct all international 
matters by conferences and on a peaceful basis, and that the next 
period will be one of force. If the Allies are able to maintain a 
strong hand, they will dictate terms. If they show themselves weak, 
the small nations — all of which have animosities and desires — will 
begin to take matters into their own hands and will have a great 
deal of trouble. The new boundaries of Europe are not consistent 
with the economical organization. These new countries are laid out 
at such varyings with their true economical distribution that they 
have before them two alternatives — either to capture by force such 
territories as they need in their economic scheme or to wait 10 years 
or 20 years until their economic organization can be rebuilt. But as 
there is no money to rebuild this, it looks as if force might be tried. 
The general economic situation is very bad. For the last two 
years the industrial and commercial people have been doing every- 
thing they can to carry on commerce under the new conditions ; but 
they have not succeeded so far in overcoming these obstacles, and 
they are tired, and the question is', Will they keep up the effort? 
Europe has now been through four years of very hard work under 
almost impossible conditions. People are tired and their nerves are 
bad. Looking at Europe as a whole, the power of production exists, 
and there are great unfulfilled consumptive needs; but the new 
boundaries have so destroyed the methods of distribution and com- 
munication, the increased number of currencies have so complicated 
trading, capital is so afraid of disturbances, that the situation im- 
proves very slowly. There is an improvement since 1920, but very 
small. It looks as if America was willing to take part in more poli- 



77 

tics of conference, but it is too late. Politics by conference is now 
bankrupt, and the only solution that looks possible to me, putting 
together all the different points of view which I see traveling in 
different countries, will be a combination of big powers presenting 
enough material force to enforce order and insure a situation that 
will be definite enough to give confidence to investors and for the 
development of industrial enterprise. 

c 



CONFIDENTIAL. Division £ 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Washington, D. C. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION 
BULLETIN. 



NUMBER 4—1923. 




1 APRIL, 1923. 



DISTRIBUTION: 

In general: Bureaus of the Navy Department; all force commanders; all commanding 
officers of capital ships, the larger patrols, destroyers, and submarines. 



^ 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION BULLETIN. 

NUMBER 4—1923—1 APRIL, 1923. 

FOR CONVENIENCE IN ROUTING. 



Officer. 


Initials. 


Date received. 


Date forwarded. 


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Ill) 



The material for the Bulletin is largely derived from service sources, and 
its interest and value are correspondingly dependent upon the number and 
character of the reports received by the Office of Naval Intelligence from 
our own officers. In this connection the observations of officers afloat are of 
great value, particularly if the reports rendered are drawn up in accordance 
with existing intelligence instructions. 

A Specimen Harbor Chart is being issued by the Office of Naval Intelli- 
gence, to be used as a model in making reports on foreign ports. The 
information desired is all of great military value and is vital to the success 
of an operation. 

While political and economic information is undoubtedly of great value, 
the collection of military information should come first in the intelligence 
work of cruising ships. This chart will be used in connection with the Title 
Sheet now issued. 

(in) 



CONTENTS. 



GREAT BRITAIN: Page . 

Aviation notes 1 

Characteristics of new vessels of various types 2 

Controversy continues regarding control of naval aviation 5 

Estimate of the military situation 6 

Gunnery School, Whale Island . 12 

Latest design of caps for major caliber A. P. projectiles 19 

Miscellaneous Ordnance notes 20 

JAPAN: 

Airplane landings on " Hosho " 22 

Certain senior naval officers 23 

Employment of fleet 27 

Various naval notes 29 

Work of British Naval Aviation Mission 31 

FRANCE: 

Certain important questions with regard to policy of the present 

Government 33 

Exper'mental gun of large caliber 36 

Inside views of Turkish politics 36 

Naval program 1 38 

ITALY: 

Reorganization of air service ■. 3S 

ARGENTINA: 

Negotiations for construction of powder mill 42 

Present condition and future prospects of merchant marine 42 

Target practice notes 45 

AUSTRIA: 

Artillery ammunition supply during the war . 45 

Flame-proof protect 'on aboard ship 46 

BRAZIL: 

Condition of fleet 47 

German aviation activities 49 

Naval maneuvers : 50 

Unusual political situation in State of Rio Janeiro 51 

CENTRAL AMERICA: 

Method of carrying out an election 52 

CHILE: 

British sea planes arrive 56 

(v) 



VI 

CHINA: p age . 

Attitude of Chang Tso-lin ; 56 

Estimate of the political-military situation 59 

Miscellaneous notes 67 

GERMANY: 

An eyewitness's account of the first clay's occupation of Essen by the 

French 69 

Lecture by Doctor Ehrensberger upon the subject of Krupp armor 

plate__J 72 

Politics in the navy SI 

Proposed trans-Atlantic airship service : 82 

Situation in the Ruhr 83 

Statistics regarding U-boat losses 85 

Successful experiments with counterpropellers 87 

GREECE: 

Army in western Thrace 90 

The part played by the navy in the revolution 91 

HONDURAS: 

Army organization and equipment 100 

RUMANIA: 

Military situation 101 

RUSSIA: 

A parade of the Fifty-first Division at Odessa 10] 

Aim of the soviet leaders with regard to the United States 104 

Army demoralization 110 

Attempts by Reds in Odessa to influence enlisted men of destroyers_ 111 

Review of relations with Turkey and Rumania 112 

Soviet activities abroad 114 

SPAIN: 

Account of the speech of Republican leader 115 

General naval notes 117 

SWEDEN: 

Evidence of unsatisfactory conditions in navy 318 

TURKEY: 

Notes on Nationalist Army 119 

The general military situation 120 

Various items regarding army 122 

YUGOSLAVIA: 

Estimate of the military situation 122 



Attention of the service is particularly invited to the following article which 
appears in this month's Bulletin: 

CHINA: 

Page. 

Estimate of the political-military situation 59 

(VII) 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

AVIATION NOTES. 
February, 1923. 

The Avro Aldershot, which was originally designed as a long- 
distance bomber using the Rolls Royce " Condor " 650-horsepower 
engine,, was converted to carry the Napier " cub,'" 1000-horsepower 
engine. This plane is now known as a flying test stand, and actual 
performance was not attempted nor particularly desired since it 
was the first time the " cub " had been in the air and the plane was 
not designed for it. 

The bomb sight to be used on this plane is being guarded with 
great secrecy. The Air Ministry, however, is convinced that vertical 
stowage of bombs is superior to horizontal stowage, and are much 
interested in various reports from the United States that horizontal 
stowage is being used, and are particularly interested in the form 
of release gear and the British air attache has been instructed to get 
all available information on this subject. 

COMPETITIVE BUILDING OF FLEET SPOTTERS BY THE BLACKBURN CO. AND 

THE A. V. ROE CO. 

When the Air Ministry invited a design and proposals on their 
specification for fleet spotters which were, incidentally, largely 
drawn up by the Admiralty, the Blackburn Co.'s design and the A. 
V. Roe Co.'s design were so nearly equal and satisfactory that the 
order was divided and 12 planes given to each company. The 
Blackburn Co.'s product is known as the " Blackburn " and the 
Avro Co. as the " Bison." The " Blackburn " is very similar to the 
" Dart," except that the fuselage is fitted for a pilot, a gunner, and 
a radio operator, these three members of the crew being specified 
in all cases for fleet spotters. Both planes are motored with Napier 
" Lion " engines, and their principal objective is first to locate the 
enemy fleet, then find the range and maintain radio contact. 

BRITISH GOVERNMENT ORDERING MORE TORPEDO PLANES. 

It is learned on definite authority that the Air Ministry contem- 
plates placing a new order for 10 Blackburn " Darts," these planes 
to be used as torpedo planes for naval cooperation, and it is probable 
but not. certain that the Admiralty is finding the money for this 
order. 

(l) 



In this connection, attention is invited to the recent official state- 
ment of the Air Ministry, wherein the number of " Darts " is given 
as 12, although it is definitely known that 29 are in existence or on 
order. 

BLACKBURN CO. CONTRACT FOR TWO " COASTAL-DEFENSE PLANES." 

The Blackburn Co. has received an order and is building two 
coastal-defense planes known as the " Cubaroo," designed to carry a 
Napier 1,000 horsepower "cub " engine. 

The contract price of these planes is £20,000, less engine, instru- 
ment, and equipment, which will be supplied by the Air Ministry. 
The best price quoted by Messrs. Napier for this engine is £20,000 
for any order of less than 10. 

A. V. ROE CO.'S ACTIVITIES IN ARGENTINA. 

Some time after the armistice it seems that our Navy Department 
trained five Argentine pilots at Pensacola. These pilots, through 
proper arrangements, came to England and established themselves as 
instructors of a class of about 60 Argentine pupils' Avith A. V. Roe 
Co. and purchased 10 AVRO 504—K training seaplanes. They fin- 
ished the class without a fatality and with 7 machines left intact, 
and placed an order for about 20 more machines with the. A. V. Roe 
Co., and it is highly probable that they have also bought about 12 of 
the AVRO "Bisons." 

It is unfortunate that the American aircraft industry lost this 
order, for it might have been obtained by the use of proper initiative 
bv them. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW VESSELS OF VARIOUS TYPES. 

February, 1923. 

H. M. S. Eagle, aircraft carrier, is being reconstructed at Ports- 
mouth Dockyard. The following information concerning her is of 
interest : 

Date laid down ;is ilmirante Cochrane, February, 1913, by Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., ,-it Newcastle. 

Taken in hand for modifications, April. 1021. 
Date of completion, third week of June, 1923 (approximate). 
Expenditure up to January 6, 192."?: 

Labor £382. 722 

Material . 9,306 

Contract work 20.828 

Program for 1022-23: Labor 250.000 

Principal dimensions. — Length between perpendiculars. 627 feet; breadth, 
extreme. 105 feet 2 inches; draft of water— forward, 23 feet; aft, 25 feet; 
mean. 24 feet; load displacement at 24 feet mean draft, 25.12S tons. 



Armament. — Nine 6-inch 50-caliber, Mark XII, guns; six 4-inch antiaircraft 
guns. 

Complement of officers and men, 735 Royal Navy; 241 Royal Air Force; 
indicated horsepower, 55,000; speed, 24 knots; makers of engine, John Brown 
& Co., Clydebank. 

Protection. — On sides, 180-40 pounds ; middle deck, 160-40 pounds. 

It will be noted that Jane, 1921, gives the battery of the Eagle as 
six 6-ineh and two 3-inch antiaircraft guns. From actual observa- 
tion the batteries reported above were seen to be installed. A very 
unusual arrangement obtains in the location of the 6-inch guns. 
There are two 6-inch guns mounted forward on each side of the fore- 
castle on the next to top deck, with a large arc of fire; these guns 
apparently will not cover the arc of about 10° or 15° on each side 
from dead ahead. One 6-inch gun is mounted in the stern on the 
center line. The other four 6-inch guns are mounted two on each 
quarter, just forward of the stern gun. Practically the entire side 
of the ship, or stem of the ship, is cut away, permitting a stern fire 
of five 6-inch guns, closely grouped and easily controlled by one 
officer as a concentrated battery. 

The six 4-inch antiaircraft guns are all located on the starboard 
side in the same fore and aft line as the funnel. Four of them are 
on a level with the main flying-off deck, two immediately forward 
of the funnel-bridge-control structure at the starboard side, and two 
immediately aft. The other two guns are located on top of the 
built-up structure, one just forward of the funnel and one just aft. 

It is believed that there are no torpedo tubes. 

The 6-inch guns are all fitted with a heavy shield, varying from 
2 inches thickness on the forward side to 3 inches in thickness on the 
after side. The shield apparently is all one piece, having a semi- 
circular top. The battery is director controlled. 

From later observation of the Ea.gle at a distance, it appeared that 
the Eagle is fitted with two funnels. 



H. M. S. Effingham, light cruiser, is being built at Portsmouth 
Dockyard. Information concerning her characteristics is as follows: 

Date laid down. 2 April. 1917. 
Date of launching. 8 June, 1921. 
Date of completion, under rnnsirlerat' r, n. 
Weight workpd into it up to fi January. 1923. 5,654 tons. 
Expenditure to 6 January, 1923: 

Labor . £529.544 

Material 230.890 

Contract work 15,838 

Estimates approved and submitted : 

Labor ^ : 866,636 

Material 348,115 

Program for 1922-23: Labor 61,500 



4 

Principal dimensions. — Length between perpendiculars, 565 feet; breadth, 
extreme, 65 feet ; draft of water — forward, 16 feet 3 inches ; aft, 18 feet 3 
inches ; mean, 17 feet 3 inches ; displacement. 9,750 tons. 

Armament. — Seven 7.5-inch guns. Six 3-inch guns. Four 3-inch antiaircraft 
guns. 

Torpedo tubes. — One 21-inch submerged barless tube (it is believed that the 
" bar " referred to is merely one for strengthening purposes for submerged 
tubes) ; four 21-inch A. W. tubes (understood to mean "above water" tubes). 

Complement of officers and men, 728 ; indicated horsepower, 70,000 ; speed, 
31 knots ; makers of engine, Harland & Wolff. 

Protection plating. — On sides, 40, 60, and 80 pounds ; forecastle deck 10-40 
pounds ; upper deck, 12-30 pounds ; lower deck, 12-30 pounds ; platform deck, 
5-25 pounds; protective turtle deck, aft (T), 40 pounds. 

It will be noted that Jane, 1921, gives six 12-pounder guns. Ac- 
tually the vessel will mount six 3-inch guns, not counting the four 
8-inch antiaircraft guns. It will also be noted that Jane gives two 
torpedo tubes instead of one. 



H. M. S. Keppel, flotilla leader, is being completed at the Ports- 
mouth Dockyard. Information concerning her is as follows : 

Date laid down, October, 1918. by Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft & Co.. Woolston. 

Date of completion, under consideration. 
Expenditures up to 6 January, 1923 : 

Labor £22,233 

Material -^ 6. 133 

Program for 1922-23: Labor 7,500 

Principal dimensions. — Length between perpendiculars, 318 feet 3 inches ; 
breadth, 31 feet 9 inches; draft of water (mean load draft), 12 feet 4 inches; 
displacement at load draft, 1,750 tons. 

Armament. — Five 4.7-inch guns ; one 3-inch A. A. gun ; two pom-poms. 

Torpedo tubes. — Six 21-inch above-water tubes. 

Complement of officers and men, 178; horsepower. 40,000 (estimated) ; speed, 
36 knots ; makers of engines, J. I. Thornycroft & Co. 



H. M. submarine L-26 is being completed at Portsmouth Dockyard. 
Her characteristics are as follows: 

Date of launching, 20 May, 1921, Barrow-in-Furness. 

Date of completion, under consideration. 
Expenditure up to 6 January, 1923 : 

Labor £2,991 

Material 429 

Program for 1922-23: Labor 700 

Principal dimensions. — Length between perpendiculars, 229 feet 3 inches; 
breadth (extreme), 23 feet 11 inches: displacement — surface. 890 tons; sub- 
merged. 1,080 tons ; draft ( mean load ) . 13 feet 6 inches. 

Armament. — One 4-inch gun. 

Torpedo tubes. — Four 21-inch submerged tubes. 

Mines. — Sixteen in number, in tubes. 

Complement of officers and men. 29 ; horsepower — surface, 2.400 ; submerged, 
1,600 ; speed — surface, 17.5 knots ; submerged. 10.5 knots ; maker of engines, 
Vickers (Ltd.). 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

CONTROVERSY CONTINUES REGARDING CONTROL OF NAVAL 

AVIATION. 

14 February, 1923. 

The contest between the Admiralty and the Air Ministry continues 
to take more definite form; in the air conference held on February 
6 and 7, Commander Burney read a paper on the future of airships, 
which set out a special object of British Empire communication and 
a secondary object of naval cooperation in time of war. Commander 
Burney was severely criticized by Lord Gorell, a former Undersecre- 
tary of State for Air, for attempting to alienate the airship subject 
from the Air Ministry, in reply to which Commander Burney stated 
that he had first taken his scheme to the Air Ministry and had been 
refused, and as he was interested primarily as a commercial propo- 
sition, he took it to the next source most interested with a view to 
raising money. 

It is now definitely known, both officially and in the press, that 
the Admiralty has expressed a willingness to find £230,000 a year for 
the furtherance of this airship scheme, contingent on sufficient money 
being found from other sources to complete the scheme. The press 
state that the Admiralty is finding this money by laying up light 
cruisers, but the Admiralty evades this subject. It has just been 
learned that the Admiralty put up the money for from 12 to 20 
Blackburn Dwarfs for naval use ; this machine is the standard torpedo- 
carrying machine of the navy and is practically identical with the 
two purchased by the United States Navy. Squadron No. 210, sta- 
tioned at Gosport, is equipped with these machines and is still osten- 
sibly under the Air Ministry, the Admiralty having put up the 
money on condition that it would be expended for this particular 
type of cooperation with the navy. 

Every indication points to a widening of the breach on the subject 
of control of aircraft between the Admiralty and the Air Ministry, 
and it will eventually come to an open clash with about even chances 
on the winner, the Air Ministry being in actual possession, but the 
Admiralty is the older and stronger force. 

The aeronautical correspondent of the Times says that the Admi- 
ralty is determined to enroll airships among its craft and is willing 
to find a sum of money to that end; this has inspired some rather 
wild rumours concerning the future relationship between that de- 
partment and the Air Ministry. 

The position at present is that the Air Ministry is maturing plans 
for the allocation of a greater number of aircraft for duty with the 
navy. These machines will include submarine spotters, torpedo 
carriers, scouts, and fighting machines. 



AIRPLANE-CARRYING VESSELS NOW PAID OFF WILL PROBABLY BE RECOM- 

MISSIONED AND OTHERS BUILT. 

The whole trend of design in seagoing aircraft has recently been 
toward greater power and wider range, producing machines capable 
of more thorough cooperation with surface ships; and there have 
been impressive developments in the construction of airplanes that 
alight and take off from the decks of warships and that can be stored 
on board them. 

There is at present no considerable number of aircraft detailed 
for duty with the navy. The following details show its disposition : 
At the Royal Air Force base at Calshott there is one active service 
flight with 5 boat planes, and at the School of Naval Cooperation 
and Aerial Navigation there are 8 seaplanes. At the Observers' 
Training School at Lee-on-Solent there are 6 Fairey 3 D float 
planes. Squadron 210, at Gosport, has 12 Dart ship planes, and 
three machines of this type are detailed for use by the torpedo 
development flight. No. 3 Squadron, R. A. F., has 12 Walrus 
machines, and at the Royal Air Force base at Leuchars (Fife) 
there is one half Squadron No. 203, with six Nightjar ship planes, 
and Squadron 205 with 12 Panthers. Squadron 267, on duty in the 
Mediterranean, has five F 2 A machines, and the Pegasus is carrying 
6 Fairey float seaplanes. There are the following aircraft carriers : 
Ark Royal, Eagle, Furious, Hermes, Argus, and Pegasus. These 
vessels are the property of the navy, and are manned by naval crews. 
Not all of them are in commission. Eosjle and Furious have been 
paid off and Hermes is being completed at Devonport. 

It is understood that the Hermes will be ready for active service 
about the 1st of June, 1923, and the Furious, which is being rebuilt, 
will probably be completed about a year from now. 




GREAT BRITAIN. 

v 

ESTIMATE OF THE MILITARY SITUATION. 

10 February, 1923. 

STRENGTH. 

The strength of the British Regular Army, at home and abroad, 
including colonial and Indian troops paid by the war office, was, on 
December 1 approximately 10,700 officers and 155,000 men. Ac- 
cording to the 1922-23 estimates, these figures are to be reduced 
by March 31, 1923, to approximately 10,300 officers and 150,000 men. 
The above does not include British troops serving in India (70,000), 



7 

who are paid for by the Indian Government or various colonial 
units who are paid for by the foreign office (8,700). 

Trained reserves consist of: Reserves, 68,000 officers and men; 
territorials, 135,000 officers and men. 

The forces in India, Egypt, and the various dominions are as 
follows : 

India : 

British Army 70, 000 

Indian Army 147, 000 

Indian reserves 75, 000 

Egypt, Egyptian Army 17, 000 

Canada : 

Permanent forces _ 3, 350 

Militia 52,000 

South Africa : 

Permanent forces 2, 000 

Militia 12,000 

Australia : 

Permanent forces 3, 160 

Militia 30,000 

New Zealand : 

Permanent forces- 500 

Militia 44,000 

The defense forces of the Irish Free State probably total about 
30,000 ; in Ulster, besides the British troops, there are local defense 
forces estimated at about 20,000, of various degrees of training and 
equipment. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The regular army is controlled by the Secretary of State for 
War and the Army Council, consisting of nine members. 

The United Kingdom is divided into six commands and two dis- 
tricts. With the evacuation of southern Ireland by the British, the 
former Irish command has been abolished and in its place has been 
formed a northern Ireland district, with headquarters at Newtonarcls, 
near Belfast. Besides other troops there are in the various com- 
mands and districts two cavalry brigades and five infantry divi- 
sions. In accordance with the recommendations of the Geddes com- 
mittee, complete war equipment is to be kept on hand for five in- 
fantry divisions and one cavalry division, together with certain war 
stores for a further number of divisions. 

New peace tables of organization are slowly being issued, the only 
ones received being those for a battalion of foot guards, an infantry 
battalion and a regiment of cavalry. The latest war establishments 
are those of 1918, so far as known. The infantry divisions now or- 
ganized in the United Kingdom consist ordinarily of three infantry 
brigades of three or four battalions each and three artillery bri- 



8 

gades of four batteries each ; auxiliary troops are limited to engineers 
and signal troops. 

The regular army is being reorganized and reduced in accordance 
with the provision of the 1922-23 budget. 

Following is the status of the principal arms : 

(a) Cavarly. — Under the 1921-22 estimates, the British Eegular 
Cavalry consisted of 31 regiments— 3 regiments of household cavalry 
and 28 cavalry regiments of the line. The 1922-23 estimates make 
provision for only 22 regiments — 2 household and 20 line. This re- 
duction is being carried out, but in order to avoid completely dis- 
banding any regiments, amalgamations are being resorted to and new 
regiments are being formed comprising units from two old regiments. 
For instance, the Fourteenth King's Hussars and the Twentieth 
Hussars have been consolidated into one regiment known as the 
Fourteenth-Twentieth Hussars. This regiment contains squadrons 
from each of the old regiments, and these squadrons preserve the 
uniform and the traditions of the old regiments. 

(b) Artillery. — By reorganization and consolidation the artillery 
is being reduced to the following : 

Royal Horse Artillery, 11 batteries. 

Royal Field Artillery, 127 batteries. 

Royal Garrison Artillery, 44 medium and pack batteries, 3 anti- 
aircraft batteries, 40 coast defense companies or batteries (23 of 
these will be at home and the remainder in the various colonies). 

There are at present one regular and two territorial air defense 
brigades, each consisting of two brigades of garrison artillery (three 
S-gun batteries to each brigade) , a battalion of sappers, and a signal 
company. 

(c) Infantry. — The infantry has been reduced by 22 line bat- 
talions, so that it now consists of 10 battalions of foot guards and 126 
battalions of the line. 

Great Britain's first line of defense, which consists of the regular 
army, is brought up to war establishment by the inclusion of reserve 
officers and the special reserve of officers, by the calling up of the 
regular arm}* reserves and the embodiment of the militia. 

The second line of defense consists of the territorial army, which 
is not supposed to leave England unless an act of Parliament is 
passed. The territorial army is being reorganized; its present 
strength and organization are approximately as follows : 



Officers. Men 



14 infantry divisions. 
2 cavalry brigades. .". . 

Army troops 

Coast defense troops.. 



Total. 



5,000 
150 
300 
300 

6,250 



111,000 

2,500 

13,000 

4,000 

130,500 



The maximum strength provided for under the 1922-23 estimates 
is 170,000 officers and men. 

Equipment. — Infantry : Short model Lee Enfield rifle with bayonet. 
Cavalry: Revolver, short model Lee Enfield rifle and bayonet. 
Lancer regiments have lances; other regiments, swords. Artillery: 
Horse artillery, 18-pound field guns; field artillery, 18-pound field 
gun and 4.5-inch howitzer; garrison artillery, which means medium 
caliber mobile batteries, 60-pound guns, 6-inch howitzers, and 6-inch 
guns; pack artillery batteries, 2.75-inch mountain guns and 3.7-inch 
mountain howitzers. The following machine guns are in use, viz : 
Vickers, Hotchkiss, and Lewis, the latter being in reality more of an 
automatic rifle than a machine gun. 

THEORY OF COMBAT. 

The development of aviation has both weakened and strengthened 
Great Britain's strategic position. Whereas the British Navy has 
always been a first line of defense behind which it was possible to 
have a relatively small regular army, the development of aviation, 
especially by the French, makes the latter of equal importance with 
the navy as the British first line of defense. 

From another point of view, however, the development of avi- 
ation has greatly strengthened Great Britain. Faced Avith the eco- 
nomic necessity of reducing her military forces all over the world, 
she is enabled to carry out her policies and preserve order in her 
outlying possessions and dependencies with a great saving in man 
power by the extensive use of not only aviation but other mechan- 
ical means of warfare, such as armored cars and tanks, chemical war- 
fare, and improved methods of communications, such as wireless 
telephony. 

In Iraq the entire responsibility for defense has been handed over 
by the war office to the air force, with the result that the British and 
Indian garrisons have been reduced; armored cars and airplanes are 
being extensively used in various places, such as along the north- 
western frontier of India and in Transjordania, to put down upris- 
ings and to repulse raids by native tribes. 

Extensive use is about to be made of wireless telephones, not only 
in maneuvers at home but also in actual operations in Waziristan, on 
the northwestern Indian frontier. With the establishment of a num- 
ber of small posts with wireless telephone communications, it is ex- 
pected to be much easier to continue the pacification of the country. 

Another means employed by the British to conserve their own man 
power is by the use of native levies and police forces, such as the 
newly created gendarmerie in Palestine, the native levies in Iraq, 

38316—23 2 



10 



and the tribal levies, or " Khassadars," on the northwest Indian 
frontier. 

Distribution. 

The distribution of the regular and territorial forces at home, by 
cavalry brigades and infantry divisions, is as follows : 





Regular. 


Territorials. 


- 


Cavalry 
brigade. 


Infantry 
division. 


Cavalry 
brigade. 


Infantry 
division. 




1 


2 
1 










2 






2 


3 








2 




1 


1 




2 






3 










2 






1 















All British forces have been evacuated from the Irish Free State, 
with the exception of coast-defense garrisons at Berehaven and 
Queenstown. The troops evacuated were sent to England, except one 
battalion, which went to Alderney and Guernsey. This latter is of in- 
terest considering the present relations between France and Great 
Britain and the position of these islands, which lie close to the French 
coast approximately from 35 miles from Cherbourg, 93 miles 
from Brest, and 100 miles from Havre. The garrison of Alderney 
and Guernsey has heretofore consisted only of a company of fortress 
engineers and detachments of garrison artillery and of the army 
ordnance corps. 

The following table shows the approximate present territorial dis- 
tribution of the British regular forces, not counting British troops in 
India, but including Indian troops serving out of India. 

Iraq : 



United Kingdom (except Ire- 
land) 91, 000 

North Ireland 10, 000 

South Ireland 1, 000 

Rhine 8, 700 

Gibraltar 1, 550 

Bermuda 500 

Jamaica : 

British 600 

Colonial 800 

Malta : 

British 775 

Colonial 300 

Cyprus 115 

Constantinople 19, 500 

Egypt, British 9, 500 

Palestine : 

British 400 

Indian 2, 400 



British 3, 800 

700 
280 
120 



Indian 7, 

Ceylon 

Mauritius 

West Africa : 

British 260 

Colonial 500 

North China : 

British 40 

Indian 800 

South China : 

British 1,100 

Indian 800 

Colonial 500 

Si xnpore : 

British 1, 000 

Indian 850 

Colonial 100 



11 

The British forces in the vicinity of Constantinople total about 
19,500, distributed as follows : 

Constantinople and vicinity 8, 750 

Gallipoli and Chanak 11, 000 

Maritza River 750 

There are 50 airplanes at Constantinople and 14 at Gallipoli, with 
an unknown number afloat. The strength of the British naval 
forces in the vicinity of Constantinople and the Dardanelles varies 
constantly, but is approximately as follows: 14 dreaclnaughts, 3 flo- 
tilla leaders, 23 destroyers, 10 light cruisers. 

In an emergency over 4,000 men could probably be landed to assist 
the army. 

TRAINING. 

Withdrawal of British troops from south Ireland is permitting the 
consolidation of the home forces and the reorganization of several 
brigades of the. expeditionary forces (5 infantry divisions and 1 
cavalry division) which have been more or less disrupted since the 
shipment of British units to Constantinople last September. Conse- 
quently, the training of these units will probably progress rapidly. 
Special attention is being given by the infantry and cavalry to the 
use of machine guns, hand grenades, and light mortars. 

During last summer about 4,000 officers and 107,000 men of the 
Territorials received the full period of two weeks' training out of a 
total of about 136,000. 

The more important British military schools are : 

(a) Woolwich and Sandhurst, corresponding to West Point and 
training cadets, at the former for the artillery and engineers and at 
the latter for the infantry. 

(b) Staff College — Camberly. 

(c) Senior Officers' School — Woking. 

(d) Small Arms School — Hythe. 

(e) Machine Gun School — Seaford. 
(/) School of Equitation — Weedon. 
(g) Artillery School— Larkhill. 

(h) Coast Artillery School — Shoeburyness. 
(i) School of Antiaircraft Defense — Salisbury Plain. 
(j) School of Military Engineering — Chatham. 
(k) School of Signals — Uckfield. 
(I) Tank Corps Central Schools — Bovington. 
(m) School of Military Administration — Chisledon. 
(n) Koyal Army Medical College — London. 

The Boyal Air Force, which is entirely independent from the 
army, has a school system of its own, including a staff college, a 



.12 

cadet college, and various training and flying schools. At Salisbury 
is the Royal Air Force School of Army Cooperation, which works 
with the Artillery School at Larkhill in training army and air 
force officers in all forms of cooperation. 

AIR FORCE. 

Both civil and military aeronautics are under the control of the 
Air Ministry. 

There are 33 complete squadrons atrpresent, distributed as follows: 

Rhine 1 

-Malta (probably lias goue to the Dardanelles) 1 

India 

Egypt and Palestine 5 

Iraq 8 

Home (several have been sent to the Dardanelles) 12 

It is reliably reported that the number of squadrons at home is to 
be increased to 20 and the number in Iraq doubled. Observation 
and bombing squadrons consist of 18 machines and pursuit squadrons 
of 12. 

The total personnel is about 30.5(10. and the equipment is as 
follows : 

Active and immediate reserve 1. 750 

Final reserve _ 803 

New equipment being delivered 500 

Training and experimental 1,403 



Total 4. 450 

According to Lloyd's Register, there are 017 registered commercial 
aircraft in Great Britain, and it is probable that most of these are 
readily convertible into military aircraft. 

The Royal Air Force is actively engaged in bombing operations 
both in Northern Iraq and on the northwest Indian frontier. 

Last October the army turned over to the Royal Air Force full 
control of the defense of Iraq. This is believed to be the first 
instance of the use of air forces by any country as a first line of 
defense. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

GUNNERY SCHOOL, WHALE ISLAND. 
February, 1923. 

The Gunnery School. "Whale Island. Portsmouth, is considered 
the home of gunnery in the British Navy. Every gunnery officer in 
the service must have passed through this school. 



1 



g 



It is for the instruction of both officers and enlisted men. Only a 
brief general description and outline of the work will he driven. 
Complete detailed information concerning the courses of instruction 
and training for both the commissioned and enlisted personnel "with 
reference to gunnery is contained in Gunnery Instructions Manual. 
1!)21 (the latest edition just issued), and a copy of this publication, 
which is not marked "Confidential," has been requested from the 
Admiralty. 

The so-called "Gunnery school training" is divided into four 
groups: (1) Gunnery instruction; (2) experimental: (3) antigas 
school; (I) photographic school. At the head of the establishment, 
AVhale Island, is a captain, who has a senior commander as execu- 
tive. At the head of each of the four subdivisions just mentioned is 
a commander. The commissioned personnel for conducting the work 
of the four sections varies in numbers and rank in accordance with 
the work to be performed, that of Xo. (1) having a very large staff, 
which varies from time to time, depending upon the number under 
instruction: that of Xo. (2) consisting of one commander, two lieu- 
tenant commanders, and two lieutenants; that of Xo. (3) consisting 
of one commander, one commander of the medical corps, and two 
commissioned assistants; and that of Xo. (I) consisting of one com- 
mander with one commissioned assistant and one warrant assistant. 
There are half a dozen general classes into which the instruction at 
the Whale Island establishment ma} T be divided : 

(a) A specially selected class of officers of the rank of lieutenant 
in training for gunnery officer, who take a course of nine months, 
which follows a course of nine months at Greenwich, the course at 
Greenwich being principally a theoretical course consisting of higher 
mathematics, ballistics, etc. At present this class is composed of 25 
members, but before the war it was composed of about 12 and prob- 
ably it will be composed of that number in the future, the 25 having 
been assigned prior to the Washington treaty, which will necessitate 
a reduction. 

A few specially selected officers who stand the highest in these two 
courses of nine months each return to Greenwich for special work, 
corresponding more or less to that performed in our post-graduate 
course in ordnance. The next in proficiency are made members of 
the staff in connection with gunnery instruction of sublieutenants 
and enlisted personnel. The remainder go to sea as gunnery lieu- 
tenants on light cruisers or flotilla leaders. 

(b) Suhlii u tenants. — Naval cadets enter the Koyal Xavy at about 
13-J years of age, serve for three years as naval cadets at Greenwich, 
then two years and four months at sea and then become acting sub- 
lieutenants. They are then put through various courses of instruc- 



14 

tion, consisting, generally speaking, of three months at Greenwich, 
three months at Whale Island under gunnery instruction, six weeks 
at the Vernon Torpedo and Mining School, and two weeks or more 
at the Signal School. Their final standing and date of precedence 
as sublieutenants (permanent) is then based upon their proficiency 
during the various courses of instruction as acting sublieutenants. 
It may be assumed, and is evident from observation, that the acting 
sublieutenants take their course of instruction in a most serious 
manner and attempt to get as much as possible out of it. 

(c) Service ratings. — This corresponds more closely to our old 
Seaman Gunners' School than anything else in our service, but is 
much more comprehensive in many respects. This class is composed 
of specially selected petty officers of such ratings which correspond, 
generally speaking, to our gunners' mates. 

(d) Antigas training. — It is the policy to extend the antigas 
training to every man who enters the British Royal Navy. Certain 
members of the commissioned personnel also receive this instruction. 

(e) Photographic instruction. — Photographic instruction is con- 
fined to a limited personnel, all enlisted men. 

(1) GUNNERY INSTRUCTION. 

The administrative and instructional buildings of the Whale 
Island establishment were built during the pre-war period and 
economy has played no part in them. All instruction is conducted 
indoors in specially designed buildings, affording ample facilities 
for progressive instruction in gunnery. Special buildings contain 
guns of all calibers, breech mechanisms, loading machines, fire- 
control gear and instruments, range finders, turret installation, fuse 
instruction rooms, ammunition assembly and instruction rooms, 
lecture rooms, ammunition supply rooms, etc. 

The hours of the school are from 9 a. m. until 3.30 p. m. 

The commissioned and enlisted personnel under instruction are 
taken through the various courses of instruction in ordnance material 
and in gunnery progressively. They are first taught the operation 
of all the ordnance mechanism. One of the most notable features, 
and one which we would do well to adopt, is the special care taken 
to explain by means of an excellent model the operation of each piece 
of ordnance mechanism one has to use on board ship, from a cross 
section of the smallest single piece to the cross section of a com- 
pletely assembled turret and the mechanism contained therein. 

After becoming familiar with the mechanism and its operation, 
the personnel is then trained in the use of the individual instru- 
ments and finally in the operation of the complete ordnance fire- 
control and gunnery installation on board ship. Throughout this 



15 

course of instruction lectures are conducted. Various members of 
the class are required to explain and illustrate the operation of dif- 
ferent instruments or systems of instruments to the other members 
of the class from time to time. There are numerous colored illustra- 
tions on a large scale of cross sections of all the instruments in addi- 
tion to the models. 

It is in connection with the course of instruction for sublieuten- 
ants that one notes the principal advantages of this gunnery instruc- 
tion. As every sublieutenant must pass through this school success- 
fully, each must attain a certain degree of proficiency in the knowl- 
edge, operation, and care of the ordnance installation aboard ship find 
must attain a certain skill in gunnery. This system has certain 
obvious advantages over one in which the average young ensign is 
left to his own resources for gaining this knowledge, or perhaps, in 
fortunate cases, receives limited supervision of his division officer, 
who has many other duties to perform. In our service undoubtedly a 
considerable and appreciable portion of such a course is covered at 
the Naval Academy. It is believed, however, to offer exceptional 
advantages to conduct such a course of training after a couple of 
years' service afloat. Where our fleets will be at their home bases 
for protracted periods in the future for lack of appropriations for 
fuel for protracted steaming and maneuvers, we might advan- 
tageously establish such schools and conduct such trainings while the 
young officers are on service afloat. Such establishments could well 
be placed ashore. The courses undertaken in our destroyer flotillas 
during the last two years along this line, especially in connection 
with torpedoes, is a step in the right direction. Such courses, how- 
ever, were much too advanced for the junior officers. 

It was noted that special instruction for several weeks was given 
to range takers, and that qualified range takers were sent from this 
school to ships as vacancies were required. 

The opportunities for instruction and familiarization with the fire- 
control instruments are especially advantageous. It would appear 
that in this connection particularly much tedious and laborious work 
might be saved the gunnery officer aboard ship in the initial train- 
ing of the special fire-control ratings. 

If this were undertaken at some such establishment, it is believed 
that (his system of training enlisted ratings ashore up to a certain 
period of their efficiency would advance the gunnery efficiency in 
general. It would enable the gunnery officer, his assistant, and the 
turret officers to devote the proper share of their attention to the 
operation and upkeep of the material and final training of their per- 
sonnel, which is now encroached upon to a great extent by initial 
training. 



16 

Each class of sublieutenants (and to some extent the classes of 
enlisted personnel) is given full and detailed information concern- 
ing the relation of armor, different kinds of projectiles, fuses, caps, 
rotating bands, etc. They are taught to take a very intelligent in- 
terest in this relation. I dare say there are many officers in our 
service who do not know with what the various projectiles are filled. 
Likewise, this applies to the British service. Nevertheless, we see at 
the gunnery school, Whale Island, an attempt in the right direction 
toward educating their officers to have a more intelligent interest in 
all matters dealing with gunnery. 

This gunnery school at Whale Island apparently has a tendency 
to develop a spirit of cooperation throughout all members of the 
gunnery branch of the fleet. Each class of sublieutenants presents 
the school, upon graduation, with some souvenir, usually in the 
shape of a large piece of silver. Discussions with a number of gun- 
nery officers show very strong allegiance to and support of the 
Whale Island establishment. 

A light cruiser and a destroyer are assigned to special firing and 
instructional duties in connection with the gunnery school. 

(2) EXPERIMENTAL SECTION. 

The exj^erimental section is to some degree a misnomer. It might 
more accurately be termed a special board of seagoing officers for 
the execution and testing of such experiments as are authorized by 
the director of naval ordnance (corresponding to our Chief of Bu- 
reau of Ordnance). The ordnance committee at Woolwich considers 
and passes upon research and experimental work of its own as well 
as of the research department, and recommends to the D. N. O. cer- 
tain experiments. The experimental section at Whale Island is 
charged with the execution of such experiments. The report of this 
experimental section determines in a large measure the action of 
the D. N. O. thereon. It was emphasized by the officers at Whale 
Island that the officers composing the staff of the experimental sec- 
tion were not permitted to remain on that detail for longer than two 
years, and that they were men who came direct from sea service as 
gunnery officers. 

There was some apparent hesitancy in conducting me through 
the experimental section part of the establishment. As a matter of 
fact, I might just as well not have been shown it, as I was not per- 
mitted to see any experiments. In reply to my inquiry as to what 
experiments were being undertaken I was informed that practically 
nothing was being done there, although the members of the section 
were almost constantly making trips to other parts of Great Britain 
for the purpose of witnessing and reporting upon various experi- 



17 

ments. Undoubtedly a considerable portion of the experiments are 
conducted at Whale Island, and it was evident that I was not per- 
mitted to witness them. 

Practically the only thing of interest I saw in connection with this 
part of the establishment, was at the small so-called proving ground. 
They can test guns and fuses and some plates at normal impact. 
The one point of interest was a platform at the firing battery which 
could be tilted to 30°. They stated that they found it desirable to 
test some mounts not only with the gun at the maximum angle of 
elevation but while the gun platform was inclined at various angles, 

(3) ANTIGAS SECTION. 

The antigas section does not deal with the manufacture, develop- 
ment, or experimentation of gas-producing apparatus, materials, or 
projectiles. It consists exclusively in the consideration of antigas 
measures and in the training and instruction of personnel therein. 

The standard course of instruction is for four days and 
a half. The lieutenants taking the nine months' course, the sub- 
lieutenants taking the three months' course, and the enlisted per- 
sonnel under training in the Gunnery Instruction School are all re- 
quired to pass successfully through the Antigas School. In addition, 
all officers below the rank of commander are required to take the 
course as opportunity offers when the fleet is in that vicinhV^. Special 
short courses of two days exist for captains and commanders. All 
officers taking the staff course and the War College course at Green- 
wich are required to take this special course. Since the Antigas 
School was established, about July, 1920, 4,769 service ratings (offi- 
cers not included) have passed through this school. 

Lectures are given to the personnel taking the course concerning 
the various gases, the historical development of gas warfare, and the 
measures taken as a protection against it and the effects of various 
kinds of gas. The personnel is then instructed in the composition, 
care, preservation, and operation of the gas mask and the perform- 
ance of general duties while wearing it. They are then put through 
certain exercises of various kinds while wearing the mask in order to 
illustrate the way in which it hinders and interferes with normal 
activities. 

The greatest difficulty which has been experienced in the instruc- 
tion of personnel in the use of gas masks is the necessity for wearing 
them. ( Consequently, it has become necessary to make all tests of the 
efficiency of the gas mask come as a surprise to the personnel. For 
this reason the personnel is never given any information as to when 
the test will be undertaken. They are told when they arrive that it 
may be at any time during their four and one-half days' course. 



18 

Numerous tests are conducted during the course with harmless 
preparations, intermingled with those of a more serious nature. 

The standard British Army gas mask, with the mouthpiece and 
nose clip, has recently been discarded for a type developed at the 
Antigas School. This type is now called the New Navy gas mask. 
It has not been issued to the service, but has been approved by the 
Admiralty as the standard. It has a single protection, is gas type, 
has no mouthpiece nor nose clip, and permits the wearer to converse. 
The commander in charge of the Antigas School stated it was very 
similar to our latest gas mask. It is said to afford entirely satisfac- 
tory protection against all gases, including the following : Chlorine 
gas, phosgene, chloropicric gas, mustard gas, and poison dust. 

In response to an inquiry, the captain in charge of the Whale Is- 
land establishment replied that he considered the wearing of gas 
masks by the personnel aboard ship reduced their efficiency by 30 
per cent. 

In the British service, those who have considered the matter care- 
fully emphasize the great importance of antigas protection. It was 
stated at Whale Island that gas masks are issued to every member 
of the personnel and that the problem of the proper care and preser- 
vation of the individual gas masks was a matter of serious concern 
and yet to be satisfactorily solved. 

(4) PHOTOGRAPHIC SECTION. 

The photographic section has also recently been established, and 
its personnel in the British Navy is limited at the present time to 
about 62 enlisted men. Aside from usual photographic work, they 
have recently undertaken the development of photography as a means 
of development of the use of cinema or motion-picture machines, to 
illustrate to the classes under instruction the operation of various 
things in connection with gunnery training, such as the operation 
of the Lewis gun. They now have a film, which shows to the classes 
the exact operation of the Lewis gun and can slow it down to a point 
where the operation is clearly distinguishable and can be followed 
in detail. They stated that it has been of great assistance in the in- 
struction of the enlisted personnel concerning this gun. They are 
now attempting to extend it to various subjects connected with gun- 
nery training. At the present time they have a specially trained and 
exceptionally efficient 6-inch gun's crew, which they are photo- 
graphing with a view to using it for illustration purpose in training 
6-inch guns" crews. For example, they will flash upon the screen 
" Misfire," and that part of the film immediately following illus- 
trates the proper procedure in the case of a misfire, etc. 



19 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

LATEST DESIGN OF CAPS FOR MAJOR CALIBER A. P. PROJECTILES. 

February, 1923. 

Rough sketches of the two latest designs of caps used on standard 
major caliber A. P. projectiles in the British Navy are shown in Figs. 
1 and 2. 




^'T 1 




The so-called " KNOB " cap shown in Fig. 1 is a recent design by 
Thomas Firth & kSon, of Sheffield. The design shown in Fig. 2 is of 
Hadfields design. 

In both of these designs the extreme forward center portion of 
the cap is very hard, the hardness tapering off throughout about 



20 

two-thirds of the cap, the other one-third being much softer. This 
tapering in degree of hardness is considered very important in 
" plunging fire." 

The principal advantage claimed by the Firth people for the type 
shown in Fig. 1 is its superiority in " biting " into horizontal armor 
at extreme battle ranges. This superiority is not conceded by the 
Hadfields people. The Admiralty appear to favor the type shown 
in Fig. 1. However, the naval officers in charge of the testing work 
at the proving ground, Shoeburyness, state that they have found 
practically no difference in the two types so far as effectiveness is 
concerned. It is interesting to note that Firth has produced a cap 
for A. P. projectiles that is at least equally efficient, in the opinion of 
all, as that of Hadfields's design. 

Hadfields, while preferring their own design, have been required 
to make a certain number of caps of the design shown in Fig. 1. 

Hadfields have the Government Admiralty contract for all experi- 
mental projectiles and caps, and the firm of Hadfields state they have 
carried out a very extensive experimentation with various types of 
caps. They admit the type shown in Fig. 1 is equally efficient to their 
own type shown in Fig. 2. 

From discussions with a number of naval and civilian officials, it 
would appear desirable to fire a limited number of projectiles with 
caps fitted with designs somewhat similar to that appearing in Fig. 
1, if this design by any chance has not already been covered in the 
test conducted by the Bureau of Ordnance. 

All major A. P. projectiles for the British Navy are fitted with 
caps of types indicated either in Fig. 1 or Fig. 2. Hundreds of 
modern standard 15-inch A. P. projectiles in various degrees of 
manufacture have been seen in the works of Hadfields (Ltd.) and 
Thomas Firth & Son in Sheffield, fitted with caps of either one or the 
other of these two designs. 

The method of securing the caps is the same as that used in secur- 
ing the caps of our 16-inch A. P. projectiles manufactured by Had- 
fields (Ltd.), Sheffield. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

MISCELLANEOUS ORDNANCE NOTES. 
February, 1923. 

Guns. — The 15-inch Mark I guns are 15 calibers in length. 

The 6-inch, 50-caliber, Mark XII, guns fire a standard 100-pound 
projectile with 4-caliber radius head, at M. V. 2,750 F. S., with a 
maximum elevation of 30° and a maximum range of 20,000 yards. 



21 

The latest 4.7-inch semiautomatic antiaircraft gun fires a standard 
50-pound projectile with a 4-caliber radius head, with a 28-pound 
powder charge, at an M. V. 2,650 F. S. 

The 15-inch, 45-caliber, Mark I, gun fires the standard projectile 
of 4-caliber radius head, with a full charge of 428 pounds of powder 
at an M. V. of 2,450 F. S. 

All of the mounts for 6-irich Mark XII guns which I have seen 
provide for a maximum elevation of 30°. All 4.7-inch antiaircraft 
i>-uns have a maximum elevation of 90°. 

I was shown a 4-inch gun at Whale Island which had blown up 
because of ice in the muzzle. There were 100 miles of wire wound 
into this gun. The entire forward two-thirds section of the gun had 
been quite cleanly torn off. 

Projectiles. — In the turret magazine which I visited on the Ramil- 
lies, I noticed some exceptionally long 15-inch projectiles. These 
projectiles were approximately 30 per cent longer than the standard 
A. P. projectile. In reply to my inquiry, the gunnery officer stated 
that they were special projectiles which had been taken aboard for 
firing against shore positions in the Dardanelles in the Near East. 
Either he did not know much about them or he evaded my inquiries 
for further information. They appeared to be similar to the usual 
" common " shell, and he stated they contained a very large charge 
of "powder." The interesting fact is that they found some such 
type of special projectile necessary for use against shore fortifica- 
tions. From observation and discussions it appears certain that the 
British Navy has adopted heads of 4-caliber radius for their standard 
15-inch, 13.5-inch, 6-inch, and 4.7-inch projectiles. 

In discussion at Whale Island with a number of gunnery officers 
it was stated that the present shell filler for major caliber A. P. 
projectiles is either amatol or T. N. T. 

During my visit to Whale Island I noted, as elsewhere, considerable 
emphasis laid on smoke shell in the courses of instruction. I was not 
able to elicit any information on the subject, but apparently consider- 
able attention is being devoted to it. 

Range finders. — Practically all of the gunnery officers with whom 
I have discussed the subject prefer coincidence type range finders, 
primarily because they say only one out of every ten men can see 
stereoscopically, and that too much training of operators is required 
with stereoscopic range finders. Discussion with those who have 
given close attention to the subject indicate that under one condition, 
namely, when the atmosphere is hazy or misty, the stereoscopic range 
finder is the more accurate of the two. A rather extensive series of 
experiments is being conducted by way of comparison of coincidence 
and stereoscopic range finders at Portsmouth. I discussed the mat- 
ter at some length with the lieutenant commander in charge. He 



22 

said they had recently completed the third series and were now en- 
gaged in the fourth series of tests. I asked him, among others, that 
if the stereoscopic range finder appeared superior in hazy and misty 
weather — that is, under the low visibility conditions which obtain 
in the North Sea — why it wouldn't be superior for them. The reply 
in practically every case was that the Barr & Stroud people thought 
that the coincidence type of range finders were the best and that that 
was what the Admiralty had decided upon. 

Gas cliech pads. — Examination of the gas check pads on the 15- 
inch guns of the Ramillies indicates that they are very similar to 
those in our major caliber guns. Copper protection annular ring is 
employed on the forward side of the pad. 

Rotating bands. — The rotating bands for practically all modern 
standard projectiles in the British Navy appear to be the same, 
having only one groove. 

H. M. S. Agamemnon. — During my visit to Portsmouth I saw the 
battleship Agamemnon several times and talked at some length with 
the captain who was in command of her. He stated that it was 
necessary to conserve H. M. S. Agamemnon as a target vessel for 
firings during the next two years; that is, until one of the vessels 
becomes available as her relief as target vessel. Firings can not be 
conducted against the Agamemnon with larger than 6-inch guns. 
They have not been able to find any larger projectiles which will not 
go through her. The 6-inch projectiles which are used are filled with 
sand. They consider firing at the Agamemnon gives much more ac- 
curate results than firing at targets. Several gunnery officers stated 
that their battle targets, which are similar to ours, but which he 
stated had been modified to draw between 12 and 16 feet, were very 
unsatisfactory. 



JAPAN. 

AIRPLANE LANDINGS ON " HOSHO." 
February, 1923. 

A British officer, formerly of the Eoyal Air Force, who is now 
employed by the Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Co. of 
Nagoya, has been provisionally engaged by the Japanese Navy to 
undertake experimental landings on the deck of the airplane carrier 
Hosho. These landings will probably take place early this spring. 

This officer is known as a very skillful pilot, and his war record 
with the British Boyal Air Force was excellent, he being credited 
with accounting for something like 37 enemy planes. While he is 
not lacking in skill or nerve, so far as known he has never had any 
experience with ship work. It is believed that he is far from satis- 



23 

fied with the Mitsubishi typo plane with which he is supposed to 
make these landings. He is thoroughly familiar with this type of 
airplane. 

The Japanese press reports that the Navy Department is offering 
prizes totaling yen 15,000.00 for aviators who successfully land on 
the deck of the Hosho, but it is thought this applies only to Japanese 
navy aviators, who will undertake to emulate the foreign officer's 
feat if he makes a succesful landing. 

The first Japanese officer to undertake this is thought by the 
press as likely to be either Lieutenant Kira, aviation officer of the 
Hosho, or Sublieutenant Kamei, aviation instructor. 



JAPAN. 

CERTAIN SENIOR NAVAL OFFICERS. 
February, 1923. 

Recently five short articles appeared in the Japanese edition of 
the Osaka Mainichi on the general subject of certain ranking Japa- 
nese naval officers and their relation to Admiral Baron T. Kato, 
Prime Minister and Minister of Marine. The author of these ar- 
ticles is not divulged, but he is thought to be a naval officer. His 
comments are interesting and generally show an unusual degree of 
familiarity with his subject and fairness in handling it. 

The substance of these articles is given herewith, with comments 
from a well-informed foreign source in Japan, in parenthesis. 

The first article dubs Kato " King of the Navy " and character- 
izes him as a " short-tempered King " of cold exterior but warm 
heart; a man hard to know, reticent, and severe, but true to his 
friends. A man of good brain and broad vision. It is stated that 
it is very difficult to win the favor of Kato, and he is drawn to plain 
men of quiet tastes who talk little and accomplish things, and dis- 
likes particularly " navy swells." Above all, he is honest and un- 
selfish, but even so it is but natural that during seven years of service 
as Minister of Marine he should have formed about him a " Kato 
group " that controls the navy. 

(The above is thought to be a very fair estimate of Admiral 
Kato. All classes concede his honesty, even when severely con- 
demning his policies, which is most unusual as regards a man in 
public life in Japan. It is thought that Admiral Kato's reactions 
are primarily those of a naval officer rather than those of a poli- 
tician.) 

This article then takes up the three prominent vice admirals re- 
cently put on the waiting list, K. Moriyama, K. Yoshida, and T. 
Sato, supposedly by the " Kato group " influence. 



24 

Vice Admiral Moriyama, until 1 December. 1922, commanded the 
dockyard at Kure, is characterized as a bright man capable of doing 
things as well as talking, but a " naval swell." Having held many 
important posts, among them senior aid to the Minister of Marine 
(Admiral Saito), "the gateway to the highest promotion,"' he was 
looked upon as likely to receive the highest promotion. Ambition, 
talking, and " swell " ways caused his downfall. 

(Vice Admiral Moriyama is personally very well known to me. 
He is able and energetic, but very opinionated and too often looks 
upon the wine when it is red, or the said when it is warm.) 

Vice Admiral Yoshida, it is stated, made a very good impression on 
Admiral Kato upon his return from heading an aviation mission to 
Europe in 1919. but soon thereafter for unknown reasons, he was 
placed on the waiting list and recently on the retired list. 

Vice Admiral T. Sato is credited with having written, as a young 
officer, a very valuable book on national defense, with having had a 
great influence in the formation of the naval general staff, and, as 
a rear admiral, with having had much to do with the conception of 
the 8-8 naval program. "When Kato first became Minister of Marine 
he made Sato vice chief of general staff, but later Sato disagreed 
with Kato over details of the 8-8 program. Also about this time 
Sato very actively associated himself with the Mchiren Buddhist 
sect, which adversely affected his reputation as a naval officer. More 
recently he opposed certain features of the Washington Conference, 
and thus he came to be eliminated. 

The author then suggests that Kato, " if he possesses tender feelings 
at all," recommend to the Emperor the appointment of Vice Ad- 
miral Sato as a member of the House of Peers. (A certain number 
of members, not of the peerage, are appointed by the Throne.) 

In the second article the author discusses " The three favorites of 
Kato." These, he says, are Vice Admiral K. Ide, Vice Minister of 
Marine (practically minister since Kato became Premier) ; Vice 
Admiral K. Okada, chief of material bureau; and Vice Admiral M. 
Osumi, chief of bureau of military affairs. 

Says the author: " It can almost be said that present naval affairs 
are manipulated solely by these three men. The fact that Kato is 
able successfully to hold the navy portfolio besides the premiership 
is due to the backing of these three wise brains, and likewise that 
they can boldly and freely carry on the naval administration is due 
to the fact that they .have above them an able minister, Kato. There 
exists perfect harmony between Kato and the three," 

The opinion is further expressed that Kato's position as " king of 
the navy " is stronger than any of his predecessors because Kato has 
surrounded himself with men of the best intellect rather than men of 
traditional origin. 



25 

(Without question Vice Admirals Ide, Okada, and Osumi are in 
the first rank as regards ability and energy. All are good adminis- 
trators, but have had little sea experience as flag officers.) 

The next article discusses the probable successor to Admiral Kato 
as Minister of Marine. Opinion is expressed that it lies between 
Ide and Okada, with the chances favoring Ide. (This is only in 
case Admiral Kato retains the premiership). 

Admiral Ide is characterized as a clear thinker, a man of prompt 
decision and having great love for the Navy. In recent years he 
has been rather irritable and quick tempered, but of late seems to 
have corrected these faults. If he gets through the present session 
of the Diet without compromising himself by losing his temper 
when attacked by the opposition, he will almost certainly become 
Minister of Marine. 

(Vice Admiral Ide, at present Vice Minister of Marine, is a clear, 
forceful, rather reserved man. In contact with foreigners is easy 
and agreeable. His health, which was quite bad a year ago, seems 
much improved. He is the logical officer to take the post of Minister 
of Marine if Kato remains Premier.) 

Vice Admiral Okada is described as very forceful and not afraid 
to take responsibility and an excellent parliamentarian. Has not 
been in the public eye so much as Ide, and for this reason might be 
more acceptable as Minister of Marine. However, his chances of 
succeeding Kato are small unless Ide makes some bad mistakes during 
the present session of the Diet. Later, if it should happen that 
Admiral Takarabe should become Chief of Naval General Staff 
(thought to be quite improbable), Okada would most probably 
become Minister of Marine. 

(Vice Admiral Okada, at present Chief of Material Bureau, is 
a clever, forceful, agreeable officer. Has had very little sea duty as 
a flag officer. More interested in the shore end of the Navy than 
the seagoing end. Will probably hold many important posts on 
shore before retiring. Is now only 55 years of age, having been 
promoted to rear admiral when 45.) 

Vice Admiral Osumi, the author says, is extremely bright and a 
very strong character, but his time for high office will come later. 
Is surely a future Minister of Marine. Has many friends and is 
considered very lucky. May possibly become Vice Minister if Ide 
is made Minister. 

(Vice Admiral Osumi, at present Chief of Bureau of Military 
Affairs, is clever, easy in manner, and very active. Is perhaps a bit 
too much of a " good fellow." No sea experience as a flag officer. 
Is only 47 years of age.) 
38316—23 3 



26 

The fourth article takes of the remnants of the " Yamamoto 
group." (Admiral G. Yamamoto (retired), one time Minister of 
Marine, Prime Minister, etc., still alive and has a big influence both 
with the navy and Government. Admiral Kato, the present Premier, 
was of the " Yamamoto group," but since becoming Minister of 
Marine has built up his own " group." Kato has considered brains 
of more importance than clan, and consequently the Satsuma 
influence is not so all powerful in the navy now as formerly.) 

The outstanding members of importance of the " Yamamoto 
group " are declared to be Admiral T. Takarabe, Admiral I. Take- 
shita, and Vice Admiral Kanji Kato. These men, while all strongly 
pro- Satsuma, still are strong enough to stand on their own regardless 
of clan backing. Admiral Takarabe is thought to be a possible chief 
of naval general staff (I do not agree with this), and surely will be 
for a long time a member of the War Council as Gensui. 

(I do not hold Admiral Takarabe in such high esteem, but recog- 
nize his very strong influence, he being the son-in-law of Admiral 
Yamamoto. Is now commander in chief at Yokosuka. Has had no 
sea experience to speak of since reaching flag rank 14 years ago. 
As Vice Minister of Marine during the naval scandal of 1914 his 
character was rather badly besmirched.) 

Admiral Takeshita is said to be high in favor of the royal family, 
and therefore sure of a long and distinguished career. 

(Admiral Takeshita, at present commander in chief of the com- 
bined fleet, is thought to be one of the very ablest officers in the 
Japanese Navy. Is progressive, forceful, and a real leader. Speaks 
English fluently and is decidedly friendly toward America. Would 
make an excellent war commander.) - 

Vice Admiral K. Kato is held in very high esteem by the author. 
Is held to be exceptionally able and clearheaded. A man of un- 
limited capacity, strong-minded, and farsighted. Somewhat argu- 
mentative. It is rumored that he does not now get along well 
with Admiral T. Kato, and some anxiety is felt by his friends as to 
the future. 

(Vice Admiral K. Kato, at present vice chief of naval general 
staff, is without question clever and suave, but he does not inspire 
confidence. Impresses one as often " playing to the gallery." Is not 
considered an outstanding figure in the Japanese Navy-) 

Allied with the Yamamoto group, and also with the Kato group, 
are Admirals K. Nomaguchi and S. Tochihai. Both are held to be 
sound, dependable admirals, but of no special characteristics, and no 
chance of being of great naval importance. 

The final article takes up the leaders of the " Independent group." 
The outstanding members of this group are Admiral G. Yamashita 
and K. Suzuki. These two, the author thinks, are model officers. 



27 

(I am inclined to agree.) They are strong, independent, and force- 
ful ; naval officers always rather than politicians. 

(Admiral Yamashita, at present chief of naval general staff, has 
been vice chief of naval general staff, commander in chief of a first- 
class naval station, and commander in chief of the fleet, so he has 
about covered all the purely naval jobs worthy of note. He is not a 
politician, but a very strong, silent, forceful officer. Commands the 
respect and admiration of those whom he comes in contact with. 
AVould be a credit to any naval service. When he gives up his prseent 
post will probably remain on as military counselor, but without 
political influence.) 

(Vice Admiral K. Suzuki, at present commander in chief of Kure 
naval station, is one of the very ablest flag officers in the Japanese 
Navy. Quiet, forceful, energetic, and clever. He must be recog- 
nized as one of the officers due for great prominence in the next ten 
years. (He is now only 55 years of age.) Though a Satsuma man, 
he is not tied up with the Satsuma group. Is material for future 
chief of naval general staff or Minister of Marine.) 

The article concludes with discussion of the younger men of 
prominence in the Kato group. These are Vice Admiral S. Horiuchi 
and Rear Admirals Furukawa, Nomura, and Kobayashi. These 
may be expected to progressively fill the posts in the navy of great 
and greater importance. They are all able, progressive, and ambi- 
tious. 

(One of the most interesting features of these articles is the side 
light thrown on the Japanese naval attitude toward sea service gen- 
erally and even high command afloat. In discussing future posts 
of importance, command of the fleet or parts of the fleet are not even 
mentioned. An ambitious Japanese naval officer considers almost 
any job in Tokyo preferable to any job outside of Tokyo. The 
strings are unquestionably pulled in Tokyo. Command of the big 
Japanese naval stations are apparently valued as commands, not 
necessarily by their comparative value as stations, but, inversely, as 
their distance from Tokyo.) 



JAPAN. 

EMPLOYMENT OF FLEET. 

January, 1923. 

Note: As Reported in the Japanese Press. 

The combined Japanese fleet, less such ships as are under repair, 
was to assemble January 17, 1923, in Ariake Bay, Southern Kyushu. 
Ships were to proceed there independently. There ships are to be 



28 

inspected by the commander in chief. (Apparently inspection in 
both the first and second fleet will be conducted by the commander 
in chief of first fleet, Admiral Takeshita.) 

On or about January 23, the fleets will leave Ariake Bay. First 
fleet will cruise down the Southern Islands of Japan (H. O. chart 
No. 2,194) toward Formosa, stopping at Nakagusuku Bay (lat. 26° 
15' N., long 127° 50' E., approximately), for fuel and water. Thence 
north to Sasebo, where the fleet will again take fuel and water. 
From Sasebo down the western coast of Kyushu to Kagoshima Gulf, 
thence to Beppu Bay, via Bunge Channel, arriving about the middle 
of February. From then until early in April " first-term " training 
will be engaged in. (Probably elementary target practice, boating, 
ship drills, etc.) This takes place in the Inland Sea with the fleet 
loased on Age-no-shiyo (lat. 33° 55' N., long. 132° 18' E., approxi- 
mately), Yashiro Island. (Nothing is known of this place.) 

The second fleet, leaving Ariake Bay about January 23, will pro- 
ceed to the Inland Sea via Bungo Channel and engage in wt first- 
term " training in Hiroshima Bay, with Kure as a base. The latter 
part of February it will proceed via Southwestern Islands of Japan 
to Formosa, returning to Kure early in April and joining the first 
fleet there. 

The combined fleet will then proceed to the eastward, stopping at 
Ise so officers and men may pay their respects at the Ise Shrine. 
(This is the most sacred spot in Japan, for here dwell the spirits 
of all the departed Japanese Emperors from Jimnm Tennu, the 
first, to Meiji Tennu, the last, according to Japanese teaching. Here 
all officials go to worship the spirits of the imperial ancestors, and 
here with great ceremony these spirits are informed of all important 
events happening in Japan and decisions made affecting the Empire.) 

From Ise the combined fleet will proceed to Tokyo Bay, for rest 
and liberty. Ships will then proceed to their home yards for repairs. 

The latter part of May the fleets will reassemble at Sasebo, and for 
two or three weeks will engage in various practices (probably includ- 
ing mining practice) around Sasebo and Chinkai. 

The latter part of July the combined fleet will proceed to Sayeki 
Bay on Bungo Channel and engage in the " usual " war practices. 
(Long-range battle practice probably. This is usually held in Bungo 
Channel.) When this is completed, ships will disperse for summer 
holidays. 

In August combined fleets will proceed to the Sea of Japan and 
up to Hokkaido. Here night torpedo-defense practice and other 
exercises will be held. 

At the end of September the fleets will be formed into two ma- 
neuvering fleets and grand maneuvers will be held in the Sea of 
Japan and south to Formosa. 



29 

Grand maneuvers will end by the middle of October and may be 
followed by a naval review by the Prince Regent. 

It is probable that the combined fleet will come as near Tokyo as 
possible (Shinagawa) in the late autumn, when the wedding of the 
Prince Regent takes place. 

Note. — In a conversation with the senior aid to the Minister of Marine, it 
was asked if the newspaper accounts of the prospective movements of the fleet 
were correct in essential points. He replied that these accounts were newspaper 
stories only, and not based upon anything given out by the Navy Department. 
While he did not say these accounts were not generally correct, he intimated 
that they contained errors, which is doubtless true. 



JAPAN. 

VARIOUS NAVAL NOTES. 
January, 1923. 

Note: As Reported in the Japanese Press. 

The plans for the completion of the Amagi and Akagi as airplane 
carriers have been completed and work was restarted on the Amagi 
January 19, 1923. 

The papers state that details regarding these ships are carefully 
guarded, but that it is thought they are to displace about 26,000 
tons when completed, to be armed with several 8-inch guns located 
forward, to have speed enough to maneuver with the fleet, to have 
airplane " take-off " forward, and landing deck aft, and to have a 
large gasoline stowage capacit}^. 

The papers also state that Japan is allowed one more airplane 
carrier, but her construction is not to be undertaken until lessons 
can be drawn from the Amagi and Akagi. 

RECENT AVIATION ACCIDENTS IN JAPAN. 

The below aviation accidents have recently been noted in the 
j^ress : 

On January 9, 1923, Lieut. Takenaka Rintaro (Japanese Army) 
was piloting an airplane over the seashore at Muramatsu when a 
sudden squall drove the machine against a captive balloon. The 
machine crashed, killing the pilot. 

On January 9, 1923, a plane flying between Tokyo and Osaka for 
the Japanese newspaper Asahi, crashed from a height of 100 meters, 
and both pilot and his passenger were very seriously injured. En- 
gine trouble is assigned as the cause of the accident. 

On January 11, 1923, a plane in the same service as- above ran into 
a telegraph pole at Fukugawa, where a forced landing was being 
made. The machine was wrecked and the aviator injured. 



30 

On January 11, 1923, a plane making a flight in Chiba prefecture 
crashed from getting out of control and was wrecked, but the aviator 
was not injured. 

ASTRA TYPE, NONRIGID DIRIGIBLE TO ARRIVE IN JAPAN SOON. 

The Astra type nonrigid dirigible purchased in France, which is 
christened the No. 1 Dirigible, is soon to arrive in Japan with ma- 
terials for shed, etc., and will be assembled probably at Oppama 
(Yokosuka). It is expected to make its initial flight to Tokyo in 
April, 1923. 

The following description is given : 

Length meters 80 

Diameter : do 18 

Height do 22 

Capacity cubic meters__ 10, 700 

Seating capacity, basket 7 

Motors ( Sunbeam ) 2 

Equipped with wireless telephone and telegraph, machine guns and 
bombs. The weight of this equipment is about 2,000 kilograms. 

Speed (nautical miles per hour.) 50 

Duration of continuous flight . hours 10 

Height attainable meters 30, 000 

Cost i ., yen__350, 000 

Purpose, for reconnoitering and scouting. 

The sister dirigible to the S. S. type which was destroyed some 
time ago will be completed by the end of February, and will be 
known as the No. 3 Dirigible. 

PROJECTED PLIGHT PROM YOKOSUKA TO OGASAWARA (BONIN ISLANDS) 

AND RETURN. 

The Yokosuka Aviation Corps will attempt, about the middle of 
February, 1923, a flight from Yokosuka to Ogasawara and return. 
Large reconnaissance hydroplanes will be used and naval vessels will 
patrol the route to be followed. Radiophones installed on these 
hydroplanes are said to be working very satisfactorily. 

If this flight is successful, a flight will later be attempted to 
Formosa. 

Note. — To date nothing further has been received regarding these flights. 
BURSTING OF 16-INCH GUN, JAPANESE NAVAL PROVING GROUND. 

On January 16, 1923, while testing a new 16-inch gun at Kaniega- 
kubi proving grounds (this is the old naval proving ground near 
Kure), on the last round the breech block gave way. Several men 
were injured and considerable damage was done to near-by buildings. 

No details of above are available. 



31 

JAPANESE SUBMARINE " NO. 5!)" LAUNCHED AT THE KAWASAKI DOCK- 
YARD ON JANUARY 18, 1923. 

The Japanese submarine No. 59 was launched at the Kawasaki 
Dockyard on January 18, 1923. 

Factory No. 1, Wantanabe Iron Works, Chiyomachi Fukooka, a 
secret contract factory of the navy, had an explosion on 11 January, 
1923, in which 11 men Avere injured. They Avere working on some 
" oxegen machinery. 1 " Experts from Sasebo hurried to the scene to 
investigate the cause of the explosion. The cause of the explosion 
and the nature of the product being made were not made public, and 
an effort was made to hush up the news that there had been an ex- 
plosion. 

Note. — Absolutely no information confirming or elucidating this can be ob- 
tained. It is thought it was probably a hydrogen explosion from submarine 
batteries being made. 

FLIGHT, YOKOSUKA TO HACHIJO-JIMA AND RETURN. 

On February 6, 1923, Nos. 14 and 15 " F-5 " type naval hydroplanes 
belonging to Yokosuka Aviation Division, flew from Yokosuka to 
Hachijo-jima Island and return, stopping two hours at Hachijo-jima. 
This was in preparation for flight to Ogasawara (see reference). 
Hachijo-jima is about 140 miles south of Yokosuka and the flight 
each way took approximately two hours. 



JAPAN. 

WORK OF BRITISH NAVAL AVIATION MISSION. 

February, 1923. 

The British aviation mission of 30 former British Naval Air 
Service officers and warrant officers began work in Japan February 
1, 1921, under contract with the Japanese Admiralty and with com- 
missions in the Japanese Navy, to organize and train a Japanese 
Naval Air Service. 

The mission expects to complete its work about the first of 1924, 
although it may be considerably later. According to an informant, 
when he went out there the Japanese had practically no naval air 
service worth speaking about. Now, exclusive of the few not very 
good machines which the Japanese already had, their naval air 
service has about 300 planes, bought by the mission in Great Britain. 
These planes include land machines, sea planes, and amphibians. 
Between 100 and 150 may be classed first-line machines, the remainder 
being training and experimental planes. The machine guns used are 
Vickers for the fixed type, and Lewis for the movable. The tor- 



32 

pedoes used by the torpedo planes are of the Japanese naval type, 
made in Japan, weighing 1,000 and 1,500 pounds. The mission hopes 
to shortly begin experimenting with a purely naval aircraft type of 
torpedo, which it is hoped will meet the requirements of the service 
better than the adopted naval type. The bombs which the mission 
uses are both over and under 500 pounds in weight. 

The mission had nothing to do with the Japanese Army Air Serv- 
ice, which is being organized by the French, as is the Japanese Army 
in general on the basis of the experience which the French gained 
in the late war. The aim of the mission and its work has been to 
organize, equip, and train the nucleus of a Japanese Naval Air 
Service. Informant considers that the time permitted by the con- 
tract with the Japanese Admiralty is far too short to build up a 
service sufficient for the needs of the Japanese Navy — he considers 
that the present service is quite insufficient for those needs — but he 
expects that when the work of the commission is over the Japanese 
will have a sufficiently well-organized and highly trained nucleus, 
which they themselves may expand to any extent they desire without 
any great necessity for further foreign trainers. 

In view of the limited time at their disposal, the mission planned 
and carried out its training and organizing work on as intensive a 
scale as that employed in Great Britain during the war. Training 
was and is being given in practical flying and all its phases in the 
upkeep of aircraft, aircraft engines, and accessories ; in torpedo-plane 
work; in experimental and actual operation of machine guns, torpe- 
does, and bombs, and the sights for these various weapons; in air 
photography ; and in medical work. The training included flying both 
in independent air formation and in cooperation with the Japanese 
Fleet ; it also included naval spotting for submarines and general 
reconnaissance work. 

The personnel of the Japanese Naval Air Service at present totals 
about 5,000, but of these probably less than 100 are pilots. There 
are no purely Japanese-designed aircraft engines, all those being 
used having either come from abroad or being manufactured in 
Japan under foreign patent. There are a few Japanese-designed 
airplanes, but informant complains that the Japanese, up to the 
present, have been too interested and shown too great a tendency to 
overconcentrate on theory and design as opposed to operation and 
practice, which he considers more necessary at the present stage. 

In the first year of the mission's work there, 3,000 hours of time 
were spent in the air. During that time there were no fatal acci- 
dents to the Japanese being trained. The mission did its work at 
two Japanese naval air stations, one at Kasumigaura, on an inland 
lake, which was entirely built under the direction of the mission and 



33 

now has a staff of officers and men of 1,000. The other station used 
was Yokusaka, on the sea near Yokohama, where there are about 
700 officers and men. 

The machines in the Japanese Naval Air Service include tiny, swift 
reconnaissance and fighting machines up to 6-ton seaplanes, and indi- 
vidual engines go up to 300 horsepower in size. 



FRANCE. 

CERTAIN IMPORTANT QUESTIONS WITH REGARD TO POLICY OF 

THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT. 

February, 1923. 

On about February 14, 1923, there were submitted to a member 
of the French cabinet eight leading questions calling for answers 
on highly important subjects. 

After studying these questions for about six days one of the fore- 
most members of the cabinet, and presumably assisted by one or more 
of his colleagues, wrote the answers. There is good reason to be- 
lieve that these answers were written with the full knowledge that 
they would reach the British cabinet. Questions and answers are 
believed to be of much greater importance, because of having been 
handled in this subrosa manner, than if they had been (particularly 
the answers) written with a view to publicity. 

Following each question propounded is the written answer as 
related. 

Question 1. — Is France prepared to proceed along the lines indi- 
cated by her policy in the Ruhr and Rhineland without the support 
of Great Britain and, if necessary, in defiance and opposition to 
England ? 

Answer to Question 1. — France is prepared to follow her policy 
in the Ruhr and Rhineland without the support of Great Britain, 
and even in opposition to her. It must not be forgotten that the 
French Chamber manifested a real enthusiastic spirit in favor of 
the expedition into the Ruhr, and that the Senate, which follows 
more closely foreign affairs, voted unanimously in support of the 
speech of President of the Conseil (Poincare). The opinion in 
France is that our Allies have completely abandoned us and are not 
interested in the problem of reparations and that France must save 
herself, if she does not wish to perish, alone. 

'Question 2. — If Great Britain, and possibly America, make diplo- 
matic protest against France's policy toward Germany, what will 
be the attitude of France? 



34 

Answer to question 2. — It would not be understood in France why 
America and England should make diplomatic representations to 
France regarding her politics. It would not even be understood in 
France on what grounds these representations would be justi- 
fied, or on what grounds they would be founded. The treaty of 
Versailles recognizes the claim of France to reparations. Germany 
refuses to make reparation. France did everything in her power 
to induce her Allies to bring pressure on Germany obliging her to 
execute the treaty. The majority of French citizens believe that 
it was the tactics of the Allies that forced France to take the decision 
to enter the Ruhr. 

On the, other hand, the French bourgeoisie class as well as the 
people are hostile to any idea of annexation. France believes that 
it is her unity that makes her force in Europe, and she will not 
consent to weaken this unity by annexing a country which would be 
continually in a state of protest. Not from any point of view does 
France see where America or England could give grounds to make 
diplomatic representations. Such representations exasperate the 
French nationalist sentiment to the extent of determining, perhaps, 
another Boulangisme. 

Question 3.- — What is her alternative policy if such opposition 
should proceed to the point of diplomatic protest and threat of rup- 
ture of amicable relations. 

Answer to question 3. — A rupture with Great Britain would have 
no other effect than to push France to make an approachment with 

the enemies of Great Britain, which are Russia and Turkey, which 
have been for a long time antagonistic, and who will remain so in the 
future, but who are actually united by the desire to combat English 
influence in Asia. 

Question 4- — Is France prepared to make war alone? 

Answer to question 4- — France does not want war with Germany; 
she does not believe that events will lead to war. But it is necessary 
to keep in mind the state of mind of the French people who only see 
one thing: That her territory has been devastated, that she has not 
received the indemnity which she has a right to and which she was 
promised, and that she is crushed with taxes. If war with Germany 
breaks out, all France will answer the call, as in 1914, with the senti- 
ment that she is fighting for her rights and for her security. 

Question 5. — The only likely combination against France in a mili- 
tary sense would be Germany and Soviet Russia. Has France taken 
steps to thwart any such combination ? 

Answer to question 5. — The sentiment which predominates in the 
best centers of the French Government is that Soviet Russia is not 



35 

in a position to fight for any length of time against a powerful and 
well-equipped army. Also, Russia would not look with pleasure 
upon the weakening of France. Such a weakness would only work 
to the benefit of England, and it is generally understood that it is 
against English influence in Asia that Russia wishes to fight. 

Question 6. — What is the attitude of the French bankers of the 
Loucheur type in regard to France's pressure on Germany? 

Answer to question 6. — The Bank of France, the Coinite des 
Forges, and big industry approve the politics of the French Govern- 
ment. It can be even stated that it was with the pressure of the 
big industries that the Government decided to act. The metallurgie 
francaise arrived where it was only producing 30 per cent of its 
capacity due to lack of coke, because of Germany's bad faith. The 
biff industries were the first to declare " this can not continue " and 
brought on energetic action. 

Question 7. — Is it not true that an understanding is about to be 
arrived at between German and French metallurgical interests? 

Answer to question 7. — Several conversations took place before 
the coming of actual events between the French industrials and the 
German industrials with a view to arriving at a general under- 
standing and coming to an arrangement on this subject. It appears 
that Mr. Hugo Stinnes gave the impression that an understanding 
could hot be arrived at unless the French gave over control of 
the left bank of the Rhine. This was taken to be a regular case 
of blackmail and an inacceptable condition, and no French Gov- 
ernment would have been strong enough to have remained in 
power when the moral disarmament of Germany had not become 
an established fact. Many industrials think that France's entry 
into the Ruhr will facilitate the Entente between French iron and 
German coal. It may be said that this Entente is hardly yet in the 
act of being prepared, though many think it is, and think also that 
it will be accomplished because it is logical and unavoidable. 

Question 8. — How strong is the Little Entente at the present 
moment and will its members stand together in supporting France? 

Answer to question 8. — The political union is intimate and close 
between France and the following three powers: Poland, Czecho- 
slovakia, and Yugoslavia. Poland and Czechoslovakia ' owe their 
existence to France. Serbia has called upon France for every means 
looking to her rapid and brilliant modern evolution. There is no 
doubt whatever as to the attitude of these three powers in case 
of a European conflict. 



36 
FRANCE. 

EXPERIMENTAL GUN OF LARGE CALIBER. 

February, 1923. 

The following is the translation of an article which appeared in 
the Matin dated 23 January, 1923 : 

THE HUGE RUELLE GUN. 

We have already announced that the naval gun foundry of Ruelle had just 
finished a huge gun the total weight of which, including the cradle and the 
railway mount, amounts to 230 tons. 

The designs of this gun were made in 1018, at a time when we thought of 
outdoing the famous "Berthas." Its caliber is 340 millimeters (13 4 inches) ; 
its range is designated as from 70 to 75 kilometers (43.5 to 46.6 miles). 

Having been delivered recently to the Ministry of War. the piece in ques- 
tion constitutes an experimental gun which will be tested at Quiberon, where 
the artillery tests are now made. This gun can only be utilized for firing on 
stationary terrestial objects. 

The gun in question is one of the guns which were designed by 
General Bourgoin toward the end of the war. It is 60-calibers long 
and is not one of those guns which were constructed by radial ex- 
pansion. 

This gun. though made at the French naval gun foundry of Ruelle, 
is actually for the French Army. 

It constitutes what Ingenieur en Chef de 2° Classe d'Artillerie 
Navale Matin designated as a " Semi-Bertha." 

This gun has not actually been removed from Ruelle, as there is 
some difficulty in effecting the transportation. 

The range as stated by the Matin to be from 70 to 75 kilometers is 
probably approximately correct. It naturally can not be known 
definitely until the gun is tested. 



FRANCE. 

INSIDE VIEWS ON TURKISH POLITICS. 
February, 1923. 

The apparent incoherence of Turkish politics with respect to 
France and England and the very sudden changes in the Turkish 
attitude may perhaps be somewhat explained by the following facts, 
which for various reasons have been kept quiet by both France and 
England. 

The Berlin Government has at Angora as their representative, 
Julius Stern, the well-known German orientalist, who communicates 



37 

directly wtih do Rosenborg, the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
and whose mission is to alternately stir up the anger or the fear of the 
Ottoman National Assembly by representing France and England, or 
either of them, as ready to yield everything, or on the other hand to 
be completely unyielding. 

The Angora Assembly is literally surrounded by sovietic missions, 
all of them formed by the Special Institute for Oriental Propaganda 
of Moscow, including notably half a dozen Afghan delegates who are 
acting as Nationalist exciters and continually urging that the as- 
sembly break with England. 

Ismet Pasha, Rechad Pasha, and Maeem Pasha, all of whom have 
French leanings, have been consistently advocating an amiable settle- 
ment with the allies. 

Tchitcherine, who went from Berlin to Lausanne with the evident 
intention of exciting the Turks against both England and France, 
was visited at Lausanne by a number of prominent French metal- 
lurgists and bankers, and as a result of these visits his attitude be- 
came completely reversed, and early in February he gave instructions 
to Moscow that orders be sent to the Angora representatives with a 
view to calming down their zeal. When he left Lausanne, Tchitche- 
rine went back to Berlin and under the influence of German promises 
and threats again radically changed his attitude. 

The French Government holds proof that the stock exchanges of 
Zurich, Amsterdam, and to a lesser extent Paris and London, have 
received big orders on behalf of mysterious clients, these orders 
having principally been placed by two small Levantine brokers in 
Paris and other rather second-class intermediaries. It would appear 
that both the Turkish and Russian missions at Lausanne have been 
quite consistently speculating throughout the conference, and ap- 
parently are still continuing to do so. 

The French have been very carefully watching these very interest- 
ing moves which are continually disturbing and perverting the real 
political situation. It is their feeling, however, that the sound ele- 
ments will prevail and that peace will ultimately be signed. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FRANCE AND RUSSIA. 

For the past fortnight the contact between French financial and 
industrial groups and the officious delegates of the Soviet Govern- 
ment has become more intimate. Progress has principally been made 
in the negotiations for the reestablishment of the company '' Le 
Platine*' (Platinum). In addition, some rather important negotia- 
tions are going on for the extension of French interests in the region 
of the Donetz River. 

The Russian delegates are showing a very conciliatory spirit that 
reflects their urgent economic needs. The great obstacle against 



38 

the consummation of any agreement lies in the lack of security for 
transportation. It would appear, however, that all questions are 
now examined by the Russian delegates from a purely economic view- 
point and without any political aims. 



FRANCE. 

NAVAL PROGRAM. 
February, 1923. 



The French naval program which M. Raiberti, the Minister of 
Marine, has been authorized by the council of ministers to prepare 
contemplates, it is understood, the reconstruction of the French Navy 
in 20 years. It will be based on the ratification of the Washington 
agreements. 

The number of battleships of the line allocated to France in those 
agreements will not be exceeded, and no battleships of the line will 
be placed on the stocks before 1932. The tonnage proposed by 
France at the conference for the other types of ships — light cruisers, 
torpedo boats, submarines, and sea-plane carriers — will be provided 
for; namely, 360,000 tons of light surface vessels, 65,000 tons of sub- 
marines, and 60,000 tons of sea-plane carriers. 

In the first eight years 6 light cruisers, 15 destroyers, 24 torpedo 
boats, and 34 submarines will be constructed. A credit of 2,400,000,- 
000 francs for this first part of the program will be divided into 
annuities of 300,000,000 francs, to cover the cost of construction dur- 
ing the next eight years. By this method the navy will be main- 
tained and a further increase of credits will be avoided. 



ITALY. 

REORGANIZATION OF AIR SERVICE. 
February, 1923. 

At a recent cabinet meeting, attended also by three prominent 
generals of the army and three admirals of the navy, and presided 
over by Mussolini, the difficult problem of the reorganization of the 
Italian Air Service was considered and settled. 

A commissariato of aviation has been created with Mussolini at 
its head as high commissioner and the Hon. Finzi (at present 
Undersecretary of the Interior) as vice commissario. 

It is to have charge -of all aviation activities in Italy, including 
army, navy, and commercial. A commissariato is under no min- 
istry, deals directly with the other ministries, and in power and 
authority is almost as strong as a ministry. 



39 

In addition to subdivisions for (1) the army air service, (2) the 
naval air service, and (3) experiments, armaments, and specialists, 
there is provided a subdivision for "The independent air force." 

This air force is to be organized into six wings, each wing being 
subdivided into groups, each group into squadrons, and each squad- 
ron into flights. 

The six wings will be as follows : 

(1) The day bombardment wing. 

(2) The night bombardment wing. 

(3) The pursuit wing. 

(4) The special wing (aerial photos, machine guns, radio, aerial 
torpedoes, seaplanes, dirigibles). 

(5) The aerial defense wing. 

(6) The colonial aviation wing. 

Each wing will consist of two or three groups and will be com- 
manded by an officer with the rank of colonel. Each group will 
consist of from two to four squadrons and will be commanded by 
an officer with the rank of major. Each squadron will consist of at 
least three flights and will be commanded by an officer with the rank 
of captain. Each flight will consist of from four to six machines 
piloted by officers with the rank of first and second lieutenant and 
will be commanded by an officer with the rank of lieutenant. 

The commissariato of aviation has directed that all the navigating 
personnel belonging to the Italian Air Service must make a desig- 
nated number of flights each year, and that the directing officers, 
chiefs of divisions, and other senior officers of aviation will use the 
airplane as a normal means of travel in making official trips. 

At a second cabinet meeting held 23 January Mussolini put forth 

his aeronautical program as follows: 

After making an accurate examination of the great importance that aero- 
nautics is assuming as a military and civil factor in all the nations of the world ; 
after having assembled a council of admirals and generals to consider in 
detail this important problem ; after having obtained the views and program 
of the Italian National Aeronautical Association and of various Italian tech- 
nical, professional, and sportive aeronautical associations I have concluded that 
Italian aeronautics, with the exception of that of the Navy, is in a state of 
insufficiency and inefficiency. In order to build up an aeronautical force in 
Italy I have combined all aviation activities into a commissariato of aviation. 

After making a detailed comparison of our aeronautical strength with other 
nations it is necessary to actuate immediate reforms which will, within the 
limit of our financial possibility, give to the country an aeronautical organiza- 
tion sufficient to guarantee the national defense and to counterbalance an\ 
possible aerial offensive against the country. 

Abroad all States are giving an enormous importance to the aerial factor, 
and after a study of their activities we have arranged them in the following 
order with respect to their aeronautical potentiality. 

France, United States of America, England, Germany, Russia, Belgium, Yugo- 
slavia, without taking into consideration the South American States, which 
are systematically and seriously organizing themselves aeronautical! y. 



40 

France's army aviation consists of 14 regiments with a total of 134 squad- 
rons with 1,340 armed machines first line ; 2,500 machines in reserve. In ad- 
dition, France has completely organized an aeronautical industry made up of 
50 important factories immediately available for the construction of airplanes, 
engines, carburetors, instruments, aeronautical and signalling equipment. 

Mussolini then discussed the aviation activities of Great Britain 
and showed how aerial squadrons w T ere being used as colonial police 
forces, permitting a great reduction in ground forces in the colonies. 
Furthermore, England is systematically providing for future aerial 
communications and for the full cooperation of a powerful aviation 
with her Navy. 

While Germany can not openly organize a military aerial fleet, 
nevertheless Germany is systematically and studiously preparing a 
net-work of aerial routes and gathering experimental data as to loads, 
speed, and autonomy of aerial machines which can be rapidly and 
completely armed, and Russian factories are now undertaking 
aviation construction directed by German aeronautical engineers 
and technical experts. 

Continuing he stated: 

The efforts being made by the nations for forming an air force is the most elo- 
quent proof of the fact that a powerful and efficient air arm is a necessity. 
1 therefore intend to make a rapid reorganization of our air activities to bring 
them up to the necessary strength and efficiency in the shortest possible time 
and to put it on a solid footing. 

At present the army air service has 4,019 efficient engines, 250 efficient air- 
planes, 14 aviation fields completed and 16 being completed. All of this ma- 
terial is to be used. My program calls for 720 new machines and the forma- 
tion of the groups into wings. A sum of 280,000,000 lire for the fiscal year 
1923-24 is necessary. Forty-two million will be made immediatel available, 
which, with 7S,000,000 still available for the current fiscal year, I propose to 
initiate the execution of my program at once. 

The council of ministers approved this. 

The Fascisti program has always insisted on an up-to-date, effi- 
cient and sufficiently large military aviation, backed up by a civil 
aviation, aided, protected, controlled, and encouraged by the Govern- 
ment. 

The Hon. Finzi, formerly Deputy, now Undersecretary of the 
Interior and named vice-commissario of aviation, Mussolini's right- 
hand man in the Fascisti Party and Government, the directing spirit 
of all activities in and out of Parliament for aviation, served during 
the AVar at the front as pilot, and piloted D'Annunzio on the famous 
flight over Vienna. 

Before making a decision as to his construction program, Musso- 
lini summoned the aeronautical attaches from England, France, and 
other European countries in order to have first-hand information of 
the aeronautical preparations in Europe. 



41 

The new organization is highly satisfactory to the aeronautical 
industrial concerns and to pilots and other civilian personnel who 
served in the air service during the war. 

General Diaz, Minister of War, and the general staff of the army 
have been opposed to any organization which takes the training, 
organization, and preparation of the army or military air squadrons 
away from the War Department, not only on account of the dual 
responsibility established, but also on account of the complication in 
the supply, maintenance, and improvement of military aviation 
equipment. The army air service officers are divided. Some think 
it has not gone far enough and desire an Air Ministry with its own 
general staff, just as the army and navy, while others are convinced 
that General Diaz's ideas are the best. 

Admiral Thaon de Revel, the Minister of Marine, the general staff 
of the navy, and the naval air service have always insisted that the 
navy should have full and absolute control over the organization, 
training, and operation of all air service personnel with the navy. 

All officers approached, however, believe that with the Mussolini 
Government, in whom they have the greatest confidence, will termi- 
nate a long period of drifting, dining which there has been a division 
of effort, lack of cooperation, and failure to obtain even sufficient 
funds; that Mussolini is spurred on by an intense patriotism; that 
his main problem at present is the building up of an adequate air 
force; that he at the head of the Government can better* accom- 
plish this task ; and that the army and navy will not lose anything, 
but, on the contrary, will gain. 

Italy is not now in position to begin constructing large numbers 
of planes except obsolete types or types that soon will be. The 
army has been systematically developing during the last eight months 
new pursuit, bombardment, etc., specialties. Three samples of the 
best designs submitted for each specialty are now under construc- 
tion, to be completed in two or four months; then to be tested and 
retested before they could be produced in even sufficient quantity to 
reequip existing squadrons. 

The new organization contemplates commissioned officers for air- 
plane pilots. At present many of the pilots are noncommissioned 
officers, as was the practice during the war. 

Two hundred and eighty million lire is a large increase over the 
amount appropriated for aeronautics during the current fiscal year, 
viz: Ninety million army, 25,000,000 civil, and 11,000,000 navy, or a 
total of 126,000,000 lire. 

It has not been possible to get reliable figures on what increase in 
personnel and squadrons will be proposed. 
3831(3— l>3 1 



42 

ARGENTINA. 

NEGOTIATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF POWDER MILL. 

January, 1923. 

The Argentine Government has definitely turned down the 
du Pont- Nobel offer to construct a powder mill in Argentina. 

It is reported, but not confirmed, that the powder mill is to be 
financed by half French and half Argentine capital and that the 
French Government powder factory at Toulouse is to be dismantled 
and rebuilt in Argentina. 

Another report is that the Luxembourg Engineering Co. is to con- 
struct the factory. 

The following information in regard to powder factories for 
Argentina was obtained from an official of the army arsenal who has 
jurisdiction over such things: 

The proposed powder mill to be built in Argentina must be built by a private 
company, the stock to be held partly by Europeans or North Americans and 
partly by Argentines but no stock could be held by other South Americans. 
This powder mill shoud be large enough to make the powder necessary both for 
the army and navy in time of war. but would have the privilege of making 
commercial and sporting powder in time of peace. The Argentine Government 
proposed to make concessions in the customs duties for the necessary machinery 
of this factory and for such raw materials that could not be obtained in the 
Argentine. The Government would also place tariff duties on commercial and 
sporting powders imported into the country in order to assist the proposed 
mill. The Argentine Government would forbid the public sale of the shares 
of this company and would retain an option to purchase any shares which 
might come on the market. 

The contract for powder for the army, submitted to the Argentine 
Government by the du Pont Co., seems to have very little chance of 
ratification. 

A short time ago there was much discussion in regard to the 
shortage of powder in the country, now it is never mentioned. 

It is rumored that the 10 M boats, that just arrived from Germany, 
brought over a supply of powder for the Argentine Government. 
This has not been confirmed. 



ARGENTINA. 



PRESENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF MERCHANT 

MARINE. 

January, 1923. 

The operations of the Argentine merchant marine are confined 
almost entirely to the coastwise trade of Argentina and the neighbor- 
ing countries bordering on the River Plate, Urugay. and Paraguay, 



43 

although a small commerce is carried on by ships under the national 
flag with the southern ports of Chile and Brazil. A long but inter- 
mittent local propaganda has advocated various measures, such as 
bounties and subsidies, for national ships and shipyards, with the 
object of building up an overseas merchant marine, to be used in the 
transport of the extensive foreign trade of the country ; but as yet this 
agitation has not achieved tangible results and overseas operations 
by national ships have been confined to a few small sailing vessels 
and occasional trips of Government transports. Although materials 
for ship construction are allowed to enter the country free of duty 
when they can not be produced by Argentina in sufficient quantity or 
quality to serve the purpose, local ship construction has been con- 
fined to the building of small craft. It Avould seem that the total 
absence of suitable construction materials and facilities, as well as 
the relatively undeveloped state of the manufacturing industries in 
general and the scarcity of skilled labor and competent technical 
personnel, would make Argentina unsuited at present to produce 
ships in competition with more favorably situated countries. On the 
other hand, the inducements extended by the Government to ship 
owners to place their tonnage under the national flag have not been 
such as to produce results except in the case of the coasting and river 
trade, which is reserved to ships of Argentine registry. This reser- 
vation, however, has furnished a field for the existence of a national 
marine, the possibilities of which are increasing rapidly as the out- 
lying portions of the country become more fully developed and as the 
ports and harbor facilities of these regions improve. 

Argentina has not as yet granted direct subsidies or bounties to 
encourage the growth of the national merchant marine, in spite of 
the propaganda directed to this end. 

More than one-half of the Argentine merchant fleet is owned by 
the Government and three large local shipping companies, the S. A. 
Tmportadora y Exportadora de la Patagonia, the "Argentina " 
Compania General de Navegacion, and the Campania Argentina de 
Navegacion. The fleets of the Government and the first two of these 
companies are engaged in the trade between the southern ports of 
Argentina and Buenos Aires while the fleet of the last company is 
employed largely between the different ports of the River Plate 
system. The general traffic of the country, both cargo and passenger, 
is handled by these four fleets, the balance of the merchant marine 
being employed largely for special purposes, such as lighters, tugs, 
and fishing. Some ships are also operated by companies to transport 
commodities for their own use. 

The Argentine Government owns and operates the fleet of 14 
ships totaling 48,000 tons, 5 of which are tankers with a combined 
tonnage of 18,000 tons, which are used to transport petroleum from 



44 

the Government oil fields in Comodoro Rivadavia to Buenos Aires. 
The other ships are used for the transportation of Government sup- 
plies and some general cargo to the south and return loaded mainly 
with Patagonian wool. 

The extensive general cargo and passenger traffic of the many 
navigable rivers included in the River Plate system is largely handled 
by the Compania Argentina de Navegacion (N. Mihanovitch) and its 
allied companies, in which the Royal Mail Steamship Lines are said 
to be interested. The headquarters of this company are in London, 
but it has general offices and a local board of directors in Buenos 
Aires. More than 60 cargo and passenger ships, and over 60 tugs as 
well as a great number of lighters and smaller craft are included 
'in the fleet which it operates, some under the Uruguayan and some 
under the Argentine flag. Most of the cargo and passenger ships 
are constructed for river service and that portion of the fleet under 
the Argentine flag comprises about 60 steamers with a total ton- 
nage of about -18,000 tons of which 16 ships are over 1,000 tons with 
a combined tonnage of nearly 30.000 tons. 

The most profitable field for future expansion of the Argentine 
merchant marine will probably be in the coast traffic between Buenos 
Aires and the southern ports. Patagonia, which is a general term 
for that part of Argentina south of the Rio Colorado in which most 
of these ports are located, is at present sparsely populated and de- 
voted mostly to the raising of sheep. There is, however, a Welsh 
agricultural colony at Trelew, just south of Puerto Madryn, which 
will probably become the center of an extensive agricultural devel- 
opment. The discovery of rich petroleum deposits at Comodoro 
Rivadavia and Neuquen and their exploitation both by the Govern- 
ment and by private companies, and the Government program of a 
system of Patagonian railways from the ports to the interior which 
is now under way, is giving an impetus to the general development 
of the region, the effects of which can already be seen in the increased 
volume of both passengers and freight carried by the ships on the 
Patagonian run and the improvement in the service offered. One 
of the ships of the S. A. Importadora y Exportadora de la Patagonia, 
the Jose Men&rides, is a new 4,570-ton steamer of modern and luxuri- 
ous construction now on its maiden voyage. The "Argentina " Com- 
pania General de Navegacion has announced the addition of two large 
new steamers to its fleet, and a new company, the Austral Steamship 
Co. (Ltd.), is now being formed with local capital to enter this trade. 

Even these improvements in ocean transportation will probably 
prove inadequate to handle the great volume of traffic which it would 
seem should follow, on the completion of the railway program and 
the full development of the petroleum workings. Large sections 
hitherto relatively inaccessible will be opened up, the products of 



45 

which, together with the augmented demands of the increased popu- 
lation, should offer a profitable and expanding field for the coastwise 
merchant marine. 



ARGENTINA. 

TARGET-PRACTICE NOTES. 
January, 1923. 



In December the following ships finished annual target practice: 
Battleship Moreno, armored cruisers Belgrano and San Martin, 
cruiser 9 de Julio, destroyers Catamarca and Jujuy. 

No reports have been published as yet but the papers say that the 
firing was unusually good and that in the preliminary firing the 
Moreno and the two destroyers broke all previous records for ships 
of their class. 

The commandant of the first naval district stated that the prac- 
tices Avere very successful. He said that in the battle practice at 
15,000 meters 49 rounds were fired from the turrets of the Moreno 
at a moving target in 3 minutes and 32 seconds. The allowed num- 
ber of rounds was 50 and the time 5 minutes. 

The salvos were well bunched and nine hits were made. About 
one-fourth of the splashes were short. The torpedo-defense battery 
was firing at the same time as the turrets. 

The reduced charge practice at 8,000 meters was also quite satis- 
factory. 

AUSTRIA. 

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION SUPPLY DURING THE WAR. 

January, 1923. 

The relation between high explosive shells and shrapnels in field 
batteries, peace time, was 1:3; in light howitzer batteries 2:1; and 
in all other special gun batteries according to necessity. 

The Austro-Himgarian General Staff estimated the consumption 
of artillery ammunition at about 377,000 rounds for the first month 
of war and about 250,000 rounds for every succeeding month. 

According to that estimate there were produced in Austria 900,000 
rounds in the first three and one-half months of the war, which 
proved to be insufficient. This production covered only 50 to, at 
the highest, 70 per cent of the real consumption of artillery am- 
munition. 

The really enormous expenditure of artillery shots was unforseen 
by the general staff, and the mobilization of the Austrian war in- 
dustry was far behind the necessity. There were lacking especially 
the great quantities of necessary powder and high explosives and even 



46 

steel. Ores were at hand, but the shortage of coal checked the pro 
duction of steel. 

The monthly production of powder was increased from 210 metric 
tons (1,000 kegs) to 3,400 tons, and that of high explosives from 53 
tons to 5,130 tons. In spite of this forced production of powder 
and high explosives the country suffered from a chronic shortness of 
both, which fact put a constant brake on the production of shells. 

Many other retarding factors existed besides the already men- 
tioned difficulties. For instance, the stock of brass was very small 
and it was necessary to use a very simplified point-detonating fuze. 
The shortage of steel, the inadequate adaptations of the plants, the 
quality of the powder and high explosives, the constantly increas- 
ing demand and expenditure for artillery ammunition, forced the 
Austro-Hungarian producers to begin with the production of cast- 
iron shells instead of steel shells. This lasted from December, 1914, 
until May, 1916 — i. e., until the improvements in the organization 
of the working processes took effect. It turned out that inferior 
ammunition is worse than none : An endless number of bursts in 
the bore, an extraordinary high percentage of " blinds," weak shoot- 
ing effects, all of which resulted in a seriously weakend morale of 
the troops and a corresponding encouragement of the enemy. 

During the whole time the ammunition never answered to the full 
requirements with regard to quantity and quality' ; it was also impos- 
sible to come up to the wanted relation between high explosive shells 
and shrapnels. In order to avoid this inconvenience there were con- 
structed and used the so-called " Granatschrapnelle," i. e., a com- 
bination of high explosive shell and shrapnel. During the World 
War there were produced more shrapnel and " Granatschrapnelle " 
than high explosive shells. 

The slender stocks of lead forced the general staff in 1916 to fill 
the shrapnel and shrapnel shells with iron balls instead of lead balls. 
The resulting reduction of weight of projectiles and the thereby 
changed trajectory had to be equalized by a special correction. This 
kind of shrapnel and shrapnel shells had also a diminished effect. 



AUSTRIA. 

FLAME-PROOF PROTECTION ABOARD SHIP. 

February, 1923. 

Note. — This report was obtained from ex-officers of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Navy. 

In constructing the ships, and subsequently by means of a rigid 
and continuous control, great care was taken to see that wherever 
speaking tubes or other pipings penetrated the bulkheads, the pack- 
ing should be as water and air tight as possible. 



47 

The principal danger in the turrets came from the ammunition 
stored ready for use in the various stories of the turrets, which could 
be easily ignited by a shell striking the outer wall of the turret. It 
was therefore a matter of strict principle not to have any ammuni- 
tion stored under any circumstances outside of the ammunition 
chambers of the turrets. This naturally made the firing a little 
slower as the ammunition had to be, carried from the storage room 
each time before firing. In the case of fire, the flames could pass 
through the ammunition shoots which opened into the ammunition 
rooms, and thereby reach the loading stations in the interior of the 
turrets and injure the men. In order to prevent this, all the loading 
and unloading openings Avere always closed by tightly fitting doors 
which were opened automatically by the ascending lift and closed 
after the loading or unloading by spring work. In the batteries, 
the ammunition chutes which opened near the guns in the reduits, 
always had to be well closed, except when ammunition was being 
brought up. The ammunition rooms themselves had sliding doors 
opening out on the loading station. The large speaking tubes which 
could also transmit flames and poisonous gases were closed by fine 
copper or brass wire sieves fastened in the pipe about 20 to 30 
centimeters from the opening. A sponge saturated with chlorine 
water was placed in the mouthpiece to absorb the poisonous gases. 
When not in use, the tubes were always closed with wooden or rubber 
corks. 

During a battle, every man on board wore a gas mask with two 
potash capsules in a case. Long gloves and a head mask made of 
impregnated material served as protection against blazing flames. 
The mask had fine brass nets at the eyes and mouth and the mask 
itself was tied tightly around the neck with ribbons. 

Tanks filled with chlorine water were hung in the turrets so that 
the men could bathe their eyes from time to time and prevent any 
injury from the gases. 

Outfits made in the manner of diving suits were placed at various 
convenient places in the ship to enable the damage crew to enter 
the rooms filled with poisonous gases and rescue the men who were in 
them. 



BRAZIL. 

CONDITION OF FLEET. 
February, 1923. 

During its recent cruise the Brazilian Fleet revealed itself as being 
in bad condition. Since these defects are being remedied as much 
as possible and plans are being made to overcome them, no attempt 
will be made to go into particular details. 



48 

The most glaring features which became apparent were : 

Communications. — The entire lack of a system of communications. 
The visual signal book, for example, had not been revised since 1886, 
and when simple maneuvers were attempted by the fleet it was neces- 
sary to draw up special typewritten signals the night before. Little 
attempt was made to use the radio. A daily mail between Kio de 
Janeiro and Ilha Grande by navy airplane was successfully 
maintained. 

Mcmoeuvers. — Attempts at manoeuvers proved distinct failures, and 
it is not believed that the Brazilian Navy has ever performed more 
than the simplest evolutions. The complete lack of communications 
covering evolutions has undoubtedly contributed to this situation. 
Then, too, the lack of any standard speed has contributed to the diffi- 
culty. It is planned during the next maneuvers first to standardize 
the ships as much as possible and then to attempt daily maneuvers 
during the cruise. 

Engineering. — The worst fault revealed relative to engineering 
was that of improper firing and care of boilers, the battleships using 
50 per cent more boilers while cruising than necessary. Xo record 
is kept of the number of steaming hours for each boiler and no 
attempt made to effect repairs while away from the base unless it is 
absolutely necessary. The obvious consequence is that the ships have 
been in the past forced to undergo extensive repairs each year. 
There is no time-firing device employed on the battleships nor is any 
effort made to regulate the firing, the firemen exercising their own 
discretion without particular control. Xo standard speed could be 
maintained during the cruise, clue to these conditions. 

The engines of most of the ships appear to be in good condition and 
reasonable care is taken of them. Exactly the same condition ob- 
tains in the Brazilian Xavy now that existed in the American Xavy 
shortly after steam superseded sail, in that the captains and deck 
officers of the ships are entirely at the mercy of the chief engineer. 
The deck officers know nothing about engineering nor are they inter- 
ested in it except in a few isolated cases. 

Supplies and accounts. — Perhaps in this department exists the 
worst condition of all. Xo improvements have been made in the. 
method of accounting or of handling money for many years. The 
paymasters of the ships, unless actually operating away from Brazil, 
are not allowed to carry any money on board ship, payments being 
made at the naval base. The records of the men and officers are 
kept in a very complicated fashion and under the existing system it 
requires 70 minutes to pay 30 enlisted men a month's pay. Supplies 
are contracted for and handled by shore officials, and the system of 
requisition is very clumsy. It took five days for a submarine to 



49 

obtain a barrel of oil on the clock 50 feet from it from the time the 
initial requisition was made. 

One reason for this condition is the peculiar laws of the country 
relative to the operation of the military and naval forces, but the 
probable reason for the existing condition in this department is due 
to the lack of energy necessary to overcome the existing* inertia. 

Morale. — The morale of the Brazilian Navy is higher than one 
would expect, due largely to the fact that the enlisted personnel 
is a body of remarkably good men considering the country, the 
climate, and the conditions obtaining in the navy. The officers are 
individually clever and intelligent, but they seem to be incapable of 
sustained effort, and the older ones operate to stifle the ambition of 
the younger ones. The fleet has spent so great a portion of its time 
at Rio de Janeiro that many of the officers pursue regular businesses 
in the city during the forenoon and then spend the afternoon in the 
navy yard or upon their ships. A large factor which contributes 
to the present state of inefficiency of the navy is due to the constant 
shifting about of personnel, both officer and enlisted. It is hoped that 
this can be overcome, but for years the officers and men have been 
shifted about without rhyme or reason. The navy both internally and 
externally is so entangled with politics that it is difficult for an offi- 
cer to rise solely on his own merits. Then, too, each high official of 
the navy invariably gives the posts of responsibility to his friends 
without regard to their fitness for their duties. 



BRAZIL. 

GERMAN AVIATION ACTIVITIES. 
February, 1923. 

It has been learned that a contract has been made between the 
German Junker Co. and the Brazilian Government for an aerial 
mail service from Rio de Janeiro to Pernambuco, Bahia, and Sao 
Paulo. 

Four Junker planes are already en route from Germany to Per- 
nambuco, and four others are expected to be shipped shortly, ac- 
cording to this authority. 

This same German company is attempting to negotiate with the 
Brazilian Government the establishment of an airplane factory on 
an island in the harbor of Rio de .Janeiro, under more or less the 
same conditions contained in the contract proposed some time ago 
between the Brazilian Government and Armstrong & Vickers relative 
to ordnance. 

The Brazilian Government, however, has agreed to give the Ameri- 
cans a chance to bid on this project, and it is understood that the 



50 

president of the Curtiss Co. is about to sail from New York for 
Rio de Janeiro to consider this proposition. 

Paiz of February 21, 1923, published the following article which 
bears on the above : 

Admiral Alexandrine) de Alencar, Minister of Marine, has designated First 
Lieutenant Aviator Peixoto to take possession of the 10 airplanes offered by 
the State of Sao Paulo to the union in honor of the installation of an aviation 
center in Santos. 

Dr. Washington Luis, president of the State, carried the idea to the State 
congress, who voted an additional $12,500, which will he employed in buying 
the necessary material for the new school. Beyond the magnificent present of 
the State of- Sao Paulo it is well to note that this $12,500 is not specifically 
applicable to any one particular purchase, and the State ended by giving a 
piece of land worth at least $60,000 on the island of Santo Amaro (opposite 
Santos) for the installation of a prospective naval base and the base for the 
10 airplanes — types "Oriole" and " C. L.," which, at the exchange of to-day, 
have a value of $65,000, making a total gift of $125,000. 

With this additional aerial augmentation, the Minister of Marine will initi- 
ate during the month of April of this year a postal service for the north of 
Brazil in accord with combination already made with the Minister of Trans- 
portation. 

The aerial service will be Rio de Janeiro to Belem (State of Para), with 
stopping ports of Victoria, Porto Seguro, San Salvador, Aracaju, Maceio, Pedras, 
Pernambuco, Parahyba, Natal, Aracaty, Sobral, Tutoya, S. Luiz, Tury-Assu, 
and Belem. 

The minister decided on this aerial service not only to give training to the 
naval aviators but to aid postal service and to make the postal service more 
rapid. 

As the hangars now installed will not take care of the many planes, the 
minister has ordered a quick disembarkment of the equipment lately received 
by the German ship Saclisen. The new hangars will be put on the island of 
Governador, headquarters of the air service. 



BRAZIL. 

NAVAL MANEUVERS. 

January, 1923. 



On 23 January, 1923, the Brazilian Fleet sailed for Ilha Grande 
(30 miles south of Rio de Janeiro) for the first maneuvers of the 
year. The fleet consisted of battleship Sao Paulo, battleship Minos 
Geraes, cruiser Barbosa, and 4 destroyers, no submarines, 1 destroyer 
tender, 1 train vessel. 

The condition of the submarines precludes their cruising for 
some time. 

The fleet will base on Ilha Grande, maneuver daily, and is ex- 
pected to return to Rio de Janeiro at the end of about two weeks. 
There will be a daily mail service to the fleet from Rio de Janeiro 
via aeroplane. 



51 
BRAZIL. 

UNUSUAL POLITICAL SITUATION IN STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO. 

January, 1923. 

While the city of Rio cle Janeiro is geographically within the 
limits of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the city of Rio de Janeiro 
constitutes a Federal district directly under the control of the Na- 
tional Government exactly as the District of Columbia is under the 
control of our National Government. 

The capitol of the State of Rio de Janeiro is Nictheroy, a city of 
100,000 inhabitants, and located across the bay from the city of Rio 
de Janeiro. 

The various States of Brazil are governed by presidents, instead 
of governors, and the power of a president is considerably more than 
the power of a governor in our country. 

At the last election throughout Brazil there were two principal 
parties, Republicanos and Nilhistes. 

On November 3 elections were held throughout the State of Rio de 
Janeiro, with the following results: Doctor Sodre (Republicano), 
18,000 votes; Doctor Fernandes (Nilhiste), 30,000 votes. (The 
President of Brazil is a Republicano.) 

Immediately after the announcement of the results of the election 
the Republicanos claimed that the men in charge of the election 
booths had been bribed by the Nilhistes; that the election returns 
were improper ; and that Sodre was properly president of the State. 

Although the new president was supposed to take his office im- 
mediately after election was announced, due to the turmoil caused 
by these charges, he did not until December 31. On that date Sodre 
established himself in the city hall of the city of Nictheroy as presi- 
dent of the State of Rio de Janeiro with a guard of one battalion 
of Federal troops. On the same date Fernandes established himself 
in the presidential headquarters at Nictheroy, he also having a guard 
of one battalion of Federal troops in addition to various State troops. 

During the first week in January the confusion existing in Nicthe- 
roy and throughout the State, due to the two men delivering contra- 
dictory orders, became general. The troops who were guarding 
Fernandes, due probably to certain influences brought to bear, early 
in January withdrew from him and joined those serving under Sodre. 
When this occurred Fernandes left Nictheroy, proceeded to the city 
of Rio de Janeiro, and complained to the President of Brazil. 

The National Assembly had before this been dissolved. The Presi- 
dent of Brazil therefore requetsed each of the contesting parties to 
produce all documentary evidence pertaining to the election. This 
evidence was produced and was forwarded by the President to the 
secretary of the National Assembly, with orders that the matter be 



52 

laid before the National Assembly at its next meeting. In the mean- 
time Fernandes, claiming that this documentary evidence showed 
very plainly that he had been properly elected, petitioned the su- 
preme court of Brazil to render judgment in the matter. The supreme 
court decided and announced that Fernandes had been legally elected 
as president. 

Fernandes took this decision, returned to Nictheroy, and on the 
strength of this decision dissolved the State assembly which Sodre 
had convened. Fernandes then established himself in the presiden- 
tial offices and ordered that certain State troops be sent to guard 
him. This order was complied with. For three days Fernandes 
exercised the prerogati\-es of his office, and then popular feeling 
reached such a pitch that the troops guarding him refused to guard 
him any longer and no one would obey his orders. 

Fernandes then returned to the city of Eio de Janeiro and com- 
plained that he had not received proper support from the Federal 
Government. 

The President of xSrazil therefore sent Doctor Leal, a nonpartisan 
lawyer of the city of Rio de Janeiro, over to Nictheroy as an " inter- 
vener." Leal peaceably assumed the duties of president of the 
State of Rio de Janeiro, and he will probably continue in that office 
until the next meeting of the National Assembly, who will attempt 
to decide the contest between Fernandes and Sodre. 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 

METHOD OF CARRYING OUT AN ELECTION. 

January, 1923. 

Note: For certain reasons the names and localities mentioned in the original 
report have been deleted. 

The following account of the election for senator and deputy in 
"A" the departmental head of the Department of " B " of which I 
was an eyewitness, is for your information and should be considered 
as confidential. 

The election for senator and deputy was held on Sunday, . 

and Monday, — , throughout the Department of " B. v That 

part of the election which I wish to relate took place in "A,*" the de- 
partmental seat, on these dates. 

There were two parties interested in this particular election, the 
Government party presenting the candidates ;i J " and " K " for sen- 
ator and deputy, respectively, and the opposition party presenting 
the candidates " M " and " N " for senator and deputy, respectively. 



53 



The Government party was made up of strict Conservatives, fol- 
lowers of the present President of the Republic. The opposition 
party was made up of the Progressives and a great many Conserva- 
tives, not in sympathy with the present administration, and the ma- 
jority of the Liberals. 

Procedure of election. — The procedure of an election is here given 
with a diagram to simplify the explanation. 

At each election booth or point are three tables; two small ones 
for the two parties and a central one where the votes are placed in 
the ballot box. At each table (small) are two representatives of each 
party. One man checks off the voters on the list of eligibles, the 
other man gives out the ballots, which are simply small slips of paper 
on which are printed the names of their candidates. At the central 
table there are five men, two for each party, who check the votes be- 
fore they are cast, and a president of the table who presides over the 
ballot box. The relative positions of these men at the tables are here 
given in diagram. 



© 






Govt. 


© Opp. 


© 


□ 


□ 

1 1 Rallnt hnx 



OPPOSITION 



© 

t 

I 
VOTiNG TABLE 




GOVERNMENT 



LEGEND. 

No. 1, are men with the voting lists. 

No. 2, give out the ballots. 

No. 4, cheek the voter on the list before ballot is cist. 

No. 3, write the voter's name on a separate list in ink for record. 

No. 5, is the president of the table and oversees the casting of the ballot. 



PROCEDURE. 

Mr. X, an opposition voter, goes to table A and gives his name. It 
is checked on the list by No. 1, and No. 2 gives him a ballot. Then 
Mr. X proceeds to table C and presents his ballot for inspection to 
the Government representative, No. 4, who checks his name on the 
list, and No. 3 writes it down on the record list in ink. If there has 
been no objection to his casting his vote for one reason or other, Mr. 
X drops his ballot into the box in the presence of the president of 
the table No. 5. Mr. Y, a Government voter, does the same thing at 
his table, but upon proceeding to table C he presents his vote to the 
opposition representatives. It is to be noted that No. 5, the president 
of the table, is supposed to be an impartial party, which, however, is 
rarely so. This sounds quite simple and fair, and it would be if 
everyone were honest and impartial, but in this particular election 
this was far from the case, as will be seen as I proceed. 



54 

THE ELECTION. 

Preparations for this election, were made several weeks in advance 
of the date set. The Government officials in the capital removed 
from office the director of police in "A" and placed in his stead a 
man of questionable reputation in politics and unprincipled in the 
use of force to attain his ends. This man was placed in office simply 
to carry out the orders, using force if necessary, of the Government 
officials in the capital, which officials acted at the direct command of 
the President, Two weeks before the election, therefore, the new 
director of police began to increase his force with men who would 
follow his commands to the extreme. Then he began a campaign 
against all the small party heads of the opposition candidate, arrest- 
ing them and placing them in the jail without any reason other than 
because they belong to the opposition. The candidate for senator 
for the opposition party was followed day and night, and practically 
everyone with whom he held conversation was immediately arrested 
and put in jail. By these means the director of police was able to 
intimidate the people in the surrounding country to the extent that 
they were afraid to move from their houses. This continued up to 
the day of election, and on the morning of this day the director of 
police sent his men out to guard every road entering the city with 
orders to arrest or stop any man of the opposition party from enter- 
ing the city. 

At the voting tables at the west end of the city were placed some 
15 or 20 soldiers and police, for here was expected the most trouble, 
as the people from outside the city voted here. At the tables at the 
east end of the city two or three police were placed, for here voted 
the people in the city proper, and little trouble was expected from 
them. 

Trouble started from the very beginning at the west voting point. 
Every man who was fortunate enough to get by the guards in the 
roads entering the city was either arrested as he came up to the 
table or his vote was protested by the Government officials and he 
was not allowed to cast it. Of course, this is exactly what the di- 
rector of police desired, for whenever a man remonstrated because 
of this treatment he immediately was beaten into submission and 
taken to the jail. During the morning I witnessed several bad fights 
in which the police and soldiers were brutal in their treatment of 
these opposition voters. Because of this treatment things became 
rather tense in the early part of the afternoon. At about 2 o'clock 
I was standing watching the voting at the west table and saw two 
men come up to vote. They received their votes from the opposition 
table and proceeded to the central table to have them checked. 
They were passed by the Government representatives, but when they 



55 

attempted to cast their ballots the president of the table took them 
and tore them up. Naturally the men remonstrated, but to no avail. 
They then immediately went to the Government and each received 
two ballots for the Government candidate, and when they presented 
their votes again at the ballot box the president of the table would 
accept them, but the men deliberately tore them up and denounced the 
president of the table. As a result there was a fight, and both these 
men were taken to the jail badly beaten up about the head and body. 
This is just one instance of many that I witnessed during the day. 

Another man, well known in the community, a Conservative, in 
sympathy with the opposition candidate, came up to vote. He 
was refused and insulted by the president of the table. He then 
struck the president of the table in the face, and the director of police 
attempted to arrest him, when Mr. " G," a very influential man of 
the city, interfered. The director of police lost his temper and 
drew his pistol and pointed it at " G," who told him to go ahead and 
shoot, but if he did, he and all his men would be killed before night. 
The director of police thought better of his "action and allowed 
both Mr. " G " and the other man to go free. Shortly after this 
incident a man came up to vote and was in the act of receiving his 
vote from the representative of the opposition table when one of 
the policemen, a particularly bad character, attempted to arrest him. 
The opposition representative, a young man about 18 years old, 
interfered and the policeman drew his pistol and shot him, the bullet 
grazing his head. At the same time in the scuffle that followed, the 
policeman stabbed this young man in the side, cutting him open from 
his ribs to his thigh bone. Immediately there ensued a free-for-all 
fight in which many shots were exchanged and considerable blood 
spilled, but as far as I know no one else was seriously hurt. The 
director of police, fearing things were about to get beyond control, 
called his men about him, took the ballot box, and proceeded to the 
municipal buildings and the jail, with the maddened crowd in their 
wake. Several shots were exchanged in the streets, one man being 
shot in the arm and a mule killed. Arriving at the jail the director 
of police issued orders to fire on the people if they approached 
within 50 yards. 

By 4 o'clock the city was full of men ready to go against the jail. 
Before making an attempt to capture the jail the crowd sent to the 
house of the jefe politico or departmental governor and asked him 
to issue orders to the director of police to liberate all the political 
prisoners at once. The jefe politico held a conference with the di- 
rector of police and then issued an order to the effect that all pris- 
oners would be set free at 6 o'clock that night. In the meantime he 
telegraphed to the President and asked for more soldiers, which were 
sent immediately. At 10 o'clock that night 125 soldiers with two 



56 

machine guns arrived and the prisoners had not been set free. All 
that night and all during the next da} 7 the streets were overrun with 
drunken soldiers who shot everything that came in their way. The 
Government officials here had supplied these soldiers with alcohol 
in order to terrorize the people. 

The next morning, the second day of the election, voting was 
again permitted, but with the city and country full of drunken 
soldiers, few of the people dared to try to vote. With all. the objec- 
tions and interference of the Government forces, the results by actual 
count of the election was in favor of the. opposition candidates, but 
on the night of the close of the election the ballot boxes were taken 
by the Government officials, opened and the votes changed to give 
the majority to the Government party. 

Such is an election in "A," and from what I know of the other 
Departments, it is very similar, an election run under force by 
Government troops. 



CHILE. 

BRITISH SEAPLANES ARRIVE. 
January, 1923. 

Two seaplanes, which were bought out of funds from a popular 
subscription, have arrived in Chile. 

These boats are to be used for training purposes. They are of 
the supermarine channel type M. K. II, constructed by the Super- 
marine Aviation Works Co. of Southampton. They are equipped 
with a Siddeley " Puma " motor, 2-tO horsepower. There are three 
seats in the machines, two for pilots and one for gunner and signal 
man. They are installed with radio telegraph and telephone system, 
and armament can consist of one machine gun and bomb-dropping 
appliance. 

CHINA. 

ATTITUDE OF CHANG TSO-LIN. 

January, 1923. 

Chang Tso-lin's present policy towards the rest of China might 
be expressed by the phrase " watchful waiting." It is possible that 
he feels he lost face badly last summer, and feels that until he has 
demonstrated to his own Province — and through that to all the 
East — that he has a right to be still considered a powerful factor 
in China, he is holding aloof. Whatever the reason, the opinion 
that the policy of aloofness is genuine and will continue indefinitely, 
in the absence of events demanding a radical about face, seems well 
taken. 



57 

The situation seems to be about as follows: Chang's observations 
of China are that the central Government is in an absolutely chaotic 
condition. Factions and politicians control all moves and finances 
could not be worse. Under such conditions he considers it wise to 
allow conditions to drift. No one with sufficient strength to threaten 
to become a dominant figure is on the horizon and meanwhile many 
who are momentarily popular rise and fizzle out of the scene like 
a burnt-out rocket. As long as no one arises who may unite and grasp 
the political power, Chang will hold himself aloof. Meanwhile he 
watches and strengthens himself in his own province. He really 
only seems to fear Wu Pei-fu, and as long as the combinations of 
Chinese politicians are against him (Wu) — as they are now — he is 
satisfied. There is good reason to feel that Chang really aids and 
stirs up the bandits in Honan to keep Wu worried. At any rate, 
he feels that Wu is much weaker politically than he was nine months 
ago. Chang meantime keeps more or less friendly and intimate 
relations with Sun Yat-sen, Tsao Run, and any other parties that 
he feels may be antagonistic to Wu. When the time comes — as he 
probably thinks it will — he will eventually step in. 

Meanwhile in his own Province he attends to matters to establish 
himself more strongly. He has given and gives a sound financial 
administration. He controls the revenues and sees that they are 
largely devoted to bettering conditions. As a result Manchuria is 
the only Province of China that is at all in a prosperous and thriving 
condition — speaking of governmental position, finances, and policy 
of administration. There is no doubt but that by this policy Chang 
has gotten his Province (foreign and Chinese) solidly behind his 
back. He now intends to continue to foster these feelings and by 
the fact that he has given these conditions to Manchuria demonstrate 
to the rest of China that he can do the same thing for China. 
Meanwhile his political enemies; in China fritter away their time 
and opportunities. 

In regard to conditions in Manchuria, there are many small 
matters that show good government and respect for authority. Per- 
haps as good a one as can be mentioned is that on the railways 
north of the Great Wall, soldiers when traveling on the regular 
passenger trains are well behaved and conduct themselves in a man- 
ner that is not objectionable to other passengers. South of the wall 
this condition is absolutely changed. Soldiers when riding make 
themselves at home in the first-class carriages. In the diner they 
seat themselves at the tables and remain there, so that it is impossible 
for others to obtain a meal. It is a frequent sight to see the diner 
filled with soldiers asleep at the tables and no one daring to put 
them out. They pay no attention to Europeans. This condition 
38316—23 5 



58 

obtains in all parts of China, except Manchuria, as far as I am able 
to learn. It certainly is so in north China. 

My opinion is that Chang's policy is well taken ; and if he can be 
sufficiently astute to hold on thus and eventually grasp the situation 
at the psychological moment, he can eliminate Wu, Sun, and his 
other political rivals. Only time can tell what may be the outcome 
but it appears now that, if the above is a correct diagnosis of the 
situation, he is the only one of the prominent figures in China who 
has a solid policy or one that really shows a possibility of bettering 
conditions in China. 

In regard to Chang's attitude toward Japan, there is no doubt 
that he has been and is largely dependent on Japan for many things. 
He is in the market for all sorts of supplies — many items coming 
from Japan. He is less and less dependent on Japan and is able to 
buy in the open market. He made a recent purchase of some 300,000 
leather jerkins from American sources. Incidentally, a considerable 
number of these were far from being up to standard. However, 
whether by policy or by chance, it is true that Chang is becoming 
more and more independent of Japan. He has succeeded in paying 
off indebtedness to them in many ways, frequently in cases in which 
the Japanese would have preferred to keep their hold. In spite of 
all such feeling and attitude on the part of the Japanese, Chang 
is gradually achieving a very considerable independence of them 
and seems to be deliberately doing so. 

He also seems keenly alive to the growing solidity of the Soviet 
Government. Referring to the feeling and attitude toward the So- 
viets in the Far East, there is no doubt that the recognition is be- 
coming general that the Soviets are the power that is to be reckoned 
with in Russia. The Soviets are, moreover, in a position to enforce 
their demands on China in the matter of affairs along the Chinese 
border. One hears " the Red forces are very strong " frequently, 
referring to the army. Chang does not like the Russians (Soviets) 
particularly, but he recognizes the necessity of being on friendly 
terms with this new and rising power. In this connection it might 
be stated that all foreigners in Mongolia and Siberia have discovered 
that if they are to do any business at all it must be because of a 
friendly attitude or understanding with the Soviets. 

One hears here a good deal about the relations between the Chinese 
and Russians. Constant clashes between the nationals. I have been 
able to investigate this to some extent and found that these clashes 
seem to be confined principally to the district about Harbin. Here 
there is no doubt that the Chinese are treating the Russians very 
badly and very unjustly. However, this seems to be an instance of 
the Chinese returning in kind the treatment that they have received 
from the Russians in the past years. In other words, the relations 



59 

always have been bad and the present difficulties are the outgrowth 
of old-time animosities. The best information I have indicates that 
the relations between the Russian and Chinese authorities and the 
relations between the nationals at other places than Harbin are as 
good as could be expected. 



CHINA. 

ESTIMATE OF THE POLITICAL-MILITARY SITUATION. 

24 February, 1923. 
1. FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

China, the oldest of monarchies, became a republic in 1912 and was 
recognized by the foreign Governments in 1913. The term " China" 
is used to include the 18 Provinces of China proper, the three Man- 
churian Provinces, and the dependencies ,of Tibet, Mongolia, and 
Sinkiang. 

Recent historical development. — Prior to the overthrow of the 
Manchu dynasty the rather decentralized government was ruled over 
by an Emperor, who was regarded with religious veneration as the 
" Son of Heaven." 

Following the Sino- Japanese war (1894) and the competition of 
European powers for concessions from 1896-1898, inclusive ("The 
battle for concessions"), there was a great popular demand for 
reform. Though some changes were later made in the central Gov- 
ernment, complete steps were not taken to provide for a constitution 
and a popular assembly. 

In 1911 a revolution broke out which finally resulted in the over- 
throw of the Manchu dynasty and the establishment of a republic in 
1912, with Yuan Shih Kai as President. 

The Republic first functioned under a provisional constitution 
which had been drafted in 1911. The majority of the Parliament 
belonged to the Kuo Ming Tang Party, which was in opposition to 
President Yuan. By December, 1913, President Yuan Shih Kai felt 
strong enough to dissolve this Parliament, and from January, 1914, 
to 1916, he ruled as a dictator. A provisional constitution was 
adopted in May, 1914, by a commission of 60 members elected from 
the various Provinces and dependencies. This constitution gave the 
President complete autocratic powers. 

On October 8, 1915, a bill was promulgated calling for a referen- 
dum on whether or not a monarchy should be proclaimed, with Yuan 
as Emperor. Voting took place in November, and by fair means 
and foul the country was made to declare unanimously for a mon- 
archy. Yuan accepted the throne on December 12, 1915, but, due to 



60 

widespread opposition, especially in South China, he was forced 
in March, 1916, to cancel his acceptance prior to the date of the cere- 
mony. Yuan then attempted to organize his government on ap- 
proved modern lines, but died suddenly in June, 1916. 

When the Vice President, Li Yuan Hung, became President in 
1916, he reconvened the National Parliament which had been dis- 
solved by Yuan, but under pressure of the militarists he again dis- 
solved it in 1917. 

The Kuo Ming Tang members of Parliament withdrew to Canton, 
insisting that the 1911 provisional constitution was the legal instru- 
ment that prescribed the duties of the President and Parliament. A 
republic, called the South China Constitutional Government, was set 
up in Canton, of which Sun Yat Sen became President in November, 
1920. The South China Government was overturned by troops of 
Gen. Chen Chiung Ming on June 16, 1922, and Doctor Sun Yat, Sen 
was soon forced to take refuge in Shanghai. Chen Chung Ming, in 
turn, was driven from Canton January 16, 1923, by Yunnan-Kwangsi 
troops acknowledging nominal allegiance to Sun Yat Sen. 

In July of 1917 an attempt was made in Peking to restore the 
Manchus, but this movement was quickly overcome just as similar 
movements are sure to fail in the future. 

During recent years the central Government has steadily grown 
weaker (both militarily and politically). Some Provinces or por- 
tions of Provinces are practically independent and most of them ac- 
knowledged more allegiance to various strong military leaders than 
to the central Government. It may be said that practically the only 
power exercised by the central Government outside the walls of Pe- 
king emanates from the prestige that it gains through the diplomatic 
recognition extended by the foreign powers; through the receipt of 
revenues from customs, salt monoply, etc., which are under foreign 
supervision ; and from the belief among many powerful Chinese that 
China must hold together in foreign affairs. 

2. ORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT. 

THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT. 

Executive. — The President : The President is supposed to be elected 
by an electoral college composed of the two houses of the National 
Assembly sitting together. The term of office is five years subject 
to one reelection. The President is the source of all executive powers. 
He promulgates the laws and issues orders for their execution. He 
appoints and removes all civil and military officials on his own re- 
sponsibility except in the case of the appointment of members of 
the cabinet, ambassadors and ministers, when the concurrence of the 
legislature is supposed to be necessary. With the concurrence of the 



61 

legislature he can also declare war and conclude treaties. He can 
introduce bills and veto legislation but his veto may be overridden by 
a two-thirds vote of the legislature. 

The President is assisted by a premier and nine ministers, who are 
at the head of the usual executive departments. 

Legislative. — The National Assembly: The National Assembly is 
made up of a Senate of 264 members and a House of Representatives 
of 596 members. The powers of the National Assembly are laid 
down in the constitution, but, in fact, this body is still in the ex- 
perimental stage. The Government has been carried on since the 
Republic was established in 1912 for the most part without a legis- 
lature, the law-making power being exercised by the executive. 

When Li Yuan Hung returned to office in June, 1922, one of his 
first mandates canceled the mandate of 1917, which dissolved the 
Parliament. The Parliament reconvened on August 1, 1922, with a 
quorum in both houses but has, as yet, accomplished nothing. 

In any consideration of the various branches of the Government 
it must be remembered that the central Government has little power 
outside the walls of Peking. 

Judicial. — The supreme court is the highest judicial tribunal in the 
country. It is made up of a chief justice and a number of justices, 
five of whom sitting together constitute a court. 

The supreme court stands at the head of the national judicial sj^s- 
tem consisting of district courts, located in the different districts 
(hsien) throughout the country, and higher courts, of which there is 
one in each Province. The jurisdiction of the supreme court is both 
appellate and original. It has original jurisdiction in the case of 
offenses against the State for which the limit of punishment is more 
than three years and in the case of impeachment of the President by 
the National Assembly. 

LOCAL POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS. 

China is divided into 18 Provinces of China proper, the 3 Man- 
churian Provinces, and the dependencies of Mongolia, Sinkiang, and 
Tibet. These Provinces are practically autonomus States, and the 
control of the central Government is merely nominal or nonexistent. 

In the Manchurian Provinces, Chang Tso Lin is dictator of the 
three Provinces; in Mongolia there is an independent government 
under the domination of Soviet Russia; in Honan and Hupeh, the 
powerful leader Wu Pei Fu; and in South China, the elusive Sun 
Yat Sen. In some Provinces there is a semblance of a real provincial 
government with an assembly, a military governor, and a civil gover- 
nor, but there is usually some strong leader who collects the provincial 
taxes, raises his independent army, and acknowledges little or no al- 
legiance to the central Government. Several Provinces are divided 



62 

into spheres of influence of rival leaders, some of whom are mere 
bandits. In a number of Provinces the bandits number many thou- 
sands of fairly well organized and equipped troops against which the 
provincial authorities seem helpless. 

II. Internal Political Issues and Political Parties. 

1. IMPORTANT POLITICAL ISSUES. 

The important internal political issues are: (a) The demand for 
popular representation in the central Peking Government; (5) the 
subordination of the military to the civil officials throughout China ; 
(c) a movement for the regaining of a measure of sovereignty in op- 
position to foreign territorial and economic aggressions, their slogan 
being " China for the Chinese " ; (d) the struggle by some groups for 
a strong, centralized government as opposed to the traditional pro- 
vincial semiindependence. 

2. POLITICAL PARTIES. 

The strongest political party is the Kuo Ming Tang (Democratic) 
Party. This party is very powerful in South China. Sun Yat Sen, 
Tang Shao Yi, and Gen. Cheng Chiung Ming are among the lead- 
ing figures. This party believes in popular representation, the 
restoration of the provisional constitution of 1911, and the subordina- 
tion of military to civil authority. 

The Chinputang Party was originally formed as an opposition 
party in Parliament. Its membership includes the more moderate 
element. 

In addition there are other political parties of lesser importance, 
with names that indicate their purpose, but more important than 
these parties are various groups or cliques whose numbers are also in- 
cluded in one of the various political parties. These members have 
no party platform but work together for their material and political 
advancement. The most important of these groups or cliques are as 
follows : 

(a) The Chao-tung or Communications clique, which represents 
the principal banking and financial interests in North China. Op- 
posed to the military; leading figures are Liang Shih Yi, Chow Tsu 
Chi, Yeh Kung Cho, etc. 

(b) The Chihli Party which is strongly militaristic and is made 
up principally of military commanders in Central China such as 
Ksao Kun and Wu Pei Fu. The latter general is the dominant figure 
of Central China. 

(c) The Manchurian clique which is essentially military. Through 
its leader Chang Tso Lin, it defies the Peking Government and rules 
the Manchurian Provinces independently of Peking. Chang Tso 



63 

Lin is forced to make concessions to the Japanese which amount to 
moral domination. 

(d) The. Anfu Party which was pro-Japanese. Support was both 
military and civilian. Leaders Tuan Chih Jui, Gen. Hsu Shu Cheng, 
Tsao Yu Lin, etc. Party disorganized and discredited through mili- 
tary defeat by Gen. Wu Pei Fu in August, 1920. 

The students' movement in both North China and South China is 
an attempt on the part of the students to free China from the con- 
trol of the Tuchuns, substituting proper representation. This move- 
ment is a real attempt on the part of the masses of China to become 
politically articulate. Through this movement public opinion in- 
fluences to a certain extent the policies of the Government. 

3. THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT. 

Hsu Shih Chang, acting under pressure from Wu Pei Fu and in 
accordance with the wishes of the Chinese people, resigned as Presi- 
dent of China on June 1, 1922. Li Yuan Hung, under strong pres- 
sure from Wu Pei Fu and the Chihli Party leaders, agreed to go to 
Peking " acting in the capacity of President temporarily, pending the 
determination of his status by Parliament." President Li assumed 
office June 11, 1922. One of his first acts was to cancel the mandate 
dissolving Parliament which was issued by himself when President 
of China in 1917. Although Parliament convened on August 1, 1922, 
with a quorum in both houses, nothing has yet been accomplished by 
that body. The sessions have been very stormy, the members being- 
divided into hostile cliques which seem to be waiting for a bribe. 
Cabinets have come and gone with amazing rapidity. One cabinet 
of which Wang Chung Hui was Premier and Wellington Koo, Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs, qffered promise of permanency, since the per- 
sonnel represented the foreign educated, progressive element of 
China. This cabinet was acceptable to Gen. Wu Poi Fu, but was 
finally wrecked through its inability to gain the loans so necessary to 
the existence of the central Government. On December 29, 1922, 
Parliament ratified the appointment of Chang Shao Tseng as Pre- 
mier of China. Chang, a militarist, is the first cabinet officer to 
receive ratification by the new Parliament. The appointment of 
Dr. Alfred Sze as Minister of Foreign Affairs failed of ratification 
and an acting cabinet continues to serve under Chang. The Govern- 
ment has seldom, if ever, seemed so unstable since the establishment of 
the Republic. Wu Pei Fu, from his headquarters at Lo Yang, gives 
" unofficial " advice which has some force behind it, while at Mukden 
has assembled under the shelter of Chang Tso Lin's army a choice 
collection of political refugees who plot with Tsao Kun for the down- 
fall of Wu Pei Fu and the appointment of Tsao Kun as President of 
China. 



64 

Probably the greatest contributory factor to the present instability 
of the Government is the empty treasury due to the failure of the pro- 
vincial revenue to reach Peking. It has become difficult to induce 
a prominent Chinaman to accept a position in the Government, since 
the " rewards " of office are uncertain. 

4. BEARING OF INTERNAL POLITICAL SITUATION ON INTERNATIONAL 

RELATIONS AND ISSUES. 

The weakness of the central Government, the dissension through- 
out the Provinces, and the corruptness of the Chinese politician in 
his official life makes China as helpless as a child in her international 
relations. Her only protection is found in the mutual jealousies or 
fickle generosity of the great powers. The weakness of the central 
Government has prevented China from receiving loans from the 
foreign banking groups, and this fact has caused the treasury to 
default on the interest on foreign loans which has then lowered the 
prestige of China in the eyes of the great powers. The situation 
throughout the Provinces is so chaotic that it is difficult to determine 
what action to take in enforcing treaty rights. The Government, 
the Parliament, and the militarists who control them, are utterly 
shameless as far as China's foreign obligations are concerned. 

5. FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN INTERNAL POLITICS. 

In a Government like that of China it is natural that certain great 
powers should attempt to advance their national interest at the 
expense of China and the other powers. Great Britain has been one 
of the worst offenders in the past in her attempts to make the 
Yangtse Valley and parts of South China a British sphere of in- 
fluence. We also have seen the many attempts of Japan to advance 
her " special interests " through the corruption of Chinese officials 
and the support of one faction against another. The results of the 
Washington conference are seen in the present reasonable attitude 
of Japan toward China. Japan appears for the present to be lim- 
iting her " sphere of influence " to the territory north of the Great 
Wall. 

6. STABILITY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Government is republican in form rather than fact. The 
overthrow of the present ministry or the Government itself would 
create little surprise. 

7. PROBABLE DEVELOPMENTS. 

It is impossible to predict with any degree of certainty what will 
be the outcome of the present crisis in China. With the central 
Government practically not functioning; with the treasury empty, 



65 

and with various rival leaders sparring for position there is appar- 
ently no solution. China needs a strong figure to direct her present 
disorganized elements, and that man is apparently not in sight. 
China, is, however, fundamentally sound with an industrious, peace- 
ful population, and a national revenue which is normally in excess 
of the necessary expenditures of Government. Some authorities 
profess to believe that militarism will fall of its own weight, since 
practically all of the Provinces have been bled of their wealth 
through the demands of the banditlike military leaders. It is prob- 
able that Tsao Kun will gain the presidency and that fighting will 
follow among the leaders of the Chihli Party which may be compli- 
cated by the entrance of Chang Tso Lin into the conflict on the side 
opposed to Wu Pei Fu. 

III. Foreign Policies and Relations. 

1. GENERAL AIMS, IMPORTANT POLICIES OR DOCTRINES. 

The aim of progressive and patriotic Chinese is to create internal 
stability so that the foreign powers will willingly abandon the extra 
territorial privileges which have been forced from China in the 
past. These privileges include actual territorial concessions; privi- 
lege of stationing foreign troops in -various places, foreign judicial 
systems for the trial of foreigners on Chinese territory, etc. 

2. RELATIONS TO OTHER IMPORTANT POWERS, ALLIANCE OR ENTENTES, 

RECENT TREATIES, ETC. 

The Chinese have a natural dislike, fear, and jealousy of all for- 
eigners, but are more friendly toward America than any other for- 
eign power. They have an almost pathetic feeling that America is 
their natural protector against the aggressions of the other powers. 
This feeling has brought China many disappointments in the past 
and has at times resulted in China having an unreasonable attitude 
toward America. 

The Chinese believe, with some justice, that the Japanese are the 
authors of most of their troubles. The steady expansion and 
strengthening of Japan's position in Manchuria and her attitude in 
Shantung, have, in the past, made the fear and hatred of the Japa- 
nese universal throughout China. The lesson of Korea is always 
before the eyes of the Chinese and they strive to remain on friendly 
terms with Japan just as they do with all the great powers. There 
are not lacking among the prominent Chinese some, who look upon 
a closer cooperation with Japan as essential to the future welfare of 
the Orient. This group meets with much opposition in the just 
prejudices of the masses due to Japan tactics in the past. Should 



66 

Japan maintain her present reasonable attitude much of the prejudice 
felt toward the Japanese would soon disappear. 

Negotiations are being conducted at Peking between representa- 
tives of Soviet Russia and China with a view to settling questions 
growing out of the use of the Chinese Eastern Eailway by Russia, 
the quartering of soviet troops in Urga, and the establishment of 
trade relations. 

The following treaties have been among the most important in 
Chinese relations: 

Various early treaties regarding extra-territorality. 

Russia — Agreements with China, 1896. 

Germany — Lease of Kiaochow Bay, 1898. 

Boxer protocol of 1901. 

Great Britain — Convention of Lhasa (with Tibet), 1901. 

Great Britain with China (concerning Tibet), 1906. 

Great Britain with Russia (concerning Tibet), 1907. 

Japanese treaties and exchange of notes: Shantung, Manchuria, 
Mongolia (the 21 demands), 1915. 

Treaty of Urga between China and Russia, regarding Mongolia, 
1912. 

Treaty of Kiakhta between China and Russia, regarding Mon- 
golia, 1915. 

In addition to the above the various treaties drawn up at the recent 
Washington conference will be of the greatest importance to China. 
The most important of these are as follows : 

The treaty between the nine powers relating to the customs tariff. 

The treaty between all nine powers (the open-door treaty) relat- 
ing to principles and policies to be followed in matters concerning 
China. 

The Shantung treaty, signed on the part of China and Japan on 
February 4, 1922, was one of the most important outgrowths of the 
Washington conference though not an integral part of it. The 
resolution regarding foreign postal agencies in China was also of 
great importance. 

3. GENERAL INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL SITUATION, PROBABLE DEVELOP- 
MENTS. 

While China is at peace with all the world, she is as helpless as a 
child. The central Government is unable to protect itself from 
within or without, and China is thrown upon the generosity of the 
great powers for protection. The results of the Washington con- 
ference show that most of the stronger nations are displaying a 
willingness to refrain from any further encroachments upon the 
sovereignty of China. Japan, the worst offender in the past, remains 



67 

the problem of the future, Should Japan continue her present 
conciliatory attitude toward China, coupled with a willingness to 
cooperate with the other foreign powers in far eastern affairs, there 
will be more actual economic and political benefits accrue to Japan 
than she. has gained through years of questionable aggressions. The 
return of Russia to the Pacific makes her once more an important 
figure in the Far East, Manchuria is the focal point of Chinese, 
Japanese, and Russian interests at the present time. The necessity 
for Russia to have free use of the Chinese Eastern Railway in order 
to connect her newly returned Vladivostok with Russia proper is one 
of the major problems of the Far East. It is unfortunately true that 
the white man is held in less esteem in China to-day and his life of 
less importance than at any time since the Boxer troubles. This is due 
to the growth of Chinese race consciousness and pride coupled with 
the weakening of the power of the central Government upon which 
rests the burden of protection of foreigners. This feeling has been 
aggravated by the ruin of Germany and Russia and the loss of 
consular jurisdiction by the nationals of these powers. 



CHINA. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 
January, 1923. 



On December 10 Japan withdrew her civil and military adminis- 
tration of Tsingtau and fully returned control to China, thus ful- 
filling her promises at the Washington conference. Control of the 
Shantung Railway has also been returned to China. 

CHIHLI WAR LORD'S BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION. 

On December 9 nearly all the prominent politicians and militarists 
in China flocked to Paotingfu to celebrate the birthday of Tsao Kun, 
the Chihli war lord. This date has come to be looked upon as the 
most important political session held in China, and over 500 repre- 
sentatives from all parts of China were present. Nothing of impor- 
tance seems to have been done at this meeting. 

PEKING GOVERNMENT SITUATION. 

The Government situation in Peking is unchanged, and there has 
been no cabinet during the greater part of the month, which means 
that there has really been no government. Since the first of the 
month four premiers have been in office. Nothing has been done to 
better the financial condition of the Government. 



68 

HONAN BANDITS CAPTURE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES. 

On October 13 several American missionaries were captured by 
bandits in Honan, together with missionaries of other nationalities. 
The ministers of the nationals concerned sent a joint note to the Gov- 
ernment demanding their release. This had no result, and the min- 
isters of every legation in Peking sent a cable to Gen. Wu Pei-fu 
and notified the Chinese Government that on a certain date an inter- 
national commission would proceed to Honan to investigate the 
situation. This stirred up the Chinese Government to action, and 
they requested that the departure of the commission be delayed one 
week. This was granted, and at the expiration of one week, on the 
day which the commission was to start, all of the missionaries were 
released. Two French railway engineers, who have been held by 
bandits since August, are still in captivity. 

CHINESE BANDITS CAPTURE KUNGCHULING. 

The Moukden office informs us that about six weeks ago a band of 
robbers captured the city of Kungchuling. This same band of rob- 
bers is still operating and has more recently captured the city of 
Shanchengtze, 25,000 to 30,000 population. It is further reported 
that soldiers are deserting to join these robbers and that the popu- 
lation in the area affected is terrorized. 

MILITARY TUCHUNS. 

The general impression is that Gen. Chang Tso-lin, of Moukden, and 
Gen. Tsao Kun, of Paotingfu, who staged the civil war last spring, 
have made up their differences and are now friendly. Gen. Wu 
Pei-fu, the hero of the country during the civil war, seems to be 
considered more or less down and out, due to the desire of his master, 
Tsao Kun, to put him in the discard. 

CHINESE SOLDIERS SHOOT AN AMERICAN. 

At Kalgan, on December 11, Mr. Charles Coltman, of the Mon- 
golian Trading Co., was shot by Chinese soldiers in the presence of 
the American consul. His death occurred at the Eockefeller Hos- 
pital, Peking, on December 15. This afFair is considered most serious 
by the American Legation and other nationals in Peking. We quote 
the following information, which can be considered official, and which 
was brought out at a recent meeting of the Peking American Cham- 
ber of Commerce: 

The minister, on first hearing the news, acted promptly in communication, 
both with the State Department in Washington and with the Chinese Govern- 
ment here. As soon as the consul and Mr. Wooden arrived and reported the 



69 

facts, the minister sent a very strong note to the Waichiaopu, perhaps the 
strongest note ever sent by an American minister to the Chinese Government. 

Immediately after learning of the death of Mr. Coltman at the hospital the 
minister paid a visit in person to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and said that 
he held the Chinese Government accountable for the murder of an American 
citizen and a murderous attack on the American consul. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs stated that an immediate investigation would 
be made. To this the American minister replied in the firmest tones that 
although further investigation might reveal facts as yet unknown, no investiga- 
tion could alter the known fact that an American citizen had been murdered 
by Chinese soldiers, who at the same time had made a murderous attack on 
an American consul, and that the Chinese Government would be held ac- 
countable. 

In the meantime all the facts were placed before the American Government 
with a strong statement concerning the character of this outrage. 

The Tientsin and Peking American Chamber of Commerce and the Peking 
American Association have passed resolutions supporting the action of the 
American minister in regard to the murder of Mr. Coltman. 

CHINESE SOLDIERS FIRE ON ITALIANS. 

On December 16 another outrage against foreigners occurred on 
the Peking-Tientsin road near Tungchow. Two Italians, one of 
them the chief of police of the Italian concession in Tientsin, were 
proceeding from Peking to Tientsin by motor car. The Chinese 
soldiers demanded a road tax of $1.90, for which the Italians offered 
a $10 bill. The soldiers were unable to 'make the change, and the 
Italians, after awhile, proceeded on their way. The soldiers then 
opened fire on them, which continued after they got out of their car. 
Fifty-two bullet holes were found in their car. Fortunately, no one 
was injured. 

CHINESE DISRESPECT FOR FOREIGNERS. 

The present growing disrespect of the Chinese toward foreigners 
and increasing antiforeign feeling is undoubtedly due to the fact of 
the militarists' rule in China, for which there is no redress, and also 
to the large influx of poor Eussians into China, who are subject to 
Chinese law and whom the Chinese treat with the greatest contempt. 



GERMANY. 



AN EYEWITNESS'S ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST DAY'S OCCUPATION 

OF ESSEN BY THE FRENCH. 

January, 1923. 

In view of the recent serious disturbances between the native popu- 
lation of the Ruhr and the occupying forces, the following account 
of the first day's occupation of Essen, by an official eyewitness, is 
quoted as of interest. 



70 

" The writer arrived at Essen at 8.20 a. m. on the 11th instant and 
observed the occupation of this city. 

" The French detachment directed on Essen consisted of armored 
motor cars, a cyclist company, cavalry, and infantry. As the column 
approached the western suburbs of the city, the armored motor cars 
and infantry in trucks continued their advance directly into the city 
from the suburb of Brodony, while the cavalry moved in small 
columns to various points on the outer edge of the city and when all 
troops had arrived at their posts a simultaneous advance was made 
into the city from many directions, each small group moving directly 
to its assigned objective. The deployment was completed about 
11 a. m., and the leading elements of the troops arrived in the center 
of the town at about 12 noon and occupied the post office, railroad 
station, and the rathaus. The movement was carried out in an 
extremely businesslike and efficient manner. Armored motor cars 
and cavalry patrols arriving almost simultaneously at their objec- 
tives. 

" The armored cars took position at the corners of the squares con- 
taining the buildings to be occupied. Machine guns were promptly 
placed in position at the corners of the squares and sentinels were 
posted on the sidewalks who required all passers-by to keep to the 
middle of the street, thus keeping the sidewalks clear. As the post 
office and railroad station- occupied adjacent squares the operation 
here included the occupation of both buildings. Two squadrons of 
cavalry arrived promptly and some infantry in trucks, one squadron 
occupying the street in front of the post office, forming a line on the 
sidewalk opposite the building, and the second squadron taking its 
position in the open space in front of the railway station. 

" The infantry, dismounting from the trucks, took position on the 
sidewalk and in front of the doors of the post office and small guards 
immediately entered the building through all entrances. As the 
o-roups promptly placed themselves on the sidewalks and in open 
spaces, the ordinary traffic in the streets was hardly disturbed in 
spite of the huge crowds of onlookers that filled every available 
space. The street cars, vehicles, . and foot traffic continued to pass 

freely. 

"The operation at the rathaus was more impressive. Here the 
ceremony of occupation took place. Three general officers with a 
regiment of cavalry (the Eighth Dragoons) and seven armored motor 
cars as escort entered the square. The commanding general taking 
his place in the center, with the troops formed about him in hollow 
square, read a proclamation which announced the policy of the 
occupying forces toward the population, etc. 

" In all of the streets entering the square and crowded up against 
the horses of the cavalry was a dense mass of people through 



71 

which the cavalry and armored motor cars had to more or less 
thread their way on leaving- the square. 

" The units identified as having arrived in Essen on January 11 
were 1.0 armored motor cars armed each with one 37-milimeter 
(one-pounder) gun and one machine gun; the Eighth Dragoons 
(cavalry) ; Twenty-first Cavalry (one squadron) ; Fourth Cyclists 
(one company) ; One hundred and sixty-ninth Infantry (one 
battalion). In all the writer saw not more than 1,000 or 1,200 
troops. 

" The troops made a first-rate appearance. Their equipment was 
in excellent condition, and they appeared to know exactly how to do 
the job. 

" The writer saw no signs of unpleasantness toward the people. 
" The German police cooperated by looking after the crowds almost 
entirely, keeping traffic always clear and in answering inquiries 
made by the French as to routes to be followed. 

" There was no clash of any land and the crowds were extremely 
quiet and orderly, generally very serious in their facial expressions 
but smiling faces were not uncommon. Perhaps an end of the 
suspense and dread was an agreeable relief now that something 
definite had happened. 

"About 6 p. m. (the 11th) the writer again went to the rathaus 
square to observe the conduct of the crowds. A considerable number 
of boys, about 14 to 16 years old, with here and there an older head 
among them, were making cat calls and insulting remarks toward 
the lighted windows in the rathaus where the rooms were supposed 
to be occupied by French officials. It was not of a serious nature. 

"At 6.30 p. m. the regimental trains began to arrive and passed 
through the dense crowd at the railroad station. 'This crowd was 
made up of all sorts of people, many of whom were doubtless mak- 
ing their way home at this hour, and while they crowded close up to 
the street, leaving a very narrow alley for the trains to pass through, 
their general attitude was not hostile in appearance. Occasional 
laughing exchange of remarks between drivers of the carts . and 
members of the crowds was observed. 

" Proclamations were posted in conspicuous places in the afternoon, 
in German and French. The gist of these proclamations is to the 
effect that the occupying forces will take charge of the public build- 
ings, post offices, railroad stations, the coal offices, etc., and that all 
affairs of the community, both official and private, will continue as 
at the moment of occupation. The people are free to come and go 
both night and day, the only requirement being that they must have 
their identification cards ; it stated that disturbances or disorder di- 
rected against the safety of the troops would be promply suppressed. 



72 

All officials were directed to remain at their posts, railroads and all 
other public utilities to continue operation. 

" The writer left Essen at 10.10 p. m. All trains leaving the town 
up to that hour of the night moved on schedule time and in general 
the ordinary life of the city seemed not to be disturbed by the arrival 
of those troops. All street traffic remained quite normal. At 10 p. m. 
there were no signs of crowds anywhere in the street." 



GERMANY. 



LECTURE BY DOCTOR EHRENSBERGER UPON THE SUBJECT OF 

KRUPP ARMOR PLATE. 

Note: The illustrations and figures quoted in the lecture are not available. 

The first part of the article is devoted to the general history of 
armor-plate manufacture, taking up in detail the manufacture of the 
compound plates and their special properties ; the manufacture of the 
characteristics of the nickel-steel plates; computation of the re- 
sistance of the armor plates; manufacture and properties of the 
nickel chrome-steel plates; and technical and metallurgical details 
in connection with the manufacture of armor plate, all fully illus- 
trated with photographic reproductions and diagrams. 

Doctor Ehrensberger said in part : 

This Krupp plate was not only used by the German Navy up to the very 
last but it was also used by all the foreign navies, while all the large armor 
factories of the world now use the Krupp process. If there is any deviation 
at all in the process of manufacture, it is merely some slight change in the 
analysis or some subordinate intermediate process, while the really important 
part, the tempering process (known as differential heating or " trempe differ- 
entielle") has been retained. The perfection of this method is demonstrated 
by the fact of its universal adoption in the world at large. Where any other 
systems have been adopted, they have always proven to be disappointments 
and were the result mainly of the use of inferior projectiles. 

The former chief of the ordnance department of the German Navy 

Department writes as follows: 

"At the time of the outbreak of the war other countries had not readied 
the perfection in armor plate represented by the Krupp product of 1895. This 
was clearly proven by tests held on the firing ground in Meppen in September, 
1912, in the presence of representatives of foreign firms, the tests being made 
with the plates manufactured by Schneider & Co., Chatillon, Commentry & 
Neuves Massons (Charpy plate), and a Richardson plate. The last test 
showed not only the poorer quality of the plates but also the vast superiority 
of the Krupp armor plate over that of the United States. Foreign armor- 
plate works also made special efforts to improve the quality of the plates 
through the addition of other materials. For instance, the French firm of 
Schneider & Co. in Creusot made plates with various additions of steel ac- 
cording to an improved method based on the Krupp patents. It was claimed 



73 

that this process gave an increased velocity of penetration to the armor- 
piercing shell. Firing tests with such plates in comparison with Krupp 
plates of similar thickness showed that the Schneider plates, in spite of their 
more difficult and expensive manufacture, were not better than the other, all 
of which goes to prove that in spite of the most earnest, serious efforts, it has 
been impossible to make a better product than the Krupp plate." 

As a result of the development of the capped shell in the eternal battle 
between projectile and armor, the weight of advantage fell to the projectile, 
and a real improvement in the plate was not only greatly desired but also 
bcame very necessary. The capped shell, an idea originating with Admiral 
Makaroff in Russia, remained undeveloped until taken hold of successfully by 
the Krupp works. It was an ordinary armed projectile fitted with a cap of 
tough nickel steel in the form of a cone, soldered on the end of the projectile 
with a liquid solder at low temperature. The cap which also surrounded the 
end of the shell, prevented the latter from breaking upon impact with the 
plate, but it was naturally itself removed. As early as 1902, the Germans 
were able under favorable conditions to penetrate 30-millimeter tempered 
plat with capped shells of 15 centimeters caliber, while a 30.5-millimeter 
shell penetrated a 40-centimeter plate without damage. After it subsequently 
became possible to penetrate the plates with an explosive shell made of 
selected steels and fitted with a delayed-action fuse, whereby the shell detonated 
after penetrating the plate, it then became necessary to use a much heavier 
armor plate if such were really to act as a protection. 

However, in the 20 years of labor along these lines, Krupp was never able 
to attain any further real improvement in the quality of the plate. The im- 
provements made had to do solely with the manufacture of much thicker plates, 
more capable of nickelization, and welded together in an exceptionally firm 
manner through a specially developed process. 

The naval Battle of Skagerrack furnishes the real verdict on the Krupp 
plates. All the enemy shells shattered on impact with the German armor 
plate, even those superior to our 34 and 38 centimeter guns. Admiral Rogge 
says further : " There was no enemy armor plate behind which the shells 
detonated. The English only succeeded in getting fragments of shells behind 
our armor plate." 

Admiral Jellicoe in his work entitled the " Grand Fleet " states in effect that 
the Battle of Skagerrack convinced the British that their armor-piercing shell 
was inferior to that of the Germans in point of penetration and that the old 
armor-piercing shell of a special caliber such as was used in the Battle of 
Skagerrack, splintered upon oblique impact at battle distance, bulging the plate 
for a certain amount. The shell could not reach the vital parts of the ship. 

If in addition to the above it is remembered that the German shells of only 
28 and 30.5 centimeter caliber penetrated the plate without splintering and 
were able to detonate behind the armor in the inside of the ship, this also 
proves the superiority of both German shells and armor. This fact is not al- 
tered in any degree by the statements of the British based on their firing tests 
with the German ships allocated to them by the treaty of Versailles. 

Admiral Rogge states further : " We have beeu in a position to make firing 
tests with English plates manufactured after the Krupp process — the ' Krupp 
cemented ' and ' Krupp noncemented plates ' — in comparison with the Krupp 
and Dillinger plates. These tests demonstrated the superiority of the German 
plates by 10 per cent of the strength of the plate. Apart from the lesser re- 
sistance of the English plates, they also showed a scaling of the hard outer 
surface and a number of more or less deep rents which went to prove that 
38316—23 6 



74 

the resistance of the plates suffered even in portions of the plate which were 
not struck. In firing upon these plates with a stronger caliber which the 
German plates threw off, the English Krupp-cemented plate broke in two pieces 
when penetrated. According to our requirements, such plates were absolutely 
unacceptable." 

Doctor Ehrensberger now takes up the technical and metallurgical 
details of the Krupp process, as follows : 

The first requisite for good plate is splendid steel. This was smelted in the 
Siemens Martin basic open-hearth furnaces ; other forms of furnaces suitable 
for mass smelting are absolutely worthless for this purpose. We built our 
furnaces of 30 to 40 tons charge with high scaffolding and with horizontal 
flame not touching the bath, in order to prevent the rapid oxidation of the 
bath. This was the only way in which it was possible to keep the very re- 
stricted limit of error of analysis. The analysis of the nickel chrome steel 

used is as follows: 

Per cent. 

Carbon, as exact as possible 0. 35 

Nickel 3.75^1 

Chrome 1. 75-2 

Mangan . 30-. 34 

Phosphorus and sulphur, not over . 035 

The greatest possible weight was laid on keeping the above proportions exact, 
so that the end product would be always the same. 

Since one had to reckon on about 50 per cent waste, half of the charge con- 
sisted of scraps and drillings, the chrome contents of which were mainly lost. 
Every steel workman knows that there is no pleasure in working with slack 
with such a high percentage of chrome contents. This made it all the more 
important to attain the desired analysis. For the pig iron, we took hematite 
iron with about 1 per cent mangan and 2.5 per cent silicium, as one-third of 
the entire charge. Otherwise good steel scraps were used. The nickel was 
generally added as pure nickel, and the chrome as 60 per cent highly carburized 
ferrochromium. The latter was introduced into the furnace in a red-hot condi- 
tion at the end of the smelting, and the steel tapped immediately after melting 
down. The tapped steel was exceedingly mobile and was quieted by an addi- 
tion of aluminum in the ladle. The aluminum was not used as pure metal 
but in the form of an alloy, made and patented by us, known as A. M. S. 
metal and consisting of 5 per cent aluminum, 10 per cent mangan and 10 per 
cent silicium with iron. By using this alloy, we prevented the separation of 
aluminia (tonerde), and the latter was slacked with the oxyden of the mangan 
and silicium (forming at the same time). The slack gathered in drops and 
rose on the surface. An addition of alloy amounting to 0.7 per cent of the 
weight of the charge, corresponding to 0.035 per cent aluminum, was ample. 
Any more was unnecessary and disadvantageous. The alloy prepared in the 
form of small cubes was also put in the ladle red-hot; the steel was then 
always perfectly quiet. 

We only wanted to have a very small quantity of silicium in the steel be- 
cause its employment made the heat treatment difficult. For the same reason 
large quantities of mangan were undesirable; we therefore used the above- 
mentioned percentage of 0.3 per cent for attaining the necessary heat ductil- 
ity with reference to rolling and bending. 

The steel was poured into cast-iron slab bloom forms without heated end 
from one or two furnaces, depending on the size of the plates. The casting 



75 

period amounted to about one minute per ton ; less when the slab bloom was 
very large. The slab bloom was allowed to cool until the steel in the inside 
was completely hardened ; the time between casting and drawing off the ingot 
was prescribed for every size of slab bloom, and this time was held to mi- 
nutely. We always had, for that matter, the most exact instructions even for 
apparently unimportant details in connection with plate manufacture, such as 
time data, temperature statistics, and the like, in order to prevent any acci- 
dental results due to irregularities. The employees and workmen were held to 
these regulations very strictly, and this I consider the reason why our product 
was always uniform. 

After the casting came the rolling of the ingot. The rolling achieved the 
double purpose of forming and refining the texture. The texture is all the 
coarser in the ingot the larger the quantity of ingot. Crystals measuring sev- 
eral centimeters in diameter are often found. This dendrite texture is almost 
completely destroyed by the rolling. 

The slab bloom goes into the already described reheating furnace, where it is 
slowly heated to 1,150°. This degree of heat must be reached in a prescribed 
time and the bloom is then rolled in a rolling mill. The reversal machine was 
a Sack & Kiesselbach of 10,000 horsepower ; the rolls were 4.5 meters in length 
with a diameter of 1,250 millimeters. The rolling mill with all its appoint- 
ments was constructed by us on the basis of our experience. This very power- 
ful machine had arrangements for throwing off, taking in, and turning the 
slab bloom ; there was also a device for turning over which had proved very 
practical and enabled easy cleaning of the plate surfaces, which naturally 
should be as smooth as possible. The rolling was done very slowly, and in the 
case of plates of 40 tons weight it lasted over an hour. At the end the tap- 
pings were only a fraction of a millimeter. The rolling was done above and 
beneath with water cooling. All this was done so that the rolling would pene- 
trate into the interior of the ingot. Many plate manufacturers, especially the 
American, were of the opinion that it was preferable to forge the slab bloom 
under heavy forging presses. I have always been convinced that the rolling 
is preferable on account of the more regular effect, quite apart from the greater 
economy and practicability. The pressing is more expensive, and, besides, the 
entire pressed plate has to be smoothed subsequently while we use our plates 
with the original rolled surface. As a matter of fact, most all manufacturers 
now prefer rolling. 

The rolling of the plates is very hard on the rolls on account of the long 
duration of the rolling, and the upper surface of the slab bloom becoming dark 
and hard on account of the water cooling. We had best success with cast-iron 
rolls of very pare hematite containing a small quantity of mangan. Steel rolls, 
even when hollow, were not satisfactory in the long run. 

After the rolling the plates were drawn off, so that they cooled evenly from 
all sides, even from the bottom. For this purpose they rested on triangular 
struts about 1 meter in height. 

The plates are now put into the bending press practically straight, and the 
press is heated to 630° to 650° for this purpose. 

After cooling, the ends are separated by means of special appliances, and the 
upper surface of the plates is cleaned off smooth by means of a chisel appa- 
ratus operated by electricity. 

Now came the cementing of the upper side. This was done according to the 
Krupp illuminating-gas cementing process, patented in 1893, and used by a 
number of plate manufacturers. This was based on the well-known fact that 



76 

carbohydrogen disintegrates under the action of heat. This process seemed 
especially promising on account of the fact of the fineness of the carbon and 
also the circumstance that the gas penetrating every portion of the plate sur- 
face would effect a very good and even corbonization of the steel. All expecta- 
tions were more than fulfilled on account of the safety of the process, the sim- 
plicity of supervision, its cleanness, and rapidity as compared with the cement- 
ing with ground charcoal. 

For every cementing, two symmetrical plates were selected (starboard and 
port). One was placed. over the other, with the front surfaces turned toward 
each other and separated by a frame made of iron rods of 100 millimeters. 
The packing of the iron bars was effected by a refractory mass. In this way 
a chamber was formed in which the illuminating gas was passed back and 
forth through iron pipes. In order to prevent an excessive burning of the 
outer surface of the plate in the furnace the pack was washed with a wash 
made of loam and soda. The pack was then introduced slowly and carefully 
in a furnace previously heated to 600° and which was generally large enough 
to hold several such packs. The heat was then gradually increased to 950°. 
Just as soon as this figure was reached, the illuminating gas was introduced 
into each pack through two pipes, the gas dissolved, and then passed out 
through two other pipes. The two pipe coils were interchangeable for inlet 
and exhaust. The dissolution of the gas passing out into the open could be 
immediately detected by the slightly yellow, nonilluminating flame. The fol- 
lowing table will show the dissolution of the gas : 





C0 2 


CnH2n 


0s 


CO 


CH 4 


H 2 


N 2 


Illuminating gas (volume) 

Dissolved gas (per cent) 


0.7 



3.45 




0.5 



5.33 
9.14 


32.3 
6.08 


51.06 
79.43 


6.56 
5.34 



Each pack was attached to a special gas meter. The quantity of illuminat- 
ing gas necessary for the cementing of every thickness of plate was established 
and regulated, and had to be used within a certain definite period of time. 
About 160 cubic millimeters of gas were necessary for a 10-centimeter plate; 
for a 40-centimeter plate the quantity was 280 cubic millimeters per every 
square meter of plate, while it required 9% clays to cement the first and 15| days 
for the second. 

When the plates were removed, the packs were completely filled with lamp- 
black. If the temperature was increased to about 1,050°, then the lampblack 
was more graphitic in character and the cementation took place much more 
rapidly. The grain of the cemented layer was very coarse and rough. Be- 
cause of this we kept the heat always at a point between 950° and 960° ; this 
produced a much finer grain, although the cementing process took much longer. 
Analysis showed by an average of 70 plates of varying thicknesses, cemented 
one after the other, that the carbon was enriched from 0.35 per cent to 1.56 
per cent in the first 5 millimeter-depth ; to 1.08 per cent in the second, and to 
0.64 per cent in the third. The cementation ceased between 25 and 30 milli- 
meters. 

The cementing furnaces, which were generally used also as heating furnaces 
for the rolling machinery or for the tempering, were built as regenerating fur- 
naces with open flame so that the material in the furnace never came directly 
in contact with the flame. These furnaces had a length of 15 to 22 millimeters. 
As queer as it may sound, these furnaces enabled the temperature to be kept 
at the required figure within 5°. Great stress was laid on the question of 



77 

exactness, and the Krupp personnel quickly adapted themselves to this require- 
ment. Without such meticulous exactness a successful armor plate was purely 
a matter of accident. The temperature was watched by means of an electric 
pyrometer of our own construction, consisting of platin rhodium elements, 
which were always in the furnace and were protected by a casing of circonium 
glass. The pyrometric measurement of temperature was centralized; the elec- 
trical pyrometers were tested many times every day. After the cementation 
was finished, the texture of plates was brought to the highest possible degree 
of tenacity by tempering at a high temperature and then at a lower tempera- 
ture. The heating and cooling curves of the steel indicated in illustration 
20-22 served for the selection of the required temperature. These curves were 
taken with a Le (Jhatelier Saladin double galvanometer: Number 20 is at a 
90-minute cooling period, number 21 at 180, and number 22 at 280. The cement- 
ing heat was immediately used for tempering the plates. Toward the end of 
the cementing process, the cementing was allowed to cool 850° to 880° (accord- 
ing to the carbon contents of the plates) and the plate was then plunged ver- 
tically into a tank filled with rapeseed oil. These tanks held about 125 cubic 
meters and were made to accommodate the largest plates. We used rapeseed 
oil exclusively, although mineral oil with a flaming point over 300° could also 
be used. The tanks stood in flowing water and the warm oil was pumped 
continually through a pipe-cooling apparatus. The plates were not allowed 
to cool off entirely in the oil on account of the danger of springing. The cool- 
ing was only brought down to 300°. This cooling period was naturally regu- 
lated exactly for every plate thickness and varied from 20, minutes in 8- 
centimeter plates to 2 hours for 40-centimeter plates. Illustrations 23 to 26 
show the texture of the plates after this tempering. Figure 23 gives a general 
view of the cemented layer of a 20-centimeter plate in its entirety (magnified 
10 times). The white lines are cementite (carbide of iron) ; the dark sur- 
faces are entectic and consist of martensite and troostite. The gradual de- 
crease in cementation from the top down can be easily seen. Figure 24 shows 
the outside layer and Figure 25 a point 6 millimeters from the outside layer 
(magnified 150 times). This shows very clearly the white cementite, the pin- 
like martensite, and the troostite. Figure 26 shows the reverse of the plate 
(magnified 200 times) after the oil tempering; there is no more cementite here 
and the texture consists solely of martensite and troostite. In plate manu- 
facturing, the stages illustrated from 22 to 26 are not apparent, as the plates 
are taken immediately out of the oil and put in the warm furnace again. These 
furnaces were previously heated to a red-hot point and the plates then were 
slowly and evenly heated to 630° to 650° according to the composition of the 
steel. This heating, the duration of which was exactly prescribed, had to be 
done with special care and exactness. It depended on this whether or not 
the steed had the desired sinewy texture. If the plate had the desired tem- 
perature, it was then quenched in oil, an agitated water bath, or under the 
water faucets. Because of its cleanliness and lesser expense, we chose the • 
water bath, in which the plates remained until they were entirely cooled. 

It will be seen that this process represents the already mentioned " double 
tempering " which produced the very highest degree of tenacity available. 

Figure 27 (magnified 200 times) shows the texture of the cemented layer 
after this treatment. As a result of the tempering, the martensite has dis- 
appeared ; the white veins are cementite and the dark spots troostite. Figure 
28 shows the texture of the back side, magnified to the same degree, and 
consists of even, fine-grained perlite which indicates that the steel is in 
its softest and most sinuous state. In this condition the plates were most 
easy to manipulate, and they were then turned over to the workshops. 



78 

The plates were now bent into shape by heavy hydraulic presses np to 
10,000 tons pressure. For the purpose of bending, the plates were heated to 
a slight red-hot heat, mostly to 700°, but this temperature could never be 
exceeded under any circumstances. The bending of the plates took a great 
amount of patience and required extremely clever workmen. These had to 
take the greatest possible care that the plates were returned to the furnace 
for reheating at the proper moment, as soon as they did not seem any longer 
sufficiently plastic on account of the cooling. Otherwise cracks and breaks 
were unavoidable. Uncemented and untempered plates were immediately 
given their final form, while the plates which had to be tempered on the outer 
surface were bent in a " false " form owing to the changes in form through 
the tempering process. Uncemented and untempered plates were not made 
for the German Navy, as we tempered and hardened down to 8 centimeters, 
while other plate manufacturers did not go below 15 centimeters. Flat plates 
became convex after tempering and curved plates became even more so. 
These alterations in form, which were slighter in thick and bent plates and 
were greater in flat and thick plates, followed very complicated laws which 
were established with great difficulty. I will only state that the alteration in 
form per meter, plate length, and width, amounted to a minimum of 3 milli- 
meters and increased to IS millimeters, which bad to be taken into considera- 
tion in bending. 

After the bending pieces were taken off the upper plate end in the entire 
thickness of the plate, for the purpose of breaking tests, and these were 
broken under the presses in order to certify that the heat treatment had 
rendered the texture of the steel sufficiently tenacious. If this was not the 
case, which only occurred very rarely, then the water cooling and, under 
certain circumstances, the tempering in oil had to be repeated until the 
desired texture was obtained. 

The plates were then sent to the workshop, where they were almost finished 
on the sides, and a number of test pieces w r ere left on both ends for a sub- 
sequent supervision of the tempering. 

After the work had gone this far, the final tempering was done. We were 
of the opinion that the original process of heating could only be temporary 
and that a more perfected process would be attained, but this proved so 
entirely satisfactory and simple and so easily regulated that we and all 
other plate manufacturers retained it permanently. 

For the heating for the final tempering, the bent plate was laid on a bed 
of damp sand at least 20 centimeters high, set on an under plate, 10 to 15 
centimeters thick. The plate itself was surrounded with a loose wall up to 
the edge so that only the front side was visible. Such parts of the plates 
which must later be cut out, for instance, openings for port holes, etc., and 
also the edges of the plates, were covered with a layer (asbestos plate) having 
slight heat transmission properties, in order to prevent too strong a tem- 
pering. A number of steel cylinders for estimating temperature by means of 
water pyrometers were laid under the plates. The whole pack was now 
put into one of the furnaces already mentioned and which previously had 
been warmed for several hours to 1,000°. This latter was necessary so that 
the chambers would have a sufficient heat reserve and the front side of the 
plate could be heated as soon as possible. 

The temperatures of the furnace and the plates were now continually 
measured. There were the most meticulous instructions regarding the tem- 
perature for each thickness of plate; everything depended on the question of 
minutes. It can be said in general that the plates must remain in the fur- 



79 

nace one minute per millimeter thickness, which would mean that a 30 centi- 
meter plate would require five hours. 

If the stipulated heating was reached, then the tire was removed, the tem- 
perature of the front and reverse sides of the plates was tested through op- 
tical and water pyrometers, and the plate sent off for the tempering. 

The hardening was effected by means of a very powerful stream of water, 
above and below. The lower pipe coil was arranged on a portable wagon 
which automatically established connection with the hydraulic system when 
running in the tempering room. The upper pipe coil was stationary. The 
water pressure amounted to about 5 to G atmospheres and the water con- 
sumption amounted to 1,500 cubic meters per hour. 

The coils could lie shortened for smaller plates in order to avoid unnecessary 
waste of water. When it was necessary, as at Essen, to pump the water from 
long distances, great economy had to be practiced. Therefore, the water was 
repumped into a tank from where it was carried to the tempering plant. Care 
had to be taken that the first water touching the plate was cold ; it made no 
difference if it became a little warm at the end of the process. The plates had 
to remain in the tempering plant until they were entirely cooled. This re- 
quired one hour per 10-centimeter plate thickness, or a 30-centimeter plate re- 
mained three hours. The following will show just what temperatures were 
attained : S50° for the upper side of thin plates and about 900° for the very 
thick ones, while the reverse side of thin plates required 450° and of thick 
ones, 550°. 

After the tempering, pieces for the breaking tests were cut off both ends of 
the plates and broken cold under the presses so that it could be seen if the 
tempering was successful. About one-third of the thickness of the plate had 
to show tempering or hardening. Tough strains had to connect directly with 
the fine hardened grain. Figure 29 shows the cemented outside after the final 
tempering. The texture is supereutetic and consists of cementite and marten- 
site. The cementite decreases toward the back ; this can be seen from illus- 
tration 30, which is taken 6 millimeters from the outside layer. There is a 
completely eutetic zone behind the outside surface. This is practically texture- 
less martensite, such as is obtained when the heating for the tempering is 
taken exactly at the critical point "Ac." 

Naturally in the differential heating of the plates there is always a zone 
somewhere conforming to the requirement. Illustration 31 shows this zone. 
Illustration 32 is taken from the rear of the plate and shows the same fine 
grained perlite texture shown in illustration 28 after the cooling from 630°. 

When it can be shown on the testing samples that the hardening has not fol- 
lowed the requirements, then the plate must be reheated to 630°, rebent, and 
again hardened. 

Through a long or short heating at the final hardening, the depth at which 
the tempering is to enter the plate can be controlled and eventual differences 
in analysis adjusted. 

If there is a question of irregular thicknesses of plates, for instance, rider 
plates which are thinner under the water line (see illustration 33), then at the 
time of the heating for final hardening, the thinner part was protected, and 
this protection was removed in such a way and to such an extent that the 
thinner parts only received the quantity of heat stipulated. 

The form of the finished plate was then tested according to the drawings or 
on the basis of the models or designs furnished by the shipyards. There was 
usually some slight deviations in form which had to be removed. This was 
done through the so-called after pressing under the bending press, where the 



80 

plates either remained cold or were warmed slightly up to 150 to 200°. Care 
had to be taken in th:'s pressing that the tempered layer was only subjected to 
pressure and not to strain, as otherwise there was danger of the plate break- 
ing. A plate becoming too flat in the hardening process was useless. It had 
then to be softened, rebent, and retempered. Care had, therefore, to be taken 
that a plate was more curved after the final tempering than was really neces- 
sary. The excess curvature could be very easily removed through a careful 
after pressure, and I can state that our plates filled the most complicated re- 
quirements exacted by the shipbuilders. After satisfactory tempering, physi- 
cal and chemical tests were also carried out. 

Naturally the strength of the cemented plates could not be ascertained by 
breaking tests. Under the cemented layer where the steel could still be ma- 
nipulated, we obtained strength calculations of 140 to 160 kilograms by 5 to 
3 per cent elasticity, which figures were reduced on the rear side to about 75 
kilograms strength and 18 per cent elasticity. On the other hand, the tough- 
ness or tenacity of the notched bar increased from S to 22-24 mkg. I would 
like to correct a statement which I made above, which gives the impression 
that the reverse side of the plate must have a tough fibrous texture if the plate 
is not to crack when fired on. This is indeed true in so far as regards the 
steel alloy used by Krupp ; however, the composition of the steel can be changed 
by otherwise unaltered thermal processes ; besides there are alloys which are 
suitable for plates but which can not be given a fibrous texture. In the latter 
the toughness or strength of the notched piece must be at least 18 mkg. if the 
plate is to be free of fissures under fire. 

Another test of great importance for the subsequent testing of the texture 
of armor plate was the chemical examination. It is easy to see that the 
diversity of the steel texture in grained and fibrous conditions can be shown 
subsequently by a chemical diversity. In treated steel, chrome and carbon are 
found in solution, while the same steel, when the texture is fibrous, contains a 
portion of the chrome and carbon in the form of a chrome iron carbide of the 
formula FeiCrsCs, the more perfect the fibrous texture the tougher the steel. 
The quantity of carbide in the steel can easily be ascertained by analysis. It is 
only necessary to bore out a sample from a bolt hole on. the reverse side and 
subject it to chemical analysis. Illustration 34 shows the quantity of carbide 
ascertained in this way or the chrome present in the form of carbide. In the 
middle of the plate the quantity amounted to about 1.33 per cent. Since the 
steel contains 1.8 per cent chromium in all, in the fibrous part of the plate 
approximately 75 per cent of the chrome was secreted in the form of carbide. 
On the reverse side of the plate the chrome contents in carbide form were 
reduced to 1 per cent on account of the decarburization of the rollers through 
the many heat treatments. The carbide contents begin to decrease about half 
way through the plate and in the proximity of the cemented layer, after which 
it is no longer possible to make drillings. The chrome contents in carbide form 
amount to 0.37 per cent. By comparison of the carbide analysis with the break- 
ing tests, experience has shown that the hardening begins where the carbide 
curve has the steepest fall — in the case in question 22 centimeters from the 
reverse side. This simple test proved a most admirable means of judging the 
quality of the plate. The comparison of this curve with the curve of the ball 
pressure test from a cross section of the plate should be very instructive. 

If all tests and reports, etc., were entirely satisfactory, then the plate was 
turned over to the workrooms for the final touches. After the tempering, the 
front edges of the plates could only be manipulated by grinding, and we had 
various special machines for this purpose. Those hardened portions of the 



81 

plate could be made the proper size without special difficulty by means of 
filing and milling. The plates were joined together by overlapping, grooving, 
and tongueing, or by means of keying. The screws were made of soft nickel 
steel; all these methods proved entirely satisfactory during the war; none of 
the joinings separated. 

Openings, such as, for instance, portholes and the like, which had to be 
bored in the hardened surface of the plate, were not difficult if these places 
had previously been softened, which we managed with an illuminating gas- 
oxygen welder. These spots were not allowed to get red hot in order to prevent 
their rehardening. 

The requirements which we had to meet in order to keep pace with the rapid 
development of the armored vessel were very extensive in so far as regards 
the form and size of the plates. Many of the plates were actual works of art. 
The largest tempered plate which we made measured 6.7 by 3.1 meters. The 
average weight of the plates amounted to approximately 15 tons during the 
last five years. 

The plates were all subjected to firing tests before final acceptance, and 
these acceptance requirements naturally varied greatly. The German Navy 
required that the plate, fastened on the wooden backing and an iron back- 
ground, be fired on by steel shells equivalent to the thickness of the plate or 
superior to it. Calibers exceeding 30.5 centimeters were not employed on 
account of their great expense. The strains which the plates had to sustain 
varied greatly with the thickness. In thin plates the velocity of impact was 
about 155 per cent, in thick plates about 145 per cent of the velocity of pene- 
tration estimated according to the de la Marre formula. ' The plates were 
neither to be penetrated by the three to five shells fired nor were they to be 
fissured through the plate. If the plates stood the above test, then the entire 
plate material was accepted ; if the contrary were true, then several tests were 
made with plates from the same set of material. If the tests failed in these, 
then the whole material was refused. 

The above-described method of cementing, tempering, etc., can only be used 
in the case of steel casting and naturally the latter will only be used if the 
form required can not be made of rolled material in any way. 

Owing to our careful method of preparation not one single lot of material 
was ever rejected during a period of 2S years, in which 183 lots of plates as 
tests for 184,000 tons of plates were subjected to acceptance tests. The same is 
true of the Dillinger works. 



GERMANY. 

POLITICS IN THE NAVY. 
January, 1923. 



The committee of the Reichstag charged with the investigation of 
the army, yesterday took up the reports in connection with the ques- 
tion of the singing of unpatriotic songs in the naval school at Mur- 
wik and in the navy as a whole. The opinion of the committee was 
that the same energetic action must be taken against the " right " 
tendencies as against the " left." The impression, however, was 
gathered at the time that great restraint and tolerance must be 
observed in the former case. This may explain the fact that in 



82 

spite of all efforts these unpatriotic songs can not be stamped out 
of the navy. 

The Reichswehr Minister stated that he observed a very strict 
line of conduct in this regard and was extremely positive in his 
action against the " left " as well as the " right." Unpatriotic senti- 
ment as expressed by the singing of the Ehrhardt and Lowenfelt 
hymn would always be summarily punished by dismissal. The 
Murwik incidents, which were still pending, were turned over to 
the chairman of the committee for detailed examination, with in- 
structions to report on the result of his investigations at the next 
meeting. 



GERMANY. 

PROPOSED TRANS-ATLANTIC AIRSHIP SERVICE. 

February, 1923. 

In a recently published article, Herr Engberding, who was for- 
merly connected with the Government Bureau of Aeronautics and 
is one or the directors of the Schiitte-Lanz Co., states, in part, that on 
account of the restrictions of the treaty of Versailles and the sub- 
sequent regulations of the Aeronautical Control Commission setting 
30,000 cubic meters as the maximum airship allowed Germany, the 
latter Avas faced with the problem as to whether airship construction 
Avas to be abandoned entirely, or carried on merely in the interests 
of foreign countries. The latter alternative was decided on, with 
the Zeppelin Co. in Friedrichshafen turning its interests to the con- 
nection betAveen Spain and South America, and the Schiitte-Lanz 
Co. forming connections with America. with the underlying inten- 
tion of subsequently deA'eloping a transcontinental, and later on 
transoceanic, air service. This combination, the " General Air Serv- 
ice," comprising a number of influential American companies in close 
affiliation with the German company, will develop an air service be- 
tween New York and Chicago, using three Schiitte-Lanz ships of 
110,000 cubic meters each. The capital stock of the company is given 
as $50,000,000. 

One hundred and ten thousand cubic meters is considered the 
minimum size of airship which can be operated on this scale profit- 
ably. Smaller ships would be out of the question for long-distance 
service, for , as is well knoAvn, the useful load increases more rapidly 
than the A'olume. The dangers of hydrogen gas have been removed 
through the use of helium, and that of benzine through the contem- 
plated use of heavy oil motors. Even without these improvements, 



83 

the Schutte-Lanz ships and other similar ships exhibit a remarkable 
safety through the employment of several motor cars located at 
given distances from the hull of the ship. The strong air current 
of about 50 meters per second existing between the cars and the body 
of the ship serves as a sort of curtain which protects the airship 
itself from the action of the motors. 

It is estimated that the journey from Berlin to New York will 
take from two to two and one-half days. The price will only be 
slightly higher than the first-class steamship fare. An airship of 
this size will accommodate about 100 passengers and then there will 
be also the item of the postal service. 



GERMANY. 

SITUATION IN THE RUHR. 
February, 1923. 



The following data and views are supplied both from sources well 
in the confidence of the German Government and also from neutral 
observers in Germany. 

With the exception of Krupps, all industrial enterprises, coal 
mines, etc., are united in the strong will to oppose by every means 
the French invasion. This opposition is the result of a definite and 
well-established plan. Krupps would have preferred the attempt at 
further negotiations, but they are the one exception. Private of- 
ficials as well as work people have been most emphatically informed 
of the necessity of resisting, and in order to safeguard their interests 
and to enable them to live, employers have given binding undertak- 
ings that if strikes are necessary, full wages will be paid quite in- 
dependent of the length of time the strikes may last. The Govern- 
ment on their side have taken all necessary steps to insure the pro- 
vision of food for the working classes in the newly occupied area. 

The French hope that this passive resistance can not last is an 
absolutely false one. The German ruling idea is that wherever 
force is employed, passive resistance or strikes are to be the reply; 
where force is not employed the " white strike " is to be enacted, 
which means the employees will report for work but do practically 
nothing, and as the men know that they will receive their wages 
just the same, they are prepared to support the idea wholeheartedly. 

To anybody who knows the Ruhr district it is quite clear that 
without the active support of the entire German staff it is utterly 
impossible to run the area which is not only greatly complicated in 



84 

its physical aspect, but especially by the very intricate netlike railway 
system, in which there is hardly a thousand meters of track without 
very complicated switches. It has taken many years to train to the 
present state of efficiency the enormous staff regularly employed in 
handling this maze of lines, and the first result has been a complete 
blockade at all main railway junction points, a fact which will as- 
sume far greater importance if the whole population becomes in- 
inflamed through the employment of martial law, and at that time 
resistance will change from passive to active. 

The number of trained German engineers and mechanics through- 
out the Ruhr is estimated at about 150,000 with a further 100,000 
men engaged in office administration. In addition thereto, there 
are approximately 1,000,000 miners. 

In the event of the French attempting to hermetically close the 
district, Germany will not unduly suffer as she is provided with coal 
for at least six months. The lignite deposits of Saxony and the 
mines in Silesia will be worked at high pressure. Consumption has 
been reduced, and so far this winter has been a mild one and the 
demand for coal for domestic purposes is light. The textile indus- 
try is at a standstill and industry in general is actually working 
about 75 per cent capacity ; train and light services have been reduced 
to a minimum by strict Government regulations. 

France is trying to organize an entire French staff of general ad- 
ministration, is endeavoring to introduce French currency, and has 
put a very strong propaganda on foot with the very clear endeavor 
to secure by threats, but mostly by promises, the good will of the 
broad masses; on the other hand, the local papers are strictly muz- 
zled and unable to counteract. 

All these facts are serious indications that France is endeavor- 
ing a definite and permanent separation of the Ruhr district from 
the rest of Germany, in order to group it with the old occupied 
provinces to a new independent state which would remain under 
French control; and this would mean war, and the most desperate 
war the world has ever seen. War is certainly to-day in everybody's 
mouth ; it may be to-day often only " f anf aronnacle " and perhaps in 
many instances a straw fire, but certainty to be reckoned with, when- 
ever the diplomatic constellation of Europe will admit it. 

The following is given as the views of a neutral observer: 

The German resistance on the Ruhr is mostly based on the good 
will of the working classes. They may to-day be quite sincere and 
themselves believe that they have suddenly become nationalists; 
they may rather like the present state of affairs with good wages 
and as little work as possible. What is going to happen, however, 
when food gets scarce and when the French suggest that 10 francs 



85 

are equivalent to 250,000 marks, instead of 6,000 marks as at present, 
for a six-hour shift ? 

Workmen generally, so far as politics go, are an unreliable lot. 
They are pronounced opportunists and materialists. Will they re- 
sist temptation " a la longuo " when worked intensely by the com- 
munists who are well provided with French money and enjoy the 
protection of the French authorities. If there should be war in the 
future, the German defense is supposed to be based on cooperation 
with the Soviets. 



GERMANY. 



STATISTICS REGARDING U-BOAT LOSSES. 
Note. — From a recent article published in Germany by one Hartmuth Merleker. 

Toward the end of October, 1918, a wireless message was sent to 
all German submarines that the war was at an end for them. This 
was four years ago, and it has taken all this time to collect the 
material relative to the cause of the loss of each single submarine. 
To-day we know where and how each submarine got lost. 

In the single months of the war, the following number of sub- 
marines were lost : 



January. .. 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December . 

Total 



1914 



1915 



1916 



2 

I 

3 

1 

1 

3 

3 

3 

2 

1 

1 





20 



21 



1917 



2 
4 
3 
2 
7 
3 
5 
3 
12 
6 
8 
7 



62 



1918 



4 
5 
8 
13 
3 
6 
7 
9 
5 
1 




70 



Total. 



13 
8 
13 
14 
23 
9 
17 
16 
25 
12 
16 
12 



178 



Monthly 
average. 



3.2 
2.0 
3.2 
3.5 
5.7 
2.2 
4.2 
3.2 
5.0 
2.4 
3.2 
3.2 



3.42 



German submarines were lost in 1G different ways. Most of them, 
that is 37, were lost through water bombs. Then follow closely 36 
victims of mines. A further 20 were lost through fights with enemy 
submarines ; 14 were lost through engine and other trouble ; 13 were 
sunk by torpedo boats and destroyers and 12 by submarine chasers; 
9 submarines are missing; 8 lost through ramming into other ships 
of all kinds; 6 were sunk by armed fishing vessels; 6 by bombs from 
airplanes; and 6 fell victims to the submarine nets in the English 
Channel and the harbors of the enemy. 

Three German submarines were sunk by regular patrolling vessels, 
3 by armed auxiliary cruisers, 2 by cruisers, and 2 by artillery fire 



86 

from the coast. One boat was sunk by a liner at the entrance of 
Scapa Flow, and this was Captain Weddigen's U-29. 

The list showing the localities at which German submarines were 
sunk is very complete: Fifty-six of them were lost in the English 
Channel, 26 in the North Sea, 16 in the Mediterranean, 16 around the 
east coast of England, 12 off the Dutch coast, 5 off the western coast 
of England, 3 near Helgoland, 3 off the Scotch coast of Flanders, 2 
off the French coast in the North Sea, 2 in Scapa Flow, 2 near the 
Shetland Islands, 2 near the Scilly Islands, 2 in the White Sea, 1 
in the North Sea halfway between Norway and Scotland, 1 off the 
Danish coast, 1 at Horns Riff, 1 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Bos- 
phorus, and 1 shortly west of Gibraltar, 9 off the coast of Ireland, 
7 in the Irish Sea. 

To the losses incurred before the delivery of the boats to the 
Entente are to be added the U-boats which were interned, sold, or 
demolished by ourselves. Of the boats interned there were sold to 
neutral countries later on 5 to Spain and 2 to Holland. Four- 
teen boats were destroyed by ourselves owing to defectiveness; 7 of 
these in Pola, 4 in Flanders, 1 in Cattaro, 1 in Fiume, 1 in Trieste. 

Among the crews of the submarines the losses in men were as 
follows: Five hundred and fifteen officers, 4,849 noncommissioned 
officers and seamen killed, a total of 5,364 German sailors. Of the 
officers 368 were sea officers^ 144 engineers, 2 doctors, and 1 torpedo 
lieutenant. 

Of the naval officers, 296 were on active service, 72 belonged to 
the naval reserves; of the engineers, 130 active, 14 reserve; in all, 
2 captains of cruisers, 73 captain lieutenants, 61 active and 60 re- 
serve lieutenants, 29 active and 1 reserve first engineers, 19 active 
and 1 reserve first engineer candidates, 39 engineer active candidates, 
as first engineers on U-boats. 

At the outbreak of the war, August 1, 1914, 26 German submarines 
had been completed. During the first year of the war, up to July 31. 
1915, 19 submarines were built; during the second year up to July 
31, 1916, 65 boats were built; during the third year 101; in the 
fourth year 99 ; and then until the end of the war, November 9, 
1918, 61 ; in all, 345 submarines built during the war. One hundred 
and ninety-nine U-boats were lost, 172 were delivered to the enemy, 
224 submarines were in course of construction at various shipyards, 
and for 220 of these the material had been got together completely. 

The building of the submarines, which was at the beginning of 
the war done by several small shipbuilding yards, was later done by 
six very large shipbuilding companies. The largest part of the build- 
ing was done by the Vulkan Werft at Hamburg, which built 89 
U-boats and had 37 in course of construction at the time of the 
armistice. Then follows the Germania Werft at Kiel, as second 



87 

in importance, which delivered 79 U-boats and was working on 28 
more at the end of the war ; then comes the firm of Blohm & Voss, 
Hamburg, with 77 finished and 39 begun; then the old Imperial 
Werft at Danzig, which manufactured 32 boats and had begun on 
32 others; and last the shipyard of the Bremer Vulkan in Begesack, 
which built 4 U-boats and had begun on 20. Beside these firms 
several small firms had begun work on 41 submarines, the delivery 
of which was never made, as work on them was only started after 
the passing of the " Hindenburg program," and the submarines 
could not be finished before the end of the war. 



GERMANY. 

SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENTS WITH COUNTER PROPELLERS. 

January, 1923. 

The counter propeller consists of a number of blades attached 
firmly to the rudder main piece. The diameter, pitch, and cross 
section of these blades are gauged in the same way as in the case 
of the rotary main propeller. The water coming from the main 
propeller is turned about in the form of a screw, through the 
action of the main propeller. The whirling energy contained in 
this stream of water is lost in ordinary screw propulsion, and the 
purpose of the counter propeller is to make this energy effective. 
The latter changes the direction of the water so that it again flows 
out straight to the rear and exerts a counter pressure against the 
blades of the counter propeller in the direction in which the ship 
is moving. Naturally this pressure is comparatively small in com- 
parison with the stroke of the main propeller; however, it increases 
the total effect of the propeller to a great degree. 

The first extensive trials were made by attaching a counter pro- 
peller to a large German torpedo boat destroyer. The increase in 
power amounted to 12 per cent, or about 2,000 horsepower to the 
machine efficiency, gained without the use of any additional fuel. 
Out of exaggerated consideration for backward motion, the counter 
propeller was so constructed that the full limit of power was not 
used. For this reason the retreating water streamed so strongly 
against the paddles of the counter propeller that in a short time a 
portion of the cross section had been worn away. These were then 
removed to prevent any interruption in operation. The experts 
viewed the idea very skeptically. Besides this wearing away of 
the blades, the fear was expressed that foreign bodies, such as 
cordage, ropes, etc., could get between the two propellers and, owing 
to the slight distance between the main and the counter propellers, 



88 

would damage the main propeller. However in spite of these ob- 
jections, new experiments were carried out with a ship belonging to 
the United Elbe Shipping Co. and the results were very satisfactory. 
After the outbreak of the war the experiments were stopped until 
the spring of 1920, when the Chamber of Commerce of Lubeck had 
a canal tug equipped with a counter propeller, due to the results ob- 
tained in the tests on the Elbe. Since the propellers on hand were 
not especially good, an improved type was used; exact experiments 
showed an increase in efficiency of from 7 to 8 per cent for the new 
propeller. The counter prorjeller was then attached to the stren- 
post and there was, then, a further increase in efficiency amounting to 
about 15 per cent. At the same time the steamer Andalusia (700 
horsepower; speed, 9 knots) of the Hamburg- American Line was 
fitted with a counter propeller, and a Norwegian company began tests 
and experiments with a number of freight steamers. The counter 
propellers used were most carefully worked out in a constructive way 
on the basis of the previous experiences; the pitches of the two 
propellers were brought to the proper relationship and the distance 
between the propellers was increased in order to reduce the dis- 
turbing effect of the water from the propeller and to prevent any- 
damage through the presence in this space of any foreign bodies. 
The steamer Havmoy (1,300 tons and 600 horsepower) attained in 
carefully worked out trials an efficiency of 17 to 18 per cent. By 
ordinary travel the saving in fuel amounted to 12 to 15 per cent. 
The freight ship Granit equipped with a Polar Diesel engine of 360 
horsepower, attained a saving in fuel of 15 to 16 per cent. The 
passenger steamer Brevik was also fitted with counter propellers 
whereby it was enabled to carry on a regular service with two 
other faster ships — something that it previously had been unable to 
do. A number of trial trips were made with the steamer Neptune of 
1,200 tons and 1,000 horsepower, first with the old propeller, then 
with a new propeller, and finally with the addition of a counter 
propeller. In a trip of 11 to 12 knots there was a difference of 6 to 8 
per cent in the first two trials and in the third an increase of 11 to 
16 per cent. In regular service there was a gain of one-half knot in 
speed with the same consumption of fuel, or a saving in fuel amount- 
ing to 12 to 15 per cent at the same speed.' The freight steamers 
Ottar and Erednes, two sister ships of 2,300 tons and 500 horsepower, 
had a fuel saving of 10.7 per cent and the steamer Eikland a saving 
of 11.5 per cent. 

The results attained in the case of the steamer Andalusia were 
gained during the course of an ordinary trip. Over an area of 
8,600 miles, the coal consumption of two sister ships and the Anda- 
lusia was as follows : 



89 

Tons. 

Alesifi, in 1,070 hours (with ordinary propeller) 590 

Arabia, in 1,020 hours (with ordinary propeller) 558 

Andalusia, in 975 hours (with counter propeller) 510 

It can be seen from the above figures that the results gained in 
the course of an ordinary trip are dependent on a number of 
different elements. The first two ships, absolutely similar in every 
particular, show decided differences which are due to variations 
in coal, weather, and draft, but the results gained with the Anda- 
lusia are very much better, as her speed was 7 per cent higher and 
her fuel consumption 11 per cent less than the average results 
attained with the sister ships. 

The former objections of the nautical experts have been removed 
by the above results. The Norwegian steamer Grctnit operated 12 
months without difficulty. The steamer Hamoy operated uninter- 
ruptedly for 15 months. These ships, together with the steamer 
Brevik, made frequent trips through heavy ice. In so far as regards 
the operative certainty of the counter propeller, none of the ships 
had negative results with the exception of the Andalusia, which 
lost a portion of two counter blades. This had little effect on the 
action of the counter propeller; the speed remained the same al- 
though the tw r o damaged blades were shortened about two-thirds 
of their entire length. In addition to the above-mentioned tests, 
the Hamburg Testing Station carried out careful tests in order 
to ascertain the proper diameter of the propeller; probably this 
can be much smaller than the diameter of the main propeller, which 
will reduce still further the danger of any interruption in operation. 

In the case of some counter propellers it has been found that 
their addition considerably reduces the rolling of the ship, for in- 
stance in the case of the steamer Neptun. After the addition of 
a counter propeller the vibrations formerly felt in the salon of 
the ship were no longer evident. 

In ships fitted with counter propellers backward motions is just 
as simple as in the case of normal ships; it has even been thought 
that there has been an improvement in this regard. It is well known 
that in moving straight ahead, in the case of normal ships, the 
effect of the propeller water turning to one side has to be counter- 
acted by the rudder, whereas in the case of a counter propeller 
this is unnecessary, so that it is easier to hold to the course. 

The counter propeller is constructed out of cast iron or steel 
and has six blades and is attached to the rudder main piece. The 
distance between main and secondary propeller amounts to about 
300 to 150 millimeters; the counter propeller is purposely more 
lightly attached to the stem than is the main propeller, so that any 
foreign objects which might get into the propeller can break 
38316—23 7 



90 

the counter propeller and leave the main propeller undamaged. In 
the new ships part of the counter propeller can be cast in one 
piece with the main rudder piece; in the case of old ships a counter 
propeller can be attached in two to four days. 



GREECE. 

ARMY IN WESTERN THRACE. 
February, 1923. 

Reliable information is to the effect that the Greek forces in 
western Thrace have been recruited up to a strength of about 900 
men per battalion, that their discipline has shown marked improve- 
ment, and that their morale is good. 

The classes of 1920 and 1921 are clad in pretty ragged uniforms, 
but the classes of 1922 and 1923 are well clad, many of them in 
uniforms that were originally made for the British Army. , 

The troops are being trained both in close-order work and in battle 
training of all sorts. The state of their morale is very curious. 
They have unquestionably been told by their chiefs that they are 
going to be led against the Turks and into Constantinople, and they 
believe that an easy victory is before them. It is even reliably 
stated that all traces of the lowered morale which followed the 
Anatolian debacle have disappeared, the troops having now per- 
suaded themselves that they were never defeated in Anatolia but 
merely retreated after going on a military strike. 

It is not, of course, pretended that the discipline or spirit of the 
Greek troops is as yet comparable with that of a good western army, 
but it seems to be undeniable that progress has been made by them 
along these lines. Their abnormal morale, mentioned above, would 
probably lead, however, to very decisive reverses should they really 
advance against the Turks and meet stubborn resistance. 

Troops have been moving eastward daily during the past month 
from the direction of Saloniki in Greece toward the eastern border 
of western Thrace. It is estimated that at the present time there are 
100,000 fairly well-equipped Greek troops on a line between Kara- 
gatch and Dedeagatch. The railroads have given precedence to all 
military trains, and these trains continue to carry troops eastward. 

Greek ships are unloading munitions at Dedeagatch and Cavalla. 
They have airplanes, but their number is not known. A consider- 
able number of planes have been seen by Americans in shipment 
through Xanthi toward the eastern front. There is an aviation 
training camp at Saloniki, the head instructor being a British 
aviator. Material for pontoon bridges has been assembled at 15 
different points along the Maritza River. 



91 

Greek officers state that they are only awaiting the word of the 
English to advance on Constantinople and estimate that they will 
meet no resistance between the Maritza and Tchaldja line, which dis- 
tance they would hope to cover in seven days' time. 



GREECE. 

THE PART PLAYED BY THE NAVY IN THE REVOLUTION. 

December, 1922. 

The revolutionary movement was conceived and carried out by 
certain officers, for the most part Venizelists, under the influence of 
the catastrophe in Asia Minor, for the purpose of getting hold of 
those who in the army, in the Government, and in the entourage of 
King C'onstantine had been responsible for it. The royalist officers 
were rallied to this point of view by being shown the present isola- 
tion of the country in comparison with the support which had been 
given to it in the past, and the necessity of upsetting the present 
regime for the purpose of saving at least Thrace, since the fate of 
Asia Minor was already decided. 

Colonel Plastiras (a Venizelist) during the retreat had particu- 
larly distinguished himself during those difficult times in rallying 
the disbanded troops ; his name, which was repeated everywhere, was 
the only spark of energy left in the demoralized army; his prestige 
had become irresistible ; and the energy which he displayed at Chios 
carried with him everyone with whom he came in contact. 

At Athens the same desire of ending it once for all with those who 
had been responsible found an echo in certain officers of the naval 
aviation base. The movement commenced to spread and to organize 
itself — at Chios by Colonel Plastiras and at Mitylene by Colonel 
Gonatas, who, although a moderate royalist, joined with Plastiras, 
each gathering around himself a large group of young officers. The 
date for the proclamation of the movement was fixed for the night 
of the 23d-24th of September, but beforehand it was necessary to 
be assured of the indispensable cooperation of the navy, without 
which nothing was possible, since it was necessary to transport the 
troops to Athens in order there to impose the will of the revolution, 
and this transport could not be made without the complicity of the 
navy, which would be able to stop the convoys or simply retard them 
and permit time to pervert the sincere elan of the troops into a 
Bolshevik chaos. • 

The navy was in general very royalist ; the high commanders were 
all royalist, having taken the places of Venizelists who had been 
placed on the inactive list. Among the junior officers there were some 
Venizelists. Among the petty officers from certain islands there 



92 

were a larger proportion of Venizelists. The sailors were for the 
most part royalists. The most fertile field for the revolutionary 
movement was among the young officers, who were more susceptible 
to the enthusiasm for adventures and having less to lose and per- 
haps more to gain in a revolution. Two superior officers appear to 
have played the principal role of leaders — Commander Petropoulakis, 
second in command of the Lemnos, and Commander D. Phocas, com- 
mander of the base at Chios. The first, who assured the adherence 
of the Lemnos, has since the events had a stroke and is in a bad 
state of health. The second is still a member of the revolutionary 
committee ; he has a very active mind and was appointed by Admiral 
Dousmanis to the Ministry of War, where he put on a sound basis 
the " Naval review." It was also Admiral Dousmanis who later 
became a victim of the revolution to which he did not adhere, who 
sent Commander Phocas to the naval base at Chios as commandant, 
considering him to be the only one capable of establishing order in 
the embarkation of troops. The secret agreement was made be- 
tween Chios and Mitylene and certain officers of the Navy. The 
movement was decided upon for the night of the 23d-2ith of Sep- 
tember. At Chios there were anchored the following men of war : 
Lemnos, carrying the flag of the Eear Admiral Kalamidas; de- 
stroyers. Sphendoni, Nike, Thyella (at sea) ; torpedo boats, Doris 
and Dafni; and the auxiliary cruiser Naxos. At Mitylene there 
was only the auxiliary criser Adriantikos. Almost all of the junior 
officers of the navy and all of the noncommissioned officers and sailors 
agreed to participate in the revolutionary movement for the good 
of the country, although very few of them were initiated into the 
movement at the beginning. Among the superior officers those most 
opposed to the movement were Eear Admirals Ipitis and Kalamidas 
(Admiral Kalamidas was a deputy from Chalkis), who were com- 
manding, respectively, the first squadron of the fleet, with base at 
Constantinople, and the second squadron base, which had been at 
Smyrna but was now at Chicos ; Captain Votzis, commander of the 
battleship Lemnos ■ Commander Stratos, commanding the destroyer 
Sphendoni; Commander Cavadias, commanding the destrover 
Thyetta, 

Lieut. K. Skouphopolous, of the Sphendoni, was the first naval 
officer initiated into the movement, followed by Lieut. N. Vitalis, who 
was transferred from the Lemnos to the office of the captain of the 
port of Chios, in order to take care of the work of propaganda. Ke- 
serve Lieutenant Zissimos, of the auxiliary cruiser Naxos, took part in 
all of the preparations for the movement. Lieutenant Vitalis com- 
menced the negotiations and assured the collaboration with the move- 
ment of the torpedo boats Dafni and Dons. Vitalis initiated into 
the movement a lieutenant from the battleship Lemnos, and, through 



93 

the latter as intermediary, Commander Petropoulakis. Immediately 
a number of other officers of the ship joined the movement. Two 
lieutenants refused to participate, but declared that they would not 
act against it. The " neophytes " of the battleship Lenvnos promised 
the chief of the movement, Colonel Plastiras, that if the commander 
of the second squadron, Admiral Kalamidas, and the commander of 
the battleship Lenvnos attempted to give warning of the movement 
they should be tied up by the officers and crew. The commander of 
the destroyer Niki, when sounded out by his friends, at once offered 
his ship to the revolution. Of the officers of the battleship Kilkis, 
which had been at Chios a few days before the movement, only one 
lieutenant had been instructed. That ship had departed for Mity- 
lena and a little later left for Saloniki. Its departure from Chios 
contributed very much to the success of the movement. After several 
meetings of those initiated into the movement it was considered that 
the adherence of the mass of the fleet was very difficult, if not im- 
possible. It was decided that the warships should be seized by officers 
from shore in cooperation with the neophytes. 

Thus, according to decision, the revolutionary movement was de- 
clared in the army on the night of the 23d-24th of September at Chios 
and at the same time at Mitylene also. One after another the regi- 
ments decided to participate in the movement. The superior officers 
who refused or attempted to act against it were arrested and tied up. 

On the night of the 23d-24th of September toward midnight 15 
junior officers of the army and navy under the orders of Captain 
Papamantelos and of Lieutenant Scouphopoulos made a break on 
the destroyer Sphendoni. They arrested and tied the commander of 
the ship, Commander Stratos, and the second in command, whom 
they put ashore and sent to the revolutionary headquarters. The 
torpedo boat Doris, in which the officers and the crew had joined the 
movement and which was anchored alongside the Sphendoni, aided 
in seizing the ship. Several days before the movement Stratos had 
said: " I wish I had been on board the Alphios [an old gunboat] in 
order to sink Plastiras.'' During the transfer from Chesme and 
Smyrna to Chios of the regiment of Plastiras, the gunboat Alphios, 
acting on orders, had hindered the transport, which being ordered 
to go to Saloniki was turning in to Chios and had even fired several 
shots; but Plastiras braving all danger had passed beyond and it 
was thus that the transport had landed at Chios. The other officers 
and the crew of the Sphendoni at once joined the movement, The 
revolutionary officers of the navy on board the destroyer Nike ar- 
rested the commander of the destroyer, Captain Vriakos, who was 
traveling in civilian clothes. The ship was to have gone to Piraeus; 
the commander of the ship interfered with that plan by arresting 
Vriakos, who was put ashore and sent to the revolutionary head- 



94 

quarters, where lie declared to Plastiras that he would join the 
revolution. Some officers of the army and navy likewise took 
possession of the auxiliary cruiser Naxos. The commander of this 
ship, who refused to participate in the movement, was arrested, and 
a lieutenant took command of it. The commander of the torpedo 
boat Doris, who was one of the promoters of the movement, stood 
ready with his crew at their guns in order to give aid to the rev- 
olutionary officers while they were boarding the destroyer Sphendoni 
and the auxiliary cruiser Na.cos. Of the ships anchored in the port 
of Chios there remained now only the question of getting possession 
of the battleship Lemnos. 

About 60 officers of the army and navy, led by Commander Spyra- 
kopoulos, after having seized the medical officers and the buildings 
at the end of the pier in accordance with an arrangement, went on 
board the tug Hiraldis and approached the Lemnos which was a 
short distance out. The destroyers Sphendoni and Niki and the 
torpedo boat Doris, which had adhered to the movement, stood by 
to assure the success of the Lemnos. The tug Heraklis went along- 
side the Lemnos at 3.30 in the morning; the 60 officers boarded the 
ship ; 10 officers of the army led by Commander Spyraeopoulos went 
without being seen to the cabin of Bear Admiral Kalamidas, com- 
manding the squadron. They woke him up and declared that a 
military movement had broken out for the good of the country for 
the purpose of demanding the abdication of the King, punishment 
of those guilty for the defeat in As' a Minor, and to enable Greece 
to return to the Entente family. The Admiral was astonished and 
demanded that a delay be accorded him so that he could come to an 
understanding with the heads of the revolutionary movement. The 
officers, not wishing to grant him any delay, took him ashore to the 
revolutionary headquarters which had been established in the house 
of a tobacco merchant. At the same time another group arrested 
his aid-de-camp and the chief of staff, wdiom they also took to revo- 
lutionary headquarters. The commander of the Lemnos declared 
to the revolutionary officers that, although he agreed with the 
principles and ideas of the movement, he could not adhere to it as 
he had always been a faithful observer of discipline. Colonel Plas- 
tiras read to Admiral Kalamidas and the other officers the text of 
the appeal, which was as follows : 

Gentlemen, Greece is perishing. We invite yon to come to her aid. If you 
are not in agreement with us, we will respect your opinions. We guarantee 
the security of your life and your military honor. You have nothing to fear. 
We only beg of you to follow us, for your ships belong to the country, and they 
will hasten the needed help. 

The other officers of the Lemnos proclaimed on board the ship the 
national revolution, which the crew received with enthusiasm. Thus, 



95 

without bloodshed or incident of any sort the Lemnos passed into 
the hands of the revolutionary committee. Commander Petropou- 
lakis took command of the ship as well as commanded the fleet. The 
crowning success of the occupation of the battleship Lemnos by the 
revolutionists was signaled from revolutionary headquarters, as had 
been agreed, by six flashes from the searchlight. The entire army 
received with enthusiasm and acclamations the adherence of the 
Lemnos. Thenceforward the success of the revolution was assured. 
A company of trusty Evsones from Plastiras' regiment was put on 
board the Lemnos in the morning as a guard. A little while after 
the, seizure of the battleship Lemnos by the revolutionists the de- 
stroyer Thyella arrived in the port of Chios, returning from a patrol. 
Its commander, summoned, on board the Lemnos, refused to declare 
himself in favor of the movement. A lieutenant received orders to 
take him ashore to the headquarters of Colonel Plastiras. Lieutenant 
Vitalis took command of the destroyer. In the morning of the 24th 
of September a section took possession of the office of the captain of 
the port, where was located the office of the naval base of Cihos. 
Order was given by the staff of the revolution to only surround it, 
but the soldiers did not entirely conform to the order. Captain 
Phocas addressed a patriotic speech to the noncommissioned officers 
and sailors who had been under his orders and who received the 
idea of joining the revolution with enthusiasm. All of the naval 
air service, for the most part Venizelists, at once joined the move- 
ment and contributed veiy much toward its success. Two aviation 
lieutenants had been among the first initiated. It was a naval air- 
plane which made the flight from Mitylene to Constantinople in order 
to give to the officers of the cruiser Averof, which was anchored at Con- 
stantinople, a letter signed by Colonel Plastiras. The staff and crew 
of the Averoff had already been instructed of the movement, but the 
revolutionary committee believed that, on account of its national 
mission in the Bosphorus, it would be better for the Avevof not to 
follow the rest of the fleet in its expedition toward Athens. At 
Chios a clash was reported between the revolutionists and the army. 
One major was killed and two soldiers and a sailor wounded. 

Almost at the same hour a dozen officers of the Army took posses- 
sion of the auxiliary cruiser Adriatikos in the port of Mitylene. Its 
captain, who refused to join the movement, was arrested and taken 
ashore. 

On the morning of the 24th of September Rear Admiral Kala- 
midas and Captain Votzis, prisoners of the revolution, were invited 
to participate in the movement but refused. At noon they changed 
their minds and declared that they wished to join it. Colonel Plas- 
tiras, however, refused to accept them. In the afternoon Commander 
Theophanidas came to Plastiras and with tears in his eyes begged 



96 

to be enrolled in the movement. Plastiras hesitated to accept him, 
but Commander Phocas, who was one of the promoters of the move- 
ment, persuaded Plastiras to admit him. 

At that moment the following vessels of the fleet had not yet ad- 
hered to the movement: The armored cruiser Avei'of, in the Sea of 
Marmora, whose cooperation was, however, certain and whose crew 
was for the most part Venizelist; the battleship Kilkis, in the waters 
of Saloniki ; the cruiser Helli, on patrol ; and the remainder of the 
destroyers and torpedo boats. 

On orders from the revolutionary committee all the ships of the 
fleet which had adhered to the movement interrupted all communi- 
cation by wireless with the Ministry of Marine. Chios and Mitylene 
ceased to communicate with the rest of Greece. 

The movement had in part succeeded. The revolutionary com- 
mittee decided that it should, without delay, impose its will on 
the King- and on the Government of Athens. The army, aided 
by the fleet, was to occupy the capital. About noon on the 24th 
of September the soldiers of the First, Fifth, Seventh, and 
Thirteenth Divisions, which were at Chios, were embarked on 
11 transports. At the same time the soldiers of the Second 
Division were embarked on three transports at Mitylene. The 
embarkation of the soldiers having been accomplished, the trans- 
ports left Chios amidst the enthusiastic acclamations from the army 
and the crews. They were escorted by the following: Battleship 
Lemnos, in command of Commander Arvanitis; the destroyer Niki, 
commanded by Lieutenant Voutsaras; Sphendoni, commanded by 
Lieutenant Skouphopoulos ; Thyella, commanded by Lieutenant 
Vitalis; torpedo boat Doris, commanded by Lieutenant Zangas. 
Some colliers and water boats also accompanied the convoy. The 
revolutionary committee, with Colonel Plastiras as representative of 
the army and Commander Phocas representing the navy, embarked 
on board the Lemnos. In the waters of Tinos the commander of 
the fleet, Commander Petropoulakis, was taken ill. becoming men- 
tally deranged and appearing to regret his participation in the move- 
ment. He was replaced by Commander Phocas. In the night of the 
25th-26th of September the revolutionary committee decided upon 
the naval action. The destroyers were to take Piraeus and the arsenal 
in order to cause the other ships of the fleet to join the movement. 
Lieutenant Skouphopoulos, on board the destroyer Sphendoni, and 
Lieutenant Vitalis, with the destroyer Thyella, Avere designated to 
carry out the movement. They took with them a lieutenant from the 
Lemnos and several officers from the army. On the 26th of Sep- 
tember the convoy coming from Chios met in the seas of Tinos the 



97 

three transports coming from Mitylene under the orders of Colonel 
Gonatas, who was transferred from the Ekstrafios to the Lcmnos. 

Colonel Gonatas, being the senior officer present, took command of 
the. army and the revolution. Colonel Plastiras, chief of the army 
from Chios, was named deputy chief. It was decided to constitute 
a revolutionary committee of 12 members, of whom 11 were to be 
officers of the army and 1 from the navy, Captain Phocas. An 
executive committee was constituted, consisting of Gonatas, repre- 
senting the army of Mitylene; Plastiras, representing the army of 
Chios; and Phocas, of the navy. It was this committee which signed 
the ultimatum sent to the Greek Government and negotiated the 
execution of the conditions imposed by it. After the fleet had joined 
they all proceeded toward the coast of Attica. On approaching 
Attica the L&mnos and other ships were informed by wireless that 
the destroyer As pis had adhered to the movement and that the 
revolution had broken out in the arsenal. The torpedo boats Aigli 
and Alky on had joined the movement. The following is the account 
of the adhesion of the destroyer and the two torpedo boats: In the 
night of the 26th-27th of September Lieutenant Dimakis left the 
destroyer Sphendoni, which had been detached from the fleet for 
the purposes mentioned above, and landed in civilian clothes on 
the peninsula of Piraeus. He there met Lieutenant Lascos, who was 
taking the place of the commander of the destroyer Aspis, and whom 
he initiated into the movement. A little later the crew agreed, and 
the Aspis left the port en route for Laurium to join the revolu- 
tionists. These two officers succeeded in causing the two torpedo 
boats Alky on and Aigli, which were anchored at the arsenal, to join 
the movement. 

On the morning of the 26th of September tAvo naval airplanes 
coming from Chios flew over Athens, Larissa, and Saloniki, distrib- 
uting thousands of copies of the manifesto. This manifesto con- 
1 ained the conditions of the revolution, namely, the abdication of the 
King, resignation of the cabinet, dissolution of the National As- 
sembly, and the assumption of legislative and executive power by the 
revolutionary committee. In the night of the 26th of September 
the revolutionary committee on board the battleship Lemnos trans- 
mitted an ultimatum to the Government, demanding of it the com- 
plete and immediate acceptance of those conditions. On the morning 
of the 27th the army commenced to disembark. The plan of de- 
barkation of the troops designated for the occupation of Athens was 
as follows : The Seventh Division, which was on board the steam- 
ers Alexandra, Dafni, Antigoni, and Togias, disembarked in the bays 
of Porto Kafti and Raphina. Its objective was to menace Athens by 
the east and north in occupying the important positions on the gen- 



98 

eral line of the Pass Stavrou-Amarqussiou. Debarkation was ef- 
fected at Porto Eafti on five barges and the tug Elsi, sent for that 
purpose. At Raphina the Togias was able to go alongside the land- 
ing. Special orders were given that the steamers on which had been 
the Seventh Division were detached from the fleet and anchored in 
the Bay of Macronissi. 

The First Division on board the Andros and Chios (Palios Com- 
pany) disembarked at Laurinm and was to join as soon as possible the 
Seventh Division. The other group of steamers with the Eleventh 
Division, on board the Patris, the Michalinou, the Efstratios, and 
the Ionnis; the Thirteenth Division, on board the Odyseos; the Fifth 
Division, on board the Chios (Chiaki Company) ; the Second Com- 
pany of Telegraphers and the Second Company of Pioneers, on 
board the Paros; 2 field guns with 4 caissons and 40 autotrucks, on 
board the Eon, continued their way toward Phaleron, where they dis- 
embarked according to program. 

On the night of the 26th-27th of September, General Paponlas, 
accompanied by Commander Economou, representing the Govern- 
ment, met the revolutionary committee on board the Lemnos for the 
purpose of discussing the conditions of the ultimatum. The revo- 
lutionists refused to discuss conditions and renewed by wireless the 
demand on the Government, giving a delay of three hours for its 
acceptance. On the morning of the 27th the conditions were 
accepted, and the King abdicated in favor of his son George. The 
revolutionists demanded that the King and members of the royal 
family, with the exception of Prince Paul, who was considered as 
the heir apparent, leave Greece as soon as possible. 

The officers, noncommissioned officers, and sailors who were anti- 
Venizelists had, after the night of the 24th of September, agreed to 
participate in the movement, but on the express condition — and 
which was agreed to by the leaders of the revolution and Plastiras in 
particular — that the life of the King and the royal family should 
undergo no danger, promising also that they would endeavor to 
persuade their partisans in Athens and all over Greece that no resist- 
ance in favor of the King would be offered and thus avoid bloodshed 
and civil war. The Government having accepted the demands of 
the revolutionists, particularly the abdication of the King, the revo- 
lutionary committee sent out by wireless invitations to the other 
ships of the fleet and branches of the navy to submit to the revolu- 
tion. The battleship Kilkis and the cruiser Tlelli had received 
orders from the Government to proceed to Phaleron, probably for 
the purpose of resisting the revolutionists. On receipt of the news 
of the abdication of the King and the success of the movement, they 
accepted. The cruiser Tlelli, which was on the sea on patrol, declared 
itself in favor of the movement. The junior officers and noncom- 



99 

missioned officers and sailors arrested the commanding officer, who 
refused to join, and placed him in confinement. 

On the morning of the 27th of September a meeting was held on 
the Averof. The officers declared for the revolution. Rear Admiral 
Ipitis, commander of the first squadron, was absent, having gone 
ashore at Constantinople the day before. Lieutenant Baltazzi, 
nephew of the ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Lieut. G. Constan- 
tinidis, aid-de-camp of the admiral, were the promoters of the move- 
ment, The other officers of the ship joined the movement, with the 
exception of the captain, the chief of staff, and a commander. These 
officers were confined in their apartments. All of the crew of the 
Averof having joined the movement, the ship prepared to get under 
way for Phaleron for the purpose of going to the aid of the fleet 
and the army. At the moment that the Averof was turning to leave 
the Bosphorus Admiral Ipitis arrived on a tender from the naval 
base, The officers announced to him that a change had taken place 
in the command and that he was forbidden to come on board. An 
expose of the events which had taken place was put in a bottle and 
thrown over to the admiral so that he could inform himself. In 
reply to a wireless message from the battleship Lemnos, which was 
anchored at Phaleron, the Averof sent out the following radiogram: 

Battleship " Averof." 

To all ships and stations: 

The entire Greek fleet lias unanimously risen up and has ranged itself on the 
side of those who are working for the national recovery. The Averof, which 
has proudly mounted guard in the Propontis, is now sailing on to Phaleron in 
order to contribute also in imposing the latest decisions taken in favor of our 
country which is in danger. It sends without distinction greetings to all com- 
rades of the land and sea. 

In the afternoon of the 27th the Averof stopped along the coast 
of Thrace near Rodosto, and there put ashore its ex-commander who 
would not adhere to the movement, but retained the other prisoners. 
In the waters of Thrace the Averof met the auxiliary cruiser Aegean, 
which unanimously joined the movement. The Averof in its route 
to Phaleron was escorted by the destroyer Aetos, the auxiliary cruiser 
Myconos, which had joined the movement, together with several 
small boats. The Averof arrived at Phaleron after the movement 
had been imposed on the Government of Athens and its demands 
accepted. 

The commander of the defense of the Gulf of Saronicos and of 
the base of Piraeus, who was on board the old battleship Psarra, 
which was anchored in Piraeus, together with all of the officers, non- 
commissioned officers, -and sailors belonging to his service, joined 
the movement after the ultimatum had been delivered to the Gov- 
ernment. 



100 

In the afternoon of the 27th, when the Venizelist officers who had 
been placed in retreat by the royalist regime were seizing the 
various ministries and public services, the officers of the navy went 
to the Ministry of Marine and took possession of it. It is understood 
that the revolutionary movement caused the British naval mission 
a great deal of anxiety, in that they feared a bombardment of the 
city in case of resistance. 

Thus it was that the fleet was able to impose on the Government 
of Athens the revolutionary movement which had broken out at 
Mitvlene and Chios and obtain the abdication of the Kino-. 

Several days later the revolutionary committee of 12 members, 
as well as the executive committee, was dissolved and replaced by a 
revolutionary committee of five members. This committee decided 
to remain at its post until after elections for the purpose of watching 
over the faithful application of the program of the revolution. On 
the new commission there were five representatives : From the army, 
Colonels Gonatas, president; Plastiras; and Sakellopopoulos. The 
navy had two members, Captain Hadjikyriakos and Commander 
Phocas. Captain Hadjikyriakos. who was a too ardent Venizelist, 
was withdrawn from the revolutionary committee following a peti- 
tion signed by TO officers, who demanded his withdrawal. The pres- 
ent representative of the navy on the revolutionary committee is 
Captain Phocas. 



HONDURAS. 

ARMY ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT. 
February, 1923. 

The army of Honduras at the present time is composed almost 
entirely of volunteers, and these men are mostly Xicaraguans and 
Salvadoreans. The drafting of men for service was given up in 
July, 1922, the Government being so unpopular that drafted men 
deserted immediately and the army practically disappeared. A great 
many of the higher generals and colonels are Nicaraguans. 

Until September. 1922, battalions were at approximately war 
strength — that is, 500 men each, but they are now being demobilized, 
and most battalions are already down to about 250 men, which is as 
many as can be maintained in time of peace. 

The organization of the army of Honduras provides for companies, 
battalions, brigades, and divisions of infantry. The artillery has 
regimental organization, composed of batteries, but not battalions. 

The division, which exists purely on paper, has a prescribed 
strength of 5,000 men. It is divided into twe brigades of 2,500 men 
each. Most brigades are composed of five battalions of 500 men each, 



101 

but brigades in which is included artillery have four battalions of 
infantry and a regiment of artillery. Battalions are composed of 
four companies. 

The rifles issued to the soldiers are Mausers, model 1908, of T-ram. 
caliber, and the Mannlicher, caliber 11 mm., and the Remington 
single-shot, caliber 11 mm. and 7 mm., the last, model 1888, being the 
most used. The rifles are mostly very bad and extremely nonde- 
script. Little care is given by the soldiers to their pieces. 

The uniform, including a cap, consists of unmilitary appearing 
two-piece outfits made of overall material. The trousers usually 
bear a white or red stripe down the sides. Few of the soldiers wear 
shoes, though a considerable number wear crude sandals. 

In ordinary times the army of Honduras is distributed for pure 
territorial reasons. That is, the troops are put in places where the 
best housing facilities are available. 



RUMANIA. 

MILITARY SITUATION. 

January, 1923. 



A crown council has been meeting, going over a new project for 
a total reorganization of the Rumanian Army. Army reorganiza- 
tion seems to be chronic with Rumania. Every new government 
that comes in immediately starts to reorganize; they form commit- 
tees, crown councils, and meetings and draw up the most hard-and- 
fast rules of reorganization, but as soon as the financial end of it 
appears usually the reorganization plans are dropped and one finds 
the army exactly as it was before. 

It is interesting to note that within their proposed reorganiza- 
tion the strength is to be reduced to 120,000 and they claim at pres- 
ent they only have 170,000. As a matter of fact there are at present 
approximately 190,000 men under arms. 



RUSSIA. 

PARADE OF THE FIFTY-FIRST DIVISION AT ODESSA. 

The following observations were made at a parade of the Fifty - 
first Division of the red army at Odessa, Russia, last autumn : 

Something over 2,000 troops were inspected and in line. Of these 
about 200 were what is known as militia, or armed civil police; about 
250 cadets of the local school; about 100 were workers militia ; about 
100 cavalry; and the rest about 14 companies of the Fifty-first Di- 
vision of the red army. There were also miscellaneous detachments 



102 

of Siberian Sharpshooters, troops from the Rumanian border, spe- 
cial companies, etc. About 25 children in new Trotzky helmets, said 
to be children of the division, and fed by the A. E. A. were at the 
end of the column and were the only detachment really cheered by 
the spectators. 

Before and during the review two fighting planes and three flying 
boats flew overhead, two of the boats flying very low. I noticed an 
unevenness and roughness in the motors of two of the planes and from 
what I had heard about them rather expected an accident. Finally 
one flying boat, the motor of which had seemed particularly good, 
and which had been newly painted, flew low over the parade ground. 
Just as it was passing me, about 100 feet off the ground, I saw the 
entering edge of the wing covering give way, the fabric on top stream- 
ing back. The plane immediately went out of control, but was 
evidently directed with the pilots last effort, assisted by the drag 
of the stripped wing, into the one place on the field where it could 
fall without hitting troops or houses. The resultant crash accom- 
plished the complete demolition of the plane, the death of the pilot, 
the mechanic, the observer, who was the chief of the naval aviation 
for the district, and two spectators. The plane was so completely de- 
stroyed that it appeared nothing more than a pile of dust and frag- 
ments. Fire started, which resulted in bringing out, in about 20 
minutes, a very flashy fire department, the horses of which were the 
only well-kept animals I have seen in Odessa. Only a slight delay 
was caused by the incident, which appeared to have little effect on 
the review or the spectators. 

The commanding general of the district proceeded to inspect the 
troops, all of whom he greeted with a salute and " Good morning, 
Comrades," answered by the troops with a concerted " Good morning, 
Comrade," or in some cases with a sort of " Hurrah." Each band 
played a march. The general was a tremendous man in the early 
thirties, with a blond beard. He looked intelligent, as did some of 
his staff. He wore two red army decorations and is said by Kosura, 
the commisar of foreign affairs at Odessa, and himself a former com- 
mander of a division, to be a very able man. I was unable to remem- 
ber his name, or in fact to get a clear pronunciation of it. 

After the review was completed the troops were marched into a 
close square to listen to speeches. The movements were not well 
executed, and apparently none of the elements were well drilled, 
but on the whole the work was better than would be expected. 

Speeches by generals, committeemen, and commissars followed, 
the various arms- of the service being represented by their officers, 
who appeared very much as one would expect officers to appear in 
any second-class military organization. There was a good deal 
of promising and praise of one another and of the soviet, some 



103 

of which was translated roughly for me. My thought of this was 
that they were trying very hard to impress themselves and were 
not succeeding overly well. 

The last speech was by "one of the soldiers/' ;i hoy who was not 
much over 20. and very unintelligent looking, but who had appar- 
ently been well coached, lie knew his lines too well to have spoken 
as long and continuous^ as he did without instruction. 

The " International " was played after each speech, and everyone 
ended his speech with a "Rah" which was answered by a "Rah" 
from the troops. The best speech was by a sailor who hadn't the 
brains or the education to learn or say much, and consequently only 
said about 10 words. Medals were then distributed to four heroes 
of the Wrangel campaign. 

The march by was then held, the Fifty-first Division leading. 
They looked well uniformed in khaki blouses, with three bars of 
black or red to designate their branch of the service, across the 
chest (an excellent mark at close quarters), heavy shoes, generally 
appearing too large and shapeless; wrap puttees, and new khaki 
Trotski helmets- Most of the uniforms appeared new. The rifles 
generally appeared good, the bluing still being new on those carried 
by the Fifty-first Division, gunstocks were unoiled ; bayonets, where 
fixed, were of long triangular rapier type and generally rusty, but 
apparently oiled. The irregular troops did not seem so well 
equipped. Even in the regular troops occasionally one saw a man 
out of full uniform in the ranks, and at. first glance I thought the 
footgear varied. This I found was due to the wearing of knee 
boots by the officers. 

The morale generally appeared to be higher than I had expected 
to find it, but there was no spontaneity to any of the cheers w T hich 
were given in ansAver to the greeting of the general, who as each 

detachment approached would say "Welcome Battalion or 

Company, Rah." This was ansAvered by a " Rah " from the troops. 
There were, however, scattered here and there through the troops, 
soldiers who Avere most enthusiastic in their cheers. 

Most of the soldiers Avere mere boys avIio looked rather more 
scared than one would expect Trotski's red soldiers to look. Officers 
were apparently quite proud of their command, and their saluting 
Avalk is such a strut as a Avooden soldier would execute. The soldiers 
carried no equipment other than rifle and cartridge box, nor was any 
artillery present. 

I imagine that these soldiers are about the same as we would find 
in a rather neglected militia troop in the United States. 

There Avere few spectators outside soAdet officialdom at the parade, 
not more than 2,000 or 3,000, and they showed interest but little 
enthusiasm. 



104 

Upon completion of the parade all organizations marched down 
the street and dispersed. 

Officers visiting the parade remarked on the lack of knowledge 
concerning the event that they had encountered in trying to find their 
way to the drill ground. 

The communist commissar drew my attention to one particularly 
snappy-looking company of the Fifty-first Division which he de- 
scribed as " The best company in the division, 60 per cent of them 
are communists." 

According to the statement of this man and the chief of the 
Foreign Office, a new commander " fresh from the staff college " has 
reported to take over command of the Fifty-first Division. He is 
young and capable loeking. 

Most of the officers were said to be loyal supporters of the Soviet 
Government, who had been trained for the job at schools after 
having been picked from the best and most loyal soldiers. They had 
replaced all the old army officers who were formerly retained for 
their knowledge but have now " been dispensed with." 



RUSSIA. 

AIM OF THE SOVIET LEADER WITH REGARD TO THE UNITED 

STATES. 

January, 1923. 

Note: Received from Dependable Russian Sources. 

To get a clear understanding of the Bolshevik's policy as regards 
America it is necessary to explain the very essence of communism. 
Communism can not be called even a deformed state policy. It is 
an antistate movement, aiming not to strengthen the state organism 
but to wreck the very foundations of state construction and thus 
realize the chief and basic point of their program — the triumph of 
the world socialist proletarian revolution. 

The Bolsheviks — that is, communists — succeeded in 1917 in seizing 
the power in Russia by throwing into the army and into the mass of 
the workmen, already shaken by the socialist propaganda of the 
" temporary government," their communist calls of " Down with the 
war," " Peace to the hut and war to the palace," " Rob the robbers," 
which found such good soil in the mass of the population already 
tired of the war. 

It is not astonishing that the lower classes of the country gathered 
around this international and communist government, which told 
the peasants that private property on land was abolished and that 
they could take all they desired. 



105 

A communistic international was at once called together at Moscow 
(the Comintern), having members from all the countries in the 
world, which issued a proclamation to the " proletariat of all coun- 
tries," calling them to " destroy the bourgeois governments and to 
seize the power themselves in the name of the world proletarian 
revolution." 

From the moment the Bolsheviks came into power in Russia they 
began to destroy the " intellegenzia " and bourgeois elements as not 
being of " proletarian extraction." When the Creka was formed 
in Moscow Lenin and Trotski gave the following instruction : " Kill, 
not inquiring into the guilt of those arrested, but asking only their 
extraction; if the arrested are not of proletarian extraction, they 
must be killed, as they are against the world revolution." 

In the communist government there were no Russians except Lenin 
and Tchicherin. The rest were all Jews under Russian names: 
Trotski, Bronstein ; Radeck, Tobelson ; Sinoviev, Apf elbaum ; Kame- 
nef, Rosenfeld; Katkov, Katz; Bokelnikev, Brilliant; Litvinov, 
Vallach; Martov, Tzederbaum, etc. (all Jews). 

Instead of a national Russian Government there appeared an 
international government consisting of Jews. Jews also occupied 
all the important posts in the country. 

Having seized the power in Russia, in spite of the civil war which 
had already begun, the Bolsheviks organized a most intense propa- 
ganda of communist ideas in the countries of western Europe. The 
defeat of Germany and Austria gave good opportunities for com- 
munism in these countries, as the population was dissatisfied with 
the Government which had lost the war. The result was a communist 
revolution in Bavaria and Hungary. The power, as in Russia, was 
seized by internationalist Jews, who declared Bavaria and Hungary 
to be " Socialist soviet republics." 

The same mass killing of the bourgeoisis, educated classes, and 
officers began as in Russia, but patriotic feeling soon took the upper 
hand, the communist yoke was thrown off and there was a return to 
a normal form of government. 

This did not take place in Russia partly through the low cultural 
level of the people, partly through the faults of the leaders of the 
white movement, and chiefly because the lower classes who had 
joined the communists had the possibility of living very well on the 
remains of the great wealth of former Russia. 

In spite of the failure of communism in Bavaria and Hungary, the 
Bolsheviks did not cease their propaganda, but on the contrary in- 
creased it in western Europe, using a great part of the Russian State 
gold fund for this work. 
38316—23 S 



106 

It must be granted that, although much time will pass before the 
world revolution breaks out, the Bolsheviks have done much in this 
direction. The British Labor Party was formed by the aid of their 
money and propaganda. This party has the same program as the 
Comintern and can bring pressure to bear on the Government by 
threatening strikes and terror. In Germany the Bolsheviks have or- 
ganized a really strong communist party, numbering more than 
300,000 members, and which will be able at the order of Moscow or 
the Comintern, if not to cause a socialist revolution, at least to destroy 
German industry, begin a civil war, and in general (if only tem- 
porarily) turn the state to chaos. 

In the Balkan States, except Yugoslavia (whose Government is 
leading a strong war against communism and where the party is not 
legalized) , the communist propaganda is beginning to be felt. The 
number of communists in Czechoslovakia reaches 200,000 and the 
communist party in Parliament influences the Government. In 
Bulgaria the Government has for some time been under the influence 
of the Bolsheviks, and is in direct and close contact with Moscow, to 
which it is bound by several secret agreements. In Rumania there is a 
strong communist movement, and the communists are carrying on the 
strongest propaganda. In Italy where a communist revolution was 
expected every day, the country has been temporarily saved by the 
Fascisti. In the first days of this movement the communists stopped 
their work, but now, supported by the gold of the Moscow Comintern, 
they are again beginning their work, especially in the large industrial 
centers of Italy. 

Communism is weakest of all in France, where the nation is still 
hypnotized by their victory over the Germans, and where the work- 
men are too few in number to be able to rise against the enormous 
army which France now has. 

Besides, the workmen of Europe have, in one way and another, 
come to know of the actual condition of workmen and peasants in 
Russia, and do not entirely believe the communist agents who tell 
them that Russia is a " paradise for the workmen and peasants." 

Although western Europe has been shaken by communist propa- 
ganda it is still far from a revolution, and the communists are con- 
tinuing their propaganda chiefly with the desire of bringing about 
communism in America, and especially in the United States. 
The reason for this is the following : 

In the years 1918, 1919, and 1920, and in 1921, the Bolsheviks 
depended upon a revolution in western Europe as a means of 
strengthening themselves in Russia, which had already been ruined 
by them. If at that time a communist revolution had taken place 
in Germany or England, countries with a strongly developed indus- 
try, the Bolsheviks would have been able to use these countries for 



107 

the needs of " Communist Russia." They know that they can only 
keep in power as long as they can show the people the fruits of their 
communist victories in other countries, and let the population profit. 
They know that they must repair the Russia they have ruined with 
the aid of foreign industry, finances, and qualified workmen. All 
this help they want to receive free, without giving anything in 
exchange. This could only be if Germany and England had com- 
munist governments. 

But in five years of their government in Russia they have brought 
the country to such a state of ruin that even western Europe's in- 
dustry and finance can be of no help. Further ruin endangers the 
very existence of the communist government, as at some time the 
cup of patience of the nation may overflow. 

The true position of national economy in Russia may be seen from 
the report made in Moscow at the business club by one of the im- 
portant communist workers, January, 1923, as follows : 

The process of exhaustion of means of production is continuing in industry 
as well as transport. The number of unemployed is also increasing. A special 
decrease is noticeable in the heavy industry and produce of fuel of all kinds. 
The number of good cars, sleepers, and rails is also growing less. Trade is 
decreasing. To conclude, there is now going on a system of dissipation and 
waste in all things. 

The wages of workmen in the Republic constitute 30 per cent of pre-war 
wages. There is a crisis of raw material. The supply of cotton has decreased ; 
of flax and hemp there is also little left. The supply of cast iron on January 1, 
1921, was 22,000,000 poods and on April 1, 1922, 8,000,000 poods. There is only 
30,000,000 poods of naphtha. 

The number of railway workmen has decreased 1,220,000 men (January, 1920) 
to 906,000 men (April, 1921) and to 750,000 men by October 1, 1922. 

The number of engines in working order in January, 1923, was 7,500. 

There is a considerable decrease of the cultivated area, of cattle, etc. 

The buying capacity of the population as well as consumption has decreased 
by 60 per cent. This process of exhaustion will continue ; the stabilization of 
the rouble is impossible. 

The Bolsheviks understand very well that they can only be saved in 
this critical situation by a great country with strongly developed 
industry, such as America, coming to their aid gratuitously and on a 
large scale. This they know is only possible after a proletarian 
revolution will be effected in America and a communistic government 
established. 

This is the reason why the Bolsheviks have set themselves the 
task of causing a revolution in America as soon as possible, as in their 
present situation Europe is not in a position to help them. 

To this end they have organized special groups of propaganda 
agents for America and in various ways have collected large sums of 
money for American propaganda. 



108 

As far back as 1918 Lenin had said that the hardest fight for 
communism would be in America, where the bourgeois classes 
are strongly organized. He said that several years would be neces- 
sary in which to prepare for this struggle. Special agents must be 
educated and all necessary preparations made before the propaganda 
among American workmen can be started. 

In 1918 the Comintern in Moscow organized an "Academy of Com- 
munist Propaganda " for communist youth. The pupils were mostly 
Jews. In this academy were taught not only the practical methods 
of propaganda, but also foreign languages, which the pupils had to 
master to perfection. There were different sections — French, Italian, 
English, and eastern countries and a special American section. The 
course in this academy was of four or five years. 

The first group finished the academy at the end of the year 1922, 
and the Moscow Comintern drew up a scheme for the attack of 
communism against the American bourgeoisie and capital. The 
Comintern finds that the unorganized system of propaganda in 
America before the year 1922 cost large amounts of money and gave 
no results, owing to the absence of a comprehensive system and plan. 

The Comintern considers that there is no use for communist propa- 
ganda in the United States Army as their educational level is too 
high, and besides, were a revolutionary movement to be started by 
the workmen, the Army would be too small to oppose it. The same 
may be said of the Navy. Propaganda in the Army and Navy must 
continue but it can not be expected to give any results. 

The force of propaganda must be centered in the working classes, 
which as a strong corporation in an industrial country, if organized 
and inspired by communistic ideas, can easily effect a revolution. 

The committee of propaganda of the Comintern elaborated the 
following instructions for the agents being sent to America. 

1. The agents must get to the United States as workmen and 
emigrants with Russian or foreign passports, and, owing to their 
knowledge of the English language, will easily be able to introduce 
themselves into the midst of the workmen. 

2. Provided with large funds, they must explain to the workmen 
that they are Russian emigrants who have left Russia as owing to 
the great wars their economic position has got worse. They came 
to America, having heard that workmen's position there was very 
good, but now they see that they are rich men beside the workmen 
of capitalistic America. 

3. Displaying the large sums, as they say, earned in communistic 
Russia, the agents involve the workmen in talk concerning the posi- 
tion of workmen in Russia. 

4. They prove that the communistic revolution caused them to 
grow rich, as it gave into their hands the factories, works, trade, 



109 

industry, and transport, which they had seized from the bourgeoisie, 
the eternal foes of the proletariat. 

5. The agents then explain to the workmen that they can do the 
same by overthrowing the bourgeois-capitalist government of their 
country. This can be brought about by strikes, demands for increase 
of salary, and the nationalization of different branches of industry, 
demonds for the recognition of the Soviet Government, and for plac- 
ing their own representatives in Congress. 

This propaganda gives most result among those occupied by phys- 
ical labor, and the greatest inducement is generally the display of 
large sums of money which prove the truth of the Bolshevik agent's 
words. 

By the side of this ordinary propaganda a more subtle one is car- 
ried on among the unions and workmen's organizations. In many 
cases bribes are given to some of the members, who are at the same 
time enrolled in the ranks of the communist party. 

In December, 1922, at a meeting of the Comintern, the American 
delegates of the Communist Party, after giving their report, asked 
for the hastening of the communist revolution in America. The 
negro delegates declared that in the case of a communist revolution 
the negroes of North America would rise as one man against their 
white oppressors. 

As a result of this report the Comintern passed a resolution 
to hasten the revolution in America and allowed a large sum of 
money in gold and English and American currency to that effect. 

After this secret meeting Trotski declared in the war commis- 
sariat : 

The chief aim of the international and of the R. S. F. R. is the bringing to our 
side of the American war working masses. If the Soviets do not succeed, 
European revolution will be delayed for many years and we can only wait 
months. 

But American bourgeoise will fall into our hands, and the stronger are 
the Soviets the sooner will come the hour of our revenge. 

From the reports of the same secret meeting of the Comintern 
concerning revolution in America it appears that communist propa- 
ganda in America and the organization of armed communist bands 
of American workmen and foreign elements will be easy of execu- 
tion, as the capitalistic-bourgeois government does not understand 
the methods of propaganda and the mode of action and therefore 
is absolutely unable to oppose them. 

Besides, the Comintern and the E. S. F. S. R. government do 
not conceal the fact that for the success of communism in America 
they have a mighty ally in Japan, who at the moment when America 
will be in throes of civil war and important disturbances will attack 
her and thus help to firmly establish communism. 



110 

Counting in a great measure on Japan to help them in their 
struggle against America, the Comintern and the government of 
the R. S. F. S. E. have now decided to mobilize all their forces to 
cause as fast as possible a communist revolution in America, to 
establish there a communist government, and to enter into possession 
of American industry and technical forces, thus being able for 
many years to enforce their ride not only in Russia but in all the 
countries of the world inhabited by the white race. 




RUSSIA. 

ARMY DEMORALIZATION. 
February, 1923. 



For the last 10 months the fighting value of the soviet army has 
been gradually declining. Food difficulties and the transportation 
crisis have compelled the Soviet Government to regroup and par- 
tially dismiss five armies; 30 per cent of the men have been sent 
back and no new enlistments have taken place, excepting in the 
Caucasian Army. The European missions at present in Moscow 
sent information a few daj^s ago that the forces at present amount to 
a maximum of 500,000 men. The material is very poor, artillery and 
engineer equipment being only sufficient for 12 divisions of 15,000 
men each. The quartermaster corps seems to be absolutely non- 
existent. 

The spirit of the troops, which has been kept to a certain standard 
so long as military life was more easy and enjoyable than civilian 
life, has now greatly deteriorated and evidences of apathy, despond- 
ency, and general unconcern as to the future are distinctly noticeable. 

Some of the army staffs, especially of the Fourth and Fifth Armies 
(southwestern and southeastern groups), which are composed of 
former Russian officers of the Imperial Corps, as well as German 
officers, are still very good. 

From reliable information lately received it is considered that the 
present armies can only be efficient for policing operations, but 
would be totally incapable of showing any great resistance against 
western armies, even of very inferior numerical strength. The 
Moscow Government, knowing these facts, is trying by every means 
to show its peaceable disposition and to start a propaganda for 
general disarmament. Negotiations that the Soviets were conducting 
with the Prague Government on this subject have completely failed 
and as a result considerable depression is noticeable in Moscow. 

Germany has succeeded in starting a Russian factory lately to 
manufacture bombing planes, according to plans drawn up by the 



Ill 

Dutch designer Fokker. The French, in agreement with the British, 
have taken steps to nullify the A^alue of this organization. 

The French Government has decided to send a permanent member 
of the Chamber of Deputies to Russia on a special mission for the 
purpose of endeavoring to reestablish diplomatic relations. Some 
difficulties have arisen as to the choice of the actual representative, 
but as soon as this is settled the representative will leave. 



RUSSIA. 

ATTEMPTS BY REDS IN ODESSA TO INFLUENCE ENLISTED MEN 

OF DESTROYERS. 

The source of this information, a popular petty officer of this 
ship, is level headed, of common sense, and is extremely trustworthy. 
1 consider him as an excellent source of such information as is gen- 
erally beyond the reach of officers. 

The information which he has found in Odessa indicates a condi- 
tion of terrorism which I had generally believed, to be passing but 
which is actually very much in evidence except to officers. 

He states that in his presence a red official, he thought a soldier, 
walked into the "American bar " in Odessa, demanded to see the till, 
and after looking things over generalty , helped himself to the money 
in the till. Nothing whatever was said to him. That another time he 
went to a cafe, where no liquor was supposed to be served, with one 
of these men, who demanded and received several bottles of liquor 
of different kinds, took a drink from each and left without any dis- 
cussion as to payment, telling informant that he did not need money as 
long as he was a Red and had a gun. The proprietor told informant 
that if he interfered he most certainly would be shot or at the very 
least arrested. These are two specific instances of a very general 
practice of attempting to show American enlisted men what the Bol- 
sheviki consider the advantages of Bolshevism which would most 
appeal to the man. 

The Bolsheviki liked to talk to and associate with our men, and 
when a real communist was present always talked about how fine the 
government was, but frequently the same men, when there was no 
communist present, talked in exactly the reverse way. Many talked 
of saving money in hopes of getting to America. 

Informant met a red soldier in a rather unsavory street one day, 
who asked him if he had any monejr. Fearing an attempted rob- 
bery informant answered that he had not. The red then asked if 
he did not want a woman. He answered that he did not. The red 
then suggested a drink which he accepted. The red said " You no 
money, I no money, but I can get." In going clown the street 
the red stopped several times women apparently respectable and 



112 

asked informant if he did not want them. He refused and the red, 
who " talked a little English," explained that he did not need any 
money ; that all he needed was the communist backing of a red soldier 
to take any woman he desired, and that if he, informant, was a red 
he could do as he pleased in Odessa. They then went into several 
places and had drinks for which nothing was paid, the red again 
explaining that no money was needed. The man becoming quite 
drunk, informant left him. 

He met an artillery officer of the red army, who when he found 
that our man was a gunner's mate became quite interested and dis- 
cussed his own job and pay, suggesting that if informant would de- 
sert he could get into the red army. The red stated that the army 
had plenty of guns but no one experienced in working on them and 
that when the guns were put out of commission the red artillerymen 
could not repair them, and that should he accept the chance there 
was a very good opportunity for him in the red army. 

From various other sources I found that there was a great deal 
of this type of propaganda going on among all of our men at all 
times, particularly among the petty officers and artificers. 



RUSSIA. 

REVIEW OF RELATIONS WITH TURKEY AND RUMANIA. 

February, 1923. 

1. The following is a review of the political relations between 
the Bolshevik Government of Moscow and the Turkish Government 
of Angora, obtained from a dependable Russian source: 

Political and military relations between the Angora Government and the 
Moscow Government were established after the defeat of the army of General 
Denikin in March, 1920. 

At that time the Bolsheviks were threatened by two new military factors : 
(1) The reorganized remains of the army of General Denikin under the com- 
mand of General Wrangel, and (2) the regular Polish Army under the com- 
mand of General Pilsudski, who wished to increase Polish territory by taking 
advantage of the civil war in Russia. 

The Bolsheviks, pressed from two sides, surrounded on all sides by enemies, 
began to look for support, even if only moral, from outside. 

The only allies they found acceptable were the Angora Kemalists who. 
being also isolated from their neighbors and supported by no one, agreed to 
enter into an alliance with the Bolsheviks, notwithstanding the difference in 
the views and aims of both parties, one of whom was striving for a world 
revolution and the other for the union of the Moslem world. 

This alliance with the Angora Government gave the Bolsheviks the possi- 
bility in case of defeat of the red army by Poland or General Wrangel, to retire 
to Anatolia and from there continue their world propaganda of communism. 

To the Kemalists this alliance with the Bolsheviks gave the necessary means 
for their struggle with the Greeks in the shape of gold and armament. Later 
they were supplied with these materials by the Bolsheviks in profusion. 



113 

At the end of 1920, after the establishment of peace with Poland and the 
defeat of General Wrangel's army in the Crimea, the Bolsheviks and Kemalists 
felt the need of direct contact with each other, the Bolsheviks wishing to or- 
ganize a strong communist propaganda among the Moslems of Anatolia and 
the Kemalists being in need of support during the war. 

A hindrance to the establishment of direct relations between Anatolia and 
.Moscow were the Governments of Georgia and Armenia. To remove this, a 
plan was elaborated between the Governments of the Kemalists and the reds 
for a general advance into Transcaucasia. The Kemalists advanced into 
Armenia and tbe Bolsheviks into Georgia. The result of these operations was 
that the Kemalists occupied half the territory of the Armenian democratic 
Republic, taking Ardagan and Kars ; and the Bolsheviks, after causing a com- 
munist revolution in Georgia, established their power in this Republic and in 
the remaining part of Armenia. In this way becoming masters of Trans- 
caucasia, the Bolsheviks established a direct contact with the Kemalists. 

Then the Kemalists, having received arms and ammunition from Russia, de- 
feated the Greeks and advanced to' Constantinople. 

But in this alliance of Kemalists and Bolsheviks the chief drawback is their 
interior relations. 

Tbe Bolsheviks, in helping the Kemelists, were aiming to organize a strong 
communist propaganda in Anatolia and to cause a social communist revolution 
among the Moslems of the world. 

The Kemalists, fighting exclusively for their national Moslem idea, could 
not countenance such a propaganda even on the part of their sole allies, and 
fought against it in Anatolia by all the means in their power. 

The Angora Government gave all possible attention and honor to the official 
representatives of Moscow at Angora and at the same time persecuted in every 
way the unofficial communist agents. The agitators were arrested by the 
Turkish gendarmes and were sent back to Russia or disappeared — that is to 
say, were shot. 

The same measures were taken toward those living in Turkey, Moslem or 
non-Moslem, who showed inclinations to communism and under the influence 
of propaganda became members of the communist party. 

In conclusion, the relations between the Kemalists and Bolsheviks may be 
summarized as follows : 

Accepting this military and political help, leaning on them in difficult 
moments, and looking to them for support in the Near East conference, the 
Kemalists at the same time consider the Bolsheviks as their worst enemies 
and understand that the success of Bolshevik propaganda would be the ruin of 
Turkey as a national state. 

The Bolsbeviks, on the other hand, use this alliance in international diplo- 
matic combinations with European powers, depending on the Kemalists as on 
an important victorious military power. 

At tbe same t'nie they strive to destroy Turkey as a national state and to 
establish in its place a Turkish soviet socialistic republic. They look upon the 
present leaders of Turkey as tbe worst enemies of their aim and idea of a 
world's communist revolution. 

The same source has supplied the following brief review of the 
political situation existing between Rumania and Bolshevik Russia : 

The relations between Rumania and Soviet Russia have been very strained 
for the past three years and are not improving with time. 

There ai-e two reasons for this: (1) Rumania in 191S, after the Versailles 
treaty, when civil war had begun in Russia, annexed. Bessarabia, which 



114 

belonged to Russia, and later proclaimed it to be a part of Rumania; (2) the 
Bolsheviks spent for international propaganda more than 1,000,000 ley of the 
Rumanian gold fund, which was transported from the Rumania State Bank to 
Russia in 1915 during the Great War when Rumania, after having suffered 
great defeats, was threatened with the loss of its deposits. 

At this latter time a contract was drawn up between the Rumanian and 
Russian Governments by which the gold reserve fund of the Rumanian State 
was to be transported to Moscow, where it was to remain until the end of 
military operations. The Bolsheviks took possession of this gold and spent 
it largely in propaganda work. Having no possibility of returning it to 
Rumania, the Bolsheviks nevertheless could not submit to the losing of Bes- 
sarabia, a region. so rich in corn and cattle, and not having the strength to take 
back Bessarabia, the Bolsheviks organized a strong propaganda in this region 
among the Moldavians, and the success of this propaganda is due to several 
factors. 

In the first place, Rumania, after having annexed Bessarabia, began to per- 
secute all that was Russian — the language, usages, schools, and other Russian 
organizations. 

In the second place, this propaganda was colored by national Russian ideas, 
playing on the wishes of the population to be returned to Russia. 

A special preparatory course for Bolshevik agitators for Rumania has been 
established in Odessa, where special attention is given to the teaching of the 
Rumanian language. All agitators finishing this school were sent to Rumania 
and chiefly to Bessarabia for propaganda among peasants, workmen, and 
soldiers. 

Certainly if Europe will present serious and collective resistance to the 
Bolsheviks and all their allies they will easily overpower their undisciplined 
and unorganized armies and thus cause a state revolution in Russia, leading 
to the downfall of the Soviet Government of Jewish commissars and will help 
to establish a National Russian Government. But whatever happens, the first 
blow of the red army will, if it comes, fall on Rumania. 



RUSSIA. 

SOVIET ACTIVITIES ABROAD. 
January, 1923. 

While in Switzerland and speaking to an intelligence agent of the 
old Russian Government who is stationed there, and to whom I had 
a letter of introduction, he informed me that the Bolshevik Govern- 
ment of Russia is greatly curtailing its activities abroad, concentrat- 
ing on a very few countries. Formerly they had a rather extensive 
propaganda and intelligence service in every country of western 
Europe, and the head offices for this work were in Hamburg and 
Vienna. The attitude of France, fascism in Italy, and the recent 
elections in Switzerland have given them severe setbacks. Also their 
funds available for such work are at a low ebb and they are concern- 
ing; themselves in the future with those few countries where all of 
their efforts will be concentrated. In Europe these countries are 



115 

the Balkan States, and Bulgaria in particular. The Hamburg office 
has been greatly curtailed in its activities, while the Vienna office 
(which was the principal one) has been moved to Sofia, Bulgaria. 
Here the Bolsheviks hope to establish an " advance guard " red state, 
and their efforts will emanate from Sofia. 

Next to the Balkans, the Bolsheviks are concerning themselves 
with America, and although this particular agent was out of touch 
to a large extent with activities in Ameriea, yet he knew this to be a 
fact. (Note. — Later investigations have confirmed this fact.) 

In further connection with the Bolshevik work in Bulgaria, I 
have received reliable word that the money for the upkeep of the 
Bolshevik organizations in Bulgaria comes from Berlin and these 
organizations (and the police who are in their hire) are very low on 
funds at present, as the German courier who brings this money from 
Berlin to Sofiia was recently arrested while passing through Yugo- 
slavia, and the 27,000,000 Bulgarian levas he was carrying were 
confiscated. 



SPAIN. 

ACCOUNT OF THE SPEECH OF REPUBLICAN LEADER. 

15 January, 1923. 

Alejandro Lerroux, in addition to being the head of the Repub- 
lican Party in Spain and leader of the Spanish Radicals, is pos- 
sibly the most eloquent platform orator in the country, and has been 
designated by his party to present the ideas of the antimonarchical 
wing before the people of southern Spain. Originally scheduled 
for a number of meetings in various cities of Andalusia, he later 
decided to concentrate on one meeting in -Seville to which the other 
cities would send delegates. The undoubted important effect of the 
recent Lerroux speech at Valencia on the present political situation, 
together with the general dissatisfaction over Moroccan events and 
the high reputation of the speaker, combined to create unusual 
interest in the address. 

Some 2,500 people heard the orator, the audience being limited 
by the capacity of the San Fernando Theater. With admission by 
ticket only, the auditorium was packed and several thousand were 
turned away. It was a middle-class audience, none of the aristoc- 
racy and few of the lower class being evident. Probably very few 
of the listeners to Lerroux's words were there out of curiosity. It 
seemed that it was a thinking audience, more like people listening to 
a sermon than to the incendiary utterances of a radical. Very seri- 
ous it all seemed, and with restrained enthusiasm that reached its 
peak when for a moment it appeared Lerroux used the word " Rey " 



116 . 

at the culmination of a violent peroration urging immediate punish- 
ment. It relapsed into silence when the speaker, after a pause, 
added two more syllables, thus making the " regimen " instead of the 
" Key " the objective of his attack. 

Delegates were present representing all the southern cities from 
Malaga to Huelva. While quite evidently approving all the speaker 
said, and particularly his cautious trespasses on the delicate ground 
of criticism of the throne, the audience was most orderly and ren- 
dered quite unnecessary the platoon of policemen detailed at the 
theater. 

While Lerroux went as far as he dared in his pleas for a republic, 
there was no direct attack on the King nor any startling disclosures 
that have not been repeated time and time again in the press. How- 
ever, that a speaker in Spain may nowadays demand a republic and 
mention the King and the gallows in the same paragraph, and get 
away with it, is an important indication of the trend of Spanish 
thought. Especially so when the speech was made at Seville, the 
stronghold of roj^alist feeling. 

Lerroux opened his remarks by saying that he had been sent out 
by the Republican Party to present its platform to the masses of 
the people. 

If we can not bring to account by legal means those responsible for the 
Moroccan disaster we must appeal to those other methods appealed to by people 
in the hour of their redemption. The blame reached the highest power of 
the State, and the immunity allowed by the constitution can not prevent 
this blame falling in the highest place. 

He reviewed the Spanish disasters since 1898, asserting that the 
responsibility was neither civil, military, diplomatic, nor economic, 
but was in the regime whose definite representative was the sovereign. 
That the courtiers did not inform or advise the King but that, on 
the contrary, only adulation prevailed, and to such an extent that 
even the conquest of Portugal was considered. 

I know that the constitution grants the monarch freedom from responsibility 
for the acts of his government and that his person is sacred and inviolate. 
Thus, while I can not say that the King is responsible I do say that the King 
is culpable. 

That the King's constant intervention in the political situation 
handicaps the action of the government, and that his meddling in 
difficult military operations are worthy of undeniable censure. By 
his placing individuals without merit at the head of the army he 
has established favoritism and constructed a Pretorian system. 

" Referring to the present situation he said : " The expediente 
Picasso is now sleeping the sleep of the just and hoping that a new 
political alignment will do it the evident justice it demands." He 



117 

enlarged on the already well-known scandals in high command in 
Morocco and described some of the most flagrant instances of cor- 
ruption, particularly the cases where permits for gambling were 
sold, the money going directly into the pockets of the commanding 
officers. Other graft was apportioned out to the officers on a sliding 
scale according to rank. "What did the favorites do in Morocco? 
They occupied posts far from the line of combat, their lives in per- 
fect safety, and returned to the Peninsula enormously wealthy." 
Also, " Morocco has fallen direct heir to the same motives that caused 
disaster in Cuba and the Philippines ; there is no remedy other than 
the complete and radical transition of the Government of Spain." 

Lerroux's reference to the rumor of his possible appointment as 
high commissioner in Morocco was wrongly reported in the news- 
papers. What lie really said was that he would accept the appoint- 
ment if offered by the people, but that its coming from the King 
was an insuperable bar to acceptance. 

His closing words, which have caused a great deal of subsequent 
comment and the statement by the civil governor that the police 
were derelict in their duty by failing to interfere, were as follows : 

How can these reforms be effected? A forced abdication would be a 
humiliation such as occurred in Greece and in Germany. A voluntary abdica- 
tion would rebound in the glory to the King, who would thus leave the 
memory in all hearts of his having facilitated the solution of the national 
problem. A forced abdication is also a revolution and can not be obtained 
without creating in the country a state, of mind impelling it. And if this does 
not occur no one will be surprised should the exalted temperaments and 
burning hearts see on the horizon of national life the silhouette of the gallows 
for those who deny to a sovereign people its legitimate rights. 



SPAIN. 

GENERAL NAVAL NOTES. 
January, 1923. 

It is announced from Madrid that the light cruiser Reina Vic- 
toria Eugenia, built at Ferrol Dockyard, has been handed over 
to the Spanish Government after successful trials, when she is 
said to have done 26 knots, half a knot over her contract speed. She 
displaces 5,590 tons, is 462 feet long over all, 50 feet beam, 15 feet 
9 inches mean draft. Her design is similar to that of British 
cruisers of the Birimngham class. Her Parsons turbines develop 
25,500 S. H. P. on two shafts; her coal-fired boilers are 12 in num- 
ber and of Yarrow 7 type. Her Vickers armament consists of nine 
6-inch guns, four antiaircraft 3-pounder guns, one 12-pounder gun, 



118 

and four 21-inch torpedo tubes. The side and deck armor is 3 inches 
thick. 

There are two other cruisers of the same type, but with greater 
engine power, now in course of completion at Ferrol — the Bon Bias 
de Lezo, launched in July last, and the Mendez • Nimez, which en- 
tered the water in December. They are lighter and faster than the 
vessel just commissioned, displacing about 4,725 tons and designed 
for 28 knots, burning oil fuel. Two swift and powerful cruisers have 
now been commenced. They are of the Raleigh type, to displace about 
8,000 tons and to do 33 knots on trial. These supercruisers have 
been designed by Messrs. Armstrong Whitworth & Go. 

The authorized strength for enlisted personnel of the navy for the 
first three months of 1923 (calendar year) is : 13,000 sailors, including 
all grades ; 2,556 marines, including all grades. 

Note.— The marines in the Spanish service are called marine infantry (in- 
fanteria de marina) and are used as garrisons for shore stations, on sea duty, 
as arsenal guards, and as orderlies. 



SWEDEN. 

EVIDENCE OF UNSATISFACTORY CONDITIONS IN NAVY. 

February, 1923. 

An argument is going on in the Riksdag and in the press regard- 
ing the condition of the Swedish Navy. The Stockholm Dagblad 
recently contained the following editorial : 

At the budget debate the Minister for the Defense let it be understood 
that the navy in general, and especially the submarine fleet, is well equipped. 
As to the navy, we knew, of course, that this statement was incorrect, and even 
as regards the submarines we had all reason to have our doubts. 

The true state of the submarines is shown by a report just submitted by 
the inspector of the submarines, Commander Gisike, for 1922. He states 
that the service of the officials and especially the sailors on board submai'ines 
is very bad, owing to too short maneuvers. A good example of the state in 
general is the submarine, the Delflnen. Of the crew this boat should have 
according to mobilization commands, only one officer is believed to have a 
complete knowledge of the boat, and one other has a small knowledge of it. 
All the others know nothing whatever about this kind of boat and its manage- 
ment. The example would probably be duplicated as regards the other sub- 
marines, according to the inspector. 

As it is evident that the strength of the submarines depends upon their 
being well managed and upon the expert knowledge of the possibilities of each 
boat, we can easily understand that everything is not well, and in spite of the 
declaration of the Minister of the Defense that everything is well, action 
must be taken. 



' 119 

TURKEY. 

NOTES ON NATIONALIST ARMY. 
February, 1923. 

An American official was recently sent on a short trip to Angora. 
The object of this trip was to obtain at first hand the opinion of the 
nationalist leaders. 

Informant is a keen observer, but has had no military training. 

The following information was obtained by questioning informant 
on his return yesterday : 

DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS. 

A great deal of troop movement was noted, particularly about 
Ismid, where he stayed two days. The general direction of the move- 
ment was toward the Ismid Peninsula. 

DISCIPLINE AND MORALE. 

The morale of the nationalist troops appeared to be very good. 
They sing in marching through the towns, and appear to be in ex- 
cellent spirits. 

INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT. 

The nationalist troops appear to be serviceably clad and equipped. 
Clothing and equipment seem to be durable and ample for field use, 
though no pretense is made to present a trim and soldierly appear- 
ance. 

ORGANIZATIONAL EQUIPMENT. 

Many machine guns were observed. They were carried on German 
pack saddles on donkeys. 

MILITARY TRAINING. 

No training of any kind was observed. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

A great deal of camel transport was observed, and also considerable 
motor-truck transport, particularly near Ismid and at the break in 
the railroad at Bilejik. 

There is a break in the railroad at Bilejik (50 miles east of Brusa). 
This break is 15 miles in length and comprises an important railroad 
bridge. It is calculated that this break can not be repaired before 
1st of April. It has a very detrimental effect on practically all move- 
ment of troops and supplies. As will appear from a railroad map 
of Anatolia, it is in a particularly unfortunate place on the main 



120 

line of railroad. Informant reports that the motor trucks run from 
one end of the break to the other in from one and one-half to two and 
one-half hours and that a large transport is kept at work there. 

WAR PLANS. 

Informant had a long talk with Racuf Bey, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. Racuf Bey is a highly educated and intelligent man who 
distinguished himself in the Turkish Navy in the Balkan wars. 

Racuf Bey said that Turkey wanted peace, but was quite prepared 
for war. Complete plans for war have been drawn up for use in the 
event of the breakdown of the Lausanne Conference. 

Racuf Bey gave the following information regarding war plans : 

1. The Turks would immediately attempt to drive the British 
Fleet from the Bosphorus by gunfire. 

2. The Turks assumed that the Greek Army now in western Traco 
could and would move into Constantinople. While the Turks could 
not now prevent that movement, the}^ were confident that they could 
eventually drive the Greeks out of Constantinople. 

3. The main Turkish line of action was only hinted at in a cryptic 
fashion. Racuf Bey said that the Turks always did the unexpected ; 
that they often accomplished the impossible, though rarely the possi- 
ble ; and that while their action would not immediately bring pressure 
upon Europe, it would do great damage to the British Empire — mean- 
ing, apparently, either Islamic revolutionary movements in India and 
Egypt or a Russian attack on India. 



TURKEY. 

THE GENERAL MILITARY SITUATION. 
1 February, 1923. 

Persistent rumors relative to the probable evacuation of northern 
Syria by the French have led the latter to recently issue a denial of 
this and to state that they had no intention of giving up any part 
of that country. There is little doubt, however, that the situation 
in Syria is uncertain. General Gouraud, French high commissioner 
in Syria and the Lebanon and commander in chief of the Army of 
the Levant, left Beirut for France in November, apparently as a 
protest against a reduction of the force under his command. It is 
generally believed that he will not return to Syria so long as there 
is any prospect of evacuating any part of that country and turning 
it over to the Turks, feeling that he can not continue at a post which 
might become so reduced in power and prestige. 

It is reported from two separate official sources that in case of an 
open rupture the Turks intend guerrilla warfare against both British 



121 

;iikI French, and to support this with their regular forces, having 
Mosul, Alexandretta, and Aleppo as objectives. So far as known, 
the Turks have made no actual threat against Syria and have not 
increased their forces on the Syrian front. In Iraq, however, it 
appears that they are already threatening the Mosul area. Some 
time ago there was quoted an unconfirmed report that a Turkish 
force had left Van in the direction of Mosul. This is now apparently 
confirmed by information just received from an official source that 
large Turkish forces have arrived at Zakko (about 50 miles north- 
west of Mosul) , that the British are rushing forces to Mosul, and that 
hostilities are inevitable. 

The latest information received gave the strength of the Turkish 
regular forces as 10,000 on the Caucasus front and 3,000 each on the 
Iraq and Syrian fronts. In addition to 9,000 native and 7,700 Indian 
troops there are 3,800 British troops in Iraq in addition to eight 
squadrons of the Royal Air Force (about 190 machines and 3,000 
men). It will be recalled that since last October the latter has been 
in charge of the defense of Iraq, probably the first instance in which 
aviation has been used as the first line of defense. The French 
forces in Syria at present total about 26,000. 

There is no change in the military situation in the Constantinople 
area, and the British and Turkish strengths just reported are very 
nearly the same as those recently given. The British have 750 men 
on the Maritza River, 11,000 at Gallipoli and Chanak, and 9,000 in 
the vicinity of Constantinople; there is a strong artillery concen- 
tration on Gallipoli, a force of at least 50 airplanes, and the fleet 
could provide a landing force of over 4,000 in case of emergency. 
The Turkish combat strength in western Anatolia is estimated as 
between 65,000 to 70,000, of which about 6,000 are cavalry. In addi- 
tion, there are believed to be about 20,000 armed Turks concealed in 
Constantinople and about the same number (including gendarmes) 
in Thrace. 

General Harrington has received instructions, it is believed, not 
to sacrifice any British troops in trying to hold Constantinople, but 
not to evacuate until absolutely necessary, in which case he would 
move his forces by water to Gallipoli, which the British believe can 
be held indefinitely against overwhelming odds. In this connection, 
however, it is interesting to note that an officer of General Harring- 
ton's staff was at Saloniki about February 1 for the purpose of deter- 
mining the availability of that city as a base for possible operations 
against Turkey. As a precautionary measure, heavy baggage and 
ether stores that it might have been necessary to abandon in case of 
a sudden withdrawal have been sent from Constantinople to 
Gallipoli. 

38316—23 9 



122 

TURKEY. 

VARIOUS ITEMS REGARDING ARMY. 

The strength of the present nationalist army of Turkey is 
180,000 men of all arms. They are mobilized at various places from 
Anatolie to Thrace, and consist mainly of cavalry and infantry 
with a few divisions of artillery. There are 8,000 cavalry and in- 
fantry troops now in Constantinople and Thrace acting as military 
police. This includes the gendarmes at the palace, and the city 
police. 

There are 18,000 men stationed in a small town about 25 kilo- 
meters east of Scutari, standing by for call. These are troops that 
were withdrawn from the vicinity of Chanak several months ago. 

Contrary to many reports, the officers of the Kemalist Army are 
not German or German trained. They are in some cases ex-officers 
of the imperial army, others graduates of the cadet corps of 
Constantinople, and still others selected from ranks for meritorious 
service. 

The laws or decrees passed out by the National Assembly at 
Angora make all males of a certain age liable to military service. 
In many cases men enlisted voluntarily because of lack of employ- 
ment and they knew that they would be clothed and fed in the 
army. The new " Yong Turk " movement or hatred for certain 
foreign population prompted many to enlist and still others were 
taken by conscription. 

The discipline is fair and the organizations are fairly well or- 
ganized and officered. 

In Aneora there are two ammunition factories for the manu- 
facture of small arms and artillery ammunition. Each employs 
about 600 men. 

There is one factory near Ismail that manufactures only small 
arms ammunition and employs 60 men. 

J YUGOSLAVIA. 

ESTIMATE OF THE MILITARY SITUATION. 
10 February, 1923. 

1. STRENGTH. 

Present strength, 60,000; trained reserves, 1,000,000; military man 
power, 2,000,000. 

The present authorized strength of the active army is 120,000 
officers and men. This will be attained when the class of 1923 is 
called up in April. 



123 

2. ORGANIZATION. 

Liability to military service is as follows : 

1. In the national army : 

(a) Active army with the colors from 21 to 31 years of age. 

(b) (Reserve) from 38 to 45 years of age. 

(c) Ersatz from 38 to 45 years of age. 

2. For the final defense of the country : 

(a) All men from 18 to 21 years of age. 

(b) All men from 45-50 years of age. 

Organization of the present active military forces: (1) Ministry 
of War, (2) general staff. 
The military forces include: 

First, Second, Third, and Fourth Armies. 
First and Second Cavalry Divisions. 

The Royal Guard (4 infantry battalions, 1 cavalry regiment). 
Coast artillery (1 regiment). 
Engineers (5 battalions). 
Aviation forces. 
Motor transport. 
Gendarmerie (5 brigades). 
Armies consist of: 

Army troops, plus from three to five divisions. 
First Army — 5 divisions. 
Second and Third Armies — 4 divisions. 
Fourth Army — 3 divisions. 
Army troops consist of — 

Cavalry — 1 regiment (to be formed from the reserve in time 

of war only). 
Heavy artillery — 1 regiment (howitzer), 1 regiment (gun). 
Air squadron — 1. 
Technical troops — (1 battalion pioneers, \ pontoon company, 

\ miners company, \ telegraph company, \ searchlight com- 
pany, 1 pigeon section). 
Depots — Medical, ordnance, engineer, quartermaster, Red 

Cross, technical, aviation, motor transport. 
Motor train — 1. 

Frontier guards — 1 regiment of infantry. 
Divisions consist of — 

3 to 6 regiments of infantry, 4 batteries of field artillery, 2 

batteries mountain artillery, 1 squadron cavalry. 
Divisional services (veterinary section, ammunition train, 

repair section, baking company, supply train, sanitary 

train). 
Approximate war strength of division is 32,000 men. 



124 

Infantry. 

Regiments consist of 4 battalions of infantry, sanitary sec- 
tion, pioneer section, signal section, train. 

Battalions consist of 4 companies of infantry (each company 
263 men), 1 machine gun section of 9 guns. 
Cavalry. 

Divisions consist of 2 brigades of 2 infantry regiments, 1 
group of horse artillery of 2 field batteries and 1 mountain 
battery, 1 detachment of mounted pioneers, 1 detachment 
of mounted signal men. 

Regiments consist of 4 squadrons, 1 machine-gun troop. 

Squadrons consist of 176 sabers. 
Artillery. 

Field and mountain : Regiments consist of 2 groups of 2 bat- 
teries field artillery and 1 batten* 1 mountain artillery each. 

Heavy : Regiments consist of 2 groups of 2 batteries each. 

3. EQUIPMENT. 

The infantry is armed chiefly with Mannlicher rifles, of which 
there are 120,000 ; Lebel rifles, of which there are 70,000 ; and Mauser 
rifles, of which there are 15,000. 

The First Cavalry Division is armed with the French carbine ; the 
Second Cavalry Division is armed with the Mannlicher carbine. 

The artillery of the First Army is of French-make Schneiders ; of 
the Second, Third and Fourth Armies, Skoda. 

The bulk of the equipment consists of remnants of old war stocks 
of assorted types which needs reconditioning. 

The peace-time army is well equipped. A force of 500,000 could 
be equipped after a fashion, though decidedly lacking in heavy ar- 
tillery. 

Appropriations have been made for the purpose of purchasing 500,- 
000 rifles, and effort is being made also to secure other equipment 
and war supplies from European countries. Rapid improvement 
may be expected as soon as the financial condition of the country 
strengthens. The country does not possess arsenals capable of 
manufacturing arms, and owing to the depleted finances it is diffi- 
cult to obtain credit for purchase of war supplies. 

4. MOBILIZATION. 

(a) Mobilization of active divisions. — The active divisions are all 
of reduced strength and plans for mobilization, either partial or 
complete, call for filling up part of all of them to war strength. The 
staff counts on two days for completion of mobilization of regiments ; 
four days for other units and six daj T s for concentration. Filling 
up all active divisions to war strength gives a force of 500,000. 



125 

Owing to the transportation difficulties, as well as shortage of 
equipment, it is not believed that the staff schedule for time of mobili- 
zation can be executed. 

(b) Mobilization of reserve divisions. — Owing to the impossibility 
of equipping them at the present time, mobilization of reserve di- 
visions is useless. Plans exist for the mobilization of the personnel 
of reserve divisions when the necessary equipment is secured. 

5. THEORY OF COMBAT. 

The national policy is to hold and consolidate the newly acquired 
territory, rather than to look to further acquisition. The natural 
theory of combat is therefore defensive, although the army is well 
trained in offensive tactics. Doctrine of training is French. 

6. EFFICIENCY AND MORALE. 

The efficiency and morale of the Army is excellent. Discipline is 
rigid. Training is effective. The staff is efficient. The standard 
of excellence among both officers and men is high. 

NAVAL. 

STRENGTH. 

Personnel. — One hundred and eighty-three officers, 3,043 men. 

Vessels. — Six mine layers of 520 tons, 8 torpedo boats of 250 tons, 
4 torpedo boats of 200 tons, 1 torpedo boat of 50 tons, 4 mine sweep- 
ers of 78 tons, 5 tenders of 100 to 250 tons, 1 radio ship of 2,160 tons, 
2 tugs — 260 tons, 4 river monitors of 600, 536, 440, and 446 tons. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The Ministry of War and Marine controls the navy, which is 
divided into the Adriatic Fleet and the Danube Fleet. 

The Adriatic Fleet, together with all shore activities and naval 
services on the Adriatic is divided into first coast command, Kralje- 
vitsa ; second coast command, Spalato ; third coast command, Kotov. 

The Danube command is at Novisad. 

Naval aviation is under the section for air service, in which there 
is a special section for hydroaviation with headquarters at the Boca 
de Cattaro. 

There are now 16 hydroplanes in serviceable condition. 

ARMAMENT. 

Mine layers and torpedo boats which belonged to the old Austro- 
Hungarian fleet are armed with 9-centimeter guns of the Skoda 
type. 

The gunboats have a total armament of six 77-millimeter guns, 
twelve 120-millimeter guns, and two 190-millimeter guns. 



126 

DISTRIBUTION. 

All the vessels, except the four gunboats, are assigned to the 
Adriatic Fleet. 

The gunboats compose the Danube fleet. 
Chief naval base is Boca de Cattaro. 

EFFICIENCY AND MORALE. 

The efficiency and morale of the navy are only fair. The torpedo 
boats are all in need of repair. 

GEOGRAPHIC. 

Geographic information affecting the strategy of the country: 

Coast line. — The entire Adriatic coast line is rugged. The Dinaric 
Alps closely parallel the coast. There are few landing places and 
no coastal plains affording space as a base for invading troops. 
Although a limited number of troops may effect a landing, the 
chances are that the defenders can concentrate superior forces and 
drive them out. 

The passes through the Dinaric Alps are few and easily defended. 

Italian frontier. — This is mountainous and can be stubbornly de- 
fended. The heights are slightly greater on the Italian side. 

Austrian frontier. — This is mountainous and can be strongly de- 
fended. The Kararvanen Eange and the Drave River form 
especially strong natural obstacles to an enemy advance. 

Hungarian frontier. — That part of Yugoslavia beyond the line of 
the Drave and Danube Rivers is exposed to attack. The Drave and 
the Danube Rivers form strong natural obstacles. In the event of 
this line being penetrated the enemy is confronted at no great dis- 
tance by mountainous country easily defended. The line of the Save 
also affords a strong secondary position. 

Rumanian frontier. — The Danube, as well as the mountainous 
nature of the country, renders the frontier very strong until the 
plains of Banat are reached. Here the Danube no longer marks the 
boundary and the country is flat and favorable for invasion by Ru- 
mania. The line of the Theiss River affords a good defensive 
position. 

Bulgarian frontier. — The mountainous character of the frontier 
makes it very strong. The advantage is with the Yugoslavians, due 
to the acquisition of important strategic points as a result of the 
peace conference. 

The line of heights east of the Vardar and Morava Rivers affords 
a strong secondary line, while the Vardar and Morava furnish a third 
line of defense. 



127 

Greek frontier. — This is naturally strong, following in general the 
crests of mountain ranges. 

Routes of penetration of either Greece or Yugoslavia would be by 
way of Monastir or the Vardar Valley. 

Albanian frontier. — Generally mountainous and more favorable to 
Yugoslavia, especially near Scutari, where Yugoslavia dominates the 
crossing of the Boyana. 

Interior. — Extremely mountainous, except in the Banat, Backa, 
Baranja, and Eastern Slavonia. Well adapted to defense. 

Traavs-portation. — The Save, Danube, and Drave Rivers are navi- 
gable. Railway lines are inadequate, especially in Serbia and Mon- 
tenegro. The Government is promoting further construction as 
rapidly as possible, especially the project to build a double-track 
standard-gauge road from Belgrade to the Adriatic, either at the 
Bay of Cattaro or Metkovitch near the mouth of the Narenta. 

SITUATION. 

Present situation. — Yugoslavia is a member of the Little Entente 
with Rumania and Czechoslovakia and is assured of armed support 
by these countries in case of war with Bulgaria or Hungary. Greece 
is friendly and has signed a commercial treaty giving Yugoslavia the 
use of Saloniki as a port. Recent friction with Italy over the Dal- 
mation littoral is abated. Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria are un- 
friendly, and aspire to regain the territory ceded to Yugoslavia as 
a result of the war. Although the army is efficient, Yugoslavia lacks 
the arsenals to manufacture the necessary arms and equipment to 
utilize her full man power and is too poor to buy these supplies. 

Future situation. — Yugoslavia is making every endeavor to 
strengthen its finances and to thereby obtain the needful arms and 
equipment which will make for national security in case of war with 
Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary, or Italy, or any coalition of these 
powers. 

o 



CONFIDENTIAL. Division C. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Washington, D. C. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION 
BULLETIN. 



NUMBER 5—1923. 



1 MAY, 1923. 



DISTRIBUTION: 

In general : Bureaus of the Navy Department ; all force commanders ; all commanding 
officers of capital ships, the larger patrols, destroyers, and submarines. 



^ 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. 



MONTHLY INFORMATION BULLETIN. 

NUMBER 5—1923—1 MAY, 1923. 

FOR CONVENIENCE IN ROUTING. 



Oflker. 


Initials. 


Date received. 


Date forwarded. 


Captain 








Executive Officer 








F rst Lieutenant 








Navigation Officer 








Gunnery Officer 








Communication Officer 








Engineer Officer 








Medical Officer 








Supply Officer 








First Division Officer 








Second -Division Officer . . 








Third Division Officer . . . 








Fourth Division Officer.. 








Fifth Division Officer 








Marine Officer 

































ill) 



CONTENTS 



GREAT BRITAIN: Page 

Air strength compared with other powers 1 

Confused situation with regard to combined army, navy, and air 

force command . 3 

Miscellaneous notes 5 

JAPAN: 

Accidents to naval vessels . ^ 5 

Airplane landings on Hosho 5 

Changes in naval administrative organization 7 

Fleet movements : 8 

Miscellaneous naval notes 9 

Notes on aviation matters 10 

Plans for improving naval personnel 11 

Prospective change of cabinet 12 

Relations with United States 12 

Some observations regarding the possible visit to Japan of Mr. 

Joffe 14 

Vessels launched and commissioned 19 

FRANCE: 

New 18-inch 45-caliber gun 19 

ITALY: 

Air-service matters 21 

Naval estimates 1922-23 22 

Naval policy 23 

Miscellaneous naval notes 25 

ARGENTINA: 

Contemplated alteration of battleships in United States 27 

Prizes established for battle efficiency 28 

AUSTRIA: 

Methods used to train gun pointers 30 

BRAZIL: 

Naval and military notes 31 

CHILE: 

Diplomatic relations with Bolivia 1 31 

Naval notes 32 

CHINA: 

British attitude alters toward Sun Yat Sen 33 

Military situation 34 

CUBA: 

Estimate of the military situation 38 

(Hi) 



IV 

GERMANY: 

Page. 
A conversation with the officer who commanded the R-3't on the 

trans-Atlantic flight 47 

Damage control 49 

Dornier all-metal flying boat 111 

ZR-3 114 

GREECE: 

General situation _ , 116 

LATVIA: 

Naval building program 124 

RUSSIA: 

Conditions irt Odessa 124 

Military agreement with Germany 127 

The arrival of Admiral Stark's fleet in the Philippines 133 

SPAIN: 

Discipline and morale 135 



The material for the Bulletin is largely derived from service sources, and 
its interest and value are correspondingly dependent upon the number and 
character of the reports received by the Office of Naval Intelligence from 
our own officers. In this connection the observations of officers afloat are of 
great value, particularly if the reports rendered are drawn up in accordance 
with existing intelligence instructions. 

While political and economic information is undoubtedly of great value, 
the collection of military information should come first in the intelligence 
work of cruising ships. 

(V) 



The attention of the service is particularly invited to the following article 
which appears in this month's Bulletin: 

GERMANY: Page . 

Damage control 49 

(VI) 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

AIR STRENGTH COMPARED WITH OTHER POWERS. 

2 March, 1923. 

Recently there has been much discussion upon this subject in 
Parliament in connection with the new air estimates. The follow- 
ing extracts from statements of the Secretary of State for Air have 
been taken from the Parliamentary Debates. They give an insight 
into the views of the responsible British officials upon this important 
subject. 

In reply to an inquiry in the House of Commons, 28 February, 
1923, as to the numbers of personnel and of squadrons of the air 
forces of France and Great Britain, respectively, at the latest avail- 
able date, Sir Samuel Hoare, air minister, made the following- 
statement : 

It is impossible for me to give the complete number of personnel of the air 
force of France, as many of the functions of the French air service are carried 
out by naval and military personnel. The only official figure that I can give 
the Right Hon. member in this connection is 37,730 for the naval, military, 
and colonial air forces, but I would point out to the Right Hon. gentleman 
that these services are not accurately comparable with the Royal air force. 
I would refer the Right Hon. gentleman in this connection to the explanation 
on this point which I gave to the honorable and gallant member for Hull on 
14th December. The latest figure regarding the number of French squad- 
rons is 140 (of nine machines, on the average). The British figures are: 
Number of personnel, 29.306; number of squadrons, 32 (of 12 machines, on 
the average). 

In reply to a question addressed to the First Lord of the Admiralty 
as to how many additional flying boats as well as seaplanes have 
been added to the strength of the navy, and what number have been 
constructed, or are being constructed, since July, 1921, the air min- 
ister made the following reply : 

"I have been asked to reply. So far as the navy is concerned, 14 seaplanes 
are serving with or are available for service in fleet carriers. There are five 
flying boats under the orders of the air officer commanding coastal area, and 
five under the air officer commanding, Malta, Which are detailed for coopera- 
tion with the fleet, and which work from a share base. With regard to 
modern developments in aircraft, 10 flying boats and 12 float seaplanes have 
been constructed since July, 1921, or are at present being constructed for 
service with the navy. These numbers do not take account of 33 flying boats 
and amphibians of various experimental types which have been tried or put 
under construction since that date. A comparison between July, 1921, when 
the obsolescent war types were still in service, and February. 1923. when the 

(1) 



old stock has been largely scrapped and the new and improved types are being 
substituted, would not be a useful or fair comparison. The period was one of 
transition and change over from an older to a newer equipment, and the 
newer equipment was itself, moreover, largely of an experimental kind, for 
which it would have been bad policy to place large orders prematurely. I 
may add that the policy of development which is being followed has been 
agreed upon between the Admiralty and the air ministry. 

In answer to further questions in the House of Commons, the Sec- 
retary of State for Air stated that the relative strength of the air 
forces of France, Belgium, and Great Britain on the Continent of 
Europe, including Constantinople, is as follows: Great Britain, 15 
squadrons ; France, 100 squadrons ; Belgium, 14 squadrons. 

The average establishment of a British squadron is 12 machines; 
that of the French, 9; and the Belgian, 10. 

The relative numbers of fighting, spotting, and bombing machines 
are : Great Britain, 32 squadrons ; France, 128 squadrons ; Belgium, 
14 squadrons. 

Regarding the number of trained pilots, observers, and mechanics 
on the active list, the figures he gave are : 

Great Britain : 1,158 pilots, 75 observers, 19,421 other ranks employed on 
ground duties. 

France : Provision is made in the current year for 3,039 flying personnel and 
30,477 other ranks. But it is noted in regard to the latter figure that it is 
misleading, as a large number are found from the army, and are not included 
in the foregoing. 

Belgium : 2,000, all ranks ; but the service is in process of reorganization. 

The Secretary of State for Air further stated that the number of 
aircraft on the French civil register on December 1 was 660; that 
French firms have produced 3,300 machines for civil or military pur- 
poses during the first 11 months of 1922, making an average monthly 
output of 300 machines; this includes machines for other countries. 

Note. — The above statement of personnel applies in the case of Great 
Britain to the British Isles. According to other information available, the 
total number of French air squadrons is 128, and the British figure is believed 
too large. The personnel figure for France can not be justly compared with 
the British figure, as it does not include certain ground personnel furnished by 
other branches. Of the 32 British squadrons, 15 are in Europe (including the 
Dardanelles), 5 are in Egypt and Palestine, 4 in India, and 8 in Iraq. The 
French squadrons in Europe number approximately 100, with the remainder 
in Syria, Algeria, Tunis, and Morocco. The British and French flying per- 
sonnel in Europe number about 1,200 and 3,000, respectively. 



The following statements by Sir Samuel Hoare were made by him 
in presenting the air estimates, 1923-24, and in the discussion that 
followed their presentation : 

In November, 1918, at the end of the war, the Royal air force was composed 
of 30,122 officers, 263,410 airmen, and 3,300 service airplanes. To-day it i§ 



composed of 3,071 officers, 27,499 airmen, and 371 first-line airplanes, that is, 
excluding reserve and training machines ; a' total of 30,000 against nearly 
300,000 at the end of the war. 

In matters of national defense the question of cost is not a final factor, but 
it must obviously be taken into account. In 1913-14 the navy estimates were 
£48,809,300, and the army estimates were £28,220,000, about seventy-seven mil- 
lions in all. This year the navy estimates are £58,000,000, the army estimates 
£52,000,000, and the gross air estimates £18,005,000, making £128,680,000 in 
all. In other words, the defense estimates are already double loliat they were 
before the war. If we now decided to apply a one-power standard to the air, 
without making corresponding reductions in 'the estimates of the army and 
navy, it would mean an immediate increase over our gross estimates of about 
£5,000,000, but it would mean an eventual increase in order to keep pace with 
the progress of other great powers of £17,000,000. 

Our naval air work to-day is many stages ahead of the naval air work of any 
other great power; whether it be in the matter of deck landings, of torpedo 
attacks from the air, or of long-distance nights by flying boats, our naval work 
is stages ahead of the naval air work of any other great naval power, and the 
fact that the other great powers recognize that that is so is shown by the 
frequent requests that we have for air information from them, and by the 
further fact that a great power like Japan actually comes to us for instruc- 
tors in this particular branch of air work. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



CONFUSED SITUATION WITH REGARD TO COMBINED ARMY, NAVY, 

AND AIR FORCE COMMAND. 

April, 1923. 

The 1923-24 estimates call for practically no changes in the present 
strength of the regular army, but provide for a gradual building up 
of the reserves and the territorial army. 

So far as minor questions of organization are concerned, there is 
nothing of special interest, but there are two larger questions of 
organization that are under considerable discussion. 

First comes the status of the Royal air force serving with the 
navy. Although this is under the control of the air service at pres- 
ent, persistent efforts are being made by the navy to regain control 
of its own aviation, and it is believed a decision will soon be reached 
by the Government on this question. 

It will be remembered that the Royal air force is a coordinate 
branch of the defense forces, entirely independent of the army and 
navy. Furthermore, in British mobilization plans it is now regarded 
as the first line of defense, instead of the navy as formerly. It has 
been given full control of the defense of Iraq and Palestine, although 
it requires the support of large forces of the army. In Iraq, for 
example, there are eight air squadrons, with an air force personnel of 
about 2,500. Acting with the air force, and under its command, are at 
least two battalions of British infantry, two armored car companies, 



two mechanical transport companies, and detachments of signal 
troops, an estimated total of well over 3,000 British troops, in ad- 
dition to 10,000 Indian troops and about the same number of native 
Arab forces. 

At Gallipoli and Constantinople the air force units are not acting 
independently but have been divided and placed, some under the 
army and some under the navy. 

The second larger question of organization is the unification of 
the army, navy and air force under a single defense department, and 
this question is now under investigation by a Parliamentary commit- 
tee and also by a committee of the council of imperial defense. It is 
probable that the experience had by the British at Constantinople and 
the Dardanelles will result in increased attention being given to the 
question of unification of the forces in some form; while conditions 
here have gone smoothly and there has been excellent cooperation be- 
tween the army and navy, this cooperation has been entirely personal, 
as a more complicated organization of command could hardly be im- 
agined. The navy is under the control of the British High Commis- 
sion at Constantinople, while the army is independent of all control 
short of London. The army and navy are independent of each other 
and, as stated above, the air force is split, the land planes being under 
the command of the general and the sea planes under the command 
of the admiral. If for instance General Harington wishes to use the 
whole of the air force for any purpose, he may order out his own 
land planes but must ask the navy for the sea planes. If the admiral 
is so disposed he may refuse. It he complies he can do so only with 
the permission of the High Commission which permission may, of 
course, be refused. If the navy establishes a sea plane base on land 
(as it has done) it still remains under naval command. Discipline 
is complicated by the fact that each of the three services has its own 
code; the air force code applies to air force personnel operating un- 
der the army but not to personnel operating under the navy. 

At Chanak, the vital point in the defense of the Straits, General 
Marden is in command with his two brigades of infantry, his artil- 
lery (in two independent commands on either side of the Darda- 
nelles), two naval batteries of 6-inch guns mounted on shore and 
temporarily attached to the Gallipoli command, and his squadrons of 
land planes. In the Dardanelles lies a detachment of the fleet with 
the airplane carrier Argus. The forces afloat, both sea and air, are 
under the command of the rear admiral, who is not under General Mar- 
den's orders, but there is good personal liaison between the two 
branches. The general and the admiral have agreed on the amount of 
naval gun fire and of the naval air force which is to assist the army 
in case of a Turkish attack, and the naval orders have been written 
so as to fit in exactly with the army orders. Staff officers have 



been interchanged between the two headquarters and also between 
lower units. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 
3 March, 1923. 

During firing practice near Gibraltar on February 28, submarine 
Ml blew off the muzzle of her 12-inch gun. This is the third time 
such an accident has happened to this submarine. 

Submarine Ml is one of a class of three vessels, each of which car- 
ries a single 12-inch gun. Their normal crew numbers 65. 



According to brief press dispatches, a torpedo exploded in a tor- 
pedo tube aboard the light cruiser Coventry, 8 March, 1923, in which 
live enlisted men were injured, two of them dying later from their 
injuries. 

The following statement of the First Lord of the Admiralty in 
connection with the navy estimates, 1923-24, indicates that the reduc- 
tion of personnel of the fleet that was to be effected by 31 March, 
1923, is to be less than previously reported : 

The reduction of the personnel of the fleet by 20,000 officers and men, which 
was foreshadowed in my predecessor's statement, is expected to be complete by 
1st April, except for 140 officers and 1,000 men who are being retained pending 
the final decision of the Government on the Admiralty proposal that the navy 
shall in future provide the personnel for its own air arm. 



JAPAN. 

ACCIDENTS TO NAVAL VESSELS. 
March, 1923. 

The Kuma flagship of the third division, while maneuvering off 
Mitajiri on 2 March, 1923, had an accident in one engine room which 
required her to go to Kure for repairs. 

The work was completed on 5 March, 1923, and while undergoing 
test a steam pipe burst, seriously injuring one man. 

Submarine No. 26 while operating off Hiroshima on 13 March, 
1923, collided with the Ryosei Maru, a steamer of 300 tons displace- 
ment. The Ryosei Maru sank and the No. 26 sustained some damage 
to her bow. 

JAPAN. 

AIRPLANE LANDINGS ON HOSHO. 
March, 1923. 

An English pilot, formerly of the British Royal Air Force, and 
at present under contract as test pilot for the Mitsubishi Internal 



6 

Combustion Engine Co. of Nagoya, has successfully accomplished 
the feat of landing on the deck of the airplane carrier Hosho in a 
machine built by the above company. 

In all, nine landings were made, three each on three different days, 
as follows: 

On February 22, 1923, under ideal weather conditions, with a light 
steady breeze, in Tokyo Bay, the first three landings were accom- 
plished without incidents of importance. The Hosho underway was 
headed directly into the wind and given such speed through the 
Avater as to make the apparent wind between 30 and 35 knots. All 
three landings were excellent and in none of them did the machine 
approach the forward limit of the landing deck nearer than ap- 
proximately 100 feet. This gave the pilot great confidence that he 
could safely land at a lower apparent wind velocity. 

The second trial took place on February 24, 1923, under similar 
conditions, except that the ship was not headed exactly into the wind, 
but how far she was headed from the wind is not known. In mak- 
ing the first of three landings under these conditions the pilot 
thought the ship was too far from the wind, so he landed at a slight 
angle to the keel, heading more into the wind. One of the checking 
hooks carried away after it took on the wires along the deck, and 
the machine tipped up. The only damage done was a broken pro- 
peller, and the two succeeding landings were made without incident. 

The third trial took place on February 26, 1923, under conditions 
similar to the first day, except that the apparent wind velocity was 
only about 20 knots. Three landings were made without incident, 
terminating the contract of the pilot as to these landings. 

The pilot has stated that he considers the machine used too heavy 
for the purpose, but that the feat of landing on a ship's deck under 
favorable conditions is not a very difficult matter for a properly 
trained aviator. Also, he said, with no desire to seem to throw 
bouquets at himself, that he did not believe that at the present time 
there was an aviator in the Japanese Navy who could make such a 
landing without grave danger to machine and personnel. 

At Nagoya, the Mitsubishi Co. has constructed a platform simulat- 
ing a ship's deck, flush with the ground and capable -of being trained 
in azimuth to point into the wind. On this deck the pilot had made 
approximately 250 practice landings before undertaking to land on 
the deck of the Hosho. Several Japanese aviators have made some 
practice landings, and in so doing have smashed several machines. 

In the opinion of this man, the Japanese aviators generally have 
particular difficulty in learning to land lightly, either on land or 
water. 

When he broke the propeller of his machine on the first landing 
of the second day he learned that there was only one spare pro- 



peller on the Ilosho, though there were about 800 in store at Yoko- 
suka, the base from which the Ilosho was operating. 

The designer of the machine used (an Englishman of Mitsubishi, 
formerly of the British Royal Air Force) was asked to come up 
from Nagoya to Avitness the tests. He did so, but was not allowed 
on board the Ilosho, having to witness the test of his own machine 
from a destroyer near the Ilosho. The difference in height of deck 
of the destroyer and the Ilosho made it practically impossible to see 
anything of value in regard to the landings. The pilot is not allowed 
to see the moving pictures of his own landings. 

The navy department paid the Mitsubishi Co., builder of the 
machine, yen 15,Q00, to have these landings accomplished. The Mit- 
subishi Co. in turn paid this over to the pilot. Thus the Japanese 
Navy saved its " face " in not employing a foreign pilot to show 
Japanese aviators how to land with a Japanese plane on a Japanese 
plane carrier. 

Large numbers of Japanese aviators witnessed the landings. 

Recently another ex-British aviator employed by the Japanese 
Navy has been doing some night flying in a F-5 type hydroplane. He 
has had no difficulty in landing on the water assisted by searchlights 
from a man-of-war; also the nights were bright moonlight ones. 

In the prospective attempts to land on the Ilosho with a hydro- 
plane he expects to use a Vickers viking machine, which is an 
amphibian. 

These flights (nine) will probably be undertaken at an early date. 



JAPAN. 

CHANGES IN NAVAL ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION. 

February, 1923. 

As a result of naval limitation and reductions due to economy, the 
following changes in naval administrative organizations have been 
decided upon and will go into effect from the fiscal year 1923 : 

In the present division of the department offices, viz, minister's 
secretarial office and seven bureaus, the latter will be changed to nine 
bureaus. Of the three departments — technical, educational, and 
civil engineering — which were under the direct supervision of the 
minister, the last two named will be abolished. 

The working of the several bureaus will be changed as follows : 

Bureau of military affairs. — Chief, vice or rear admiral ; will consist of two 
divisions. The present third division (matters relating to aviation) will be 



8 

transferred to the first division. Matters relating to education will be trans- 
ferred to the first division, bureau of education. Matters relating to budget 
will be transferred to first division, bureau of account and supply. Matters 
relating to flying machines will be transferred to fifth division, technical 
department. 

Bureau of personnel.- — Chief, vice or rear admiral; three divisions, as hereto- 
fore, but the head of the third division will be left vacant and will be attended 
to by the head of the first division. 

Bureau of education. — Chief, vice or rear admiral ; will consist of two divi- 
sions. The first division will attend to matters belonging to the first section 
of the present educational department. The second division will look after 
affairs heretofore attended by second section of educational department. The 
affairs attended by the third section of the old department will be transferred 
to the first division and some to engineering bureau. 

Bureau of account and supply. — Chief, P. M. vice or rear admiral ; three divi- 
sions, as at present ; will take over the work on budget of bureau of military 
affairs, educational department, and civil engineer department. 

Bureau of stores. — Chief, vice or rear admiral ; same as at present, with the 
exception of taking over the affairs relating to the movement of stores under 
the general staff. 

Civil engineering bureau. — Chief, expert of " Chokunin " rank ; there will be 
no divisions ; will attend to matters now handled by the present civil engineer- 
ing bureau. 

Engineering bureau. — Chief (Eng.), vice or rear admiral; same as at present, 
with the exception that it will take over some of the work now attended to by 
third section of educational department. 

Medical bureau. — Chief (surgeon), vice or rear admiral; same as at present. 

Legal bureau. — Chief, official of " Chokunin " rank ; same as at present. 

Naval technical department. — Chief, vice admiral ; out of the present sec- 
tions — executive and seven sections — the first three sections, viz, guns, tor- 
pedoes, and electricity, will be put together as the first section, shifting other 
sections up and making it five sections besides the executive. 

As results of above changes the following personnel will be re- 
duced: Admiral, 1; vice admiral, 1; rear admirals, 3; captains, 6; 
commanders to sublieutenants, 2d grade, 20. The number of civilian 
officials reduced will be about 300, from experts down to clerks in 
the navy department and factory offices. 



JAPAN. 

FLEET MOVEMENTS. 
January-February, 1923. 



A change has been made in the program of employment of the 
first fleet. 

First term training, including torpedo firing, will be concluded in 
March, and after fueling at Kure the first fleet will leave for the 
South Seas touching at Parso, Truck, and Saipan, having the 
Mariana group as a base. 



The second fleet will extend its cruise south (some accounts report 
as far south as Singapore, but this is not thought to be correct). 

The combined fleet will return to, Japan and visit the Ise Shrine the 
latter part of April. 

The tanker Iro has sailed for Tarakan for a cargo of oil and is to 
meet the fleet in the south. 

It will be noted that this is probably the most extensive cruise 
ever undertaken by the Japanese Fleet. 

Rear Admiral T. Imaidzuma, commanding second submarine 
flotilla, has transferred his flag from his flagship Yahagi to the sub- 
marine tender Karasaki, and in company with the sixth submarine 
division (Nos. 46 and 47), and the sixteenth submarine division 
(Nos. 34, 35, and 36), sailed from Kure on February 15, 1923, 
for an extended cruise to the south. 

First they will go to Formosa and then to the island of Yap, re- 
turning to Yokosuka about March 20, 1923. 

This is the most extensive cruise ever undertaken by Japanese 
submarines. 

The Japanese training squadron composed of the Itvate, Idzumo, 
and Asama, returned to Yokosuka on February 8, 1923, having cir- 
cumnavigated the globe during this cruise. 

It is reported that the next training squadron will consist of the 
Yakumo, Tokiwa and Asama and that it will cruise to Australia and 
the south seas. 



JAPAN. 

MISCELLANEOUS NAVAL NOTES. 
February-March, 1923. 

Below is given the number of flag officers and captains of the 
Japanese Navy on full pay and half pay as of January 1, 1922, and 
January 1, 1923. It is expected that a large part of these officers on 
the waiting list January 1, 1923, will eventually be retired without 
being employed further : 



• 


January, 1922. 


January, 1923. 




Employed 
on full pay. 


Half pay on 
waiting list. 


Total. 


Employed 
on full pay. 


Half pay on 
waiting list. 


Total. 


Admirals 


14 

29 

47 

179 


1 

5 

8 

10 


15 

34 

55 

189 


11 

18 

46 

151 


3 

16 
28 
82 


14 


Vice admirals 


34 


Rear admirals 


74 


Captains 


233 








269 


24 


293 


226 


129 


355 



10 

It has been the intention to install in the tanker Hayatomo the 
boilers from the Ibuki, due to be scrapped. However, due to the 
delay in ratification of the naval treaty, it has now been decided to 
install in the Hayotomo boilers to be removed from the Fuso. The 
reason assigned was the urgent need for more tankers. 

It would seem from this that the Fuso was to have new boilers 
installed while she is undergoing extensive repairs. 



It is evident that something has gone wrong with the light cruiser 
Isuzu. Laid down in August, 1920, and launched in October, 1921, 
she was to have been completed in February, 1922. She has not yet 
been turned over to the navy, but the reason for this is not known. 
The Japanese press reports her as nearing completion now and as 
having been docked at Yokosuka on March 9, 1923, for the purpose 
of having her bottom repainted. She was built at Uraga. 



JAPAN. 

NOTES ON AVIATION MATTERS. 
March, 1923. 

Following the successful flights to and from the Hosho, the Japanese 
Navy Department has decided to hasten the completion of the Amagi 
and AJcagi. It is expected that both of these ships will be launched 
during the summer of 1923. It is stated that their displacement 
will be 27,000 tons, but how this figure is arrived at is not known. 
The detailed arrangement of the aviation deck has not yet been defi- 
nitely settled. 

The ^war office has granted a subsidy of yen 15,000 for the Tokyo- 
Osaka Asahi aerial service. 

Recently an experienced foreign aviator, familiar with flying in 
Japan, stated that in his opinion Japan was the most dangerous 
country of which he had knowledge for long overland flights, be- 
cause of the constant succession of broken and rugged mountains 
and soft and terraced rice fields. The former makes air conditions 
very difficult and both combined to make a forced landing at any 
time extremely dangerous. He said there was literally no place to 
land a machine except on the regular prepared fields, a few army 
parade grounds, and a few short stretches of beach. Many of the 
beaches in Japan are very narrow and many are strewn with boulders 
of various sizes. 

Hydroplane No. 2 of the F-5 type, belonging to the Yokosuka 
aviation division, while flying to Oshima (Fries Island) on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1923, was on account of engine trouble compelled to make a 
forced landing when near Oshima. 



11 

It seems probable that the boat struck some solid substance in 
taking the water, as a large hole was made in the hull and the 
machine sank. 

The personnel were saved by fishing boats that chanced to be 
near by. 

At Heito, a small village near Hosan, in southern Formosa, a 
small aerodrome has been built. It houses at present four airplanes, 
which are used by the Government police in maintaining security 
against the aborigines. 

The police aviators were trained by the army, and the work is 
entirely of the nature of reconnaissance over the savage regions. 

Some months ago the British authorities at Hongkong became 
quite exercised over this aerodrome, having heard that it was exten- 
sive and a prospective threat to Hongkong. A British official re- 
cently saw this aerodrome and he states that while at present it is 
unimportant, it can be easily and quickly developed into an extensive 
aerodrome. 



JAPAN. 

PLANS FOR IMPROVING NAVAL PERSONNEL. 
February, 1923. 

The Japanese Navy Department is perfecting plans looking to- 
ward improvement of navy personnel in morale and training. Dis- 
cipline is to be improved and educational development to be encour- 
aged. Appointment and dismissal of officers will receive more care- 
ful deliberation, and fair play in rewards and punishments will 
be the motto. Officers commissioned from the ranks are to receive 
equal treatment with other officers. 

Gunnery and torpedo exercises and engineering practices are to 
be more practical as for actual war. 

The study of naval strategy is to be stressed, improvements in 
logistics introduced, and communication improved. 

Regulations are to be revised covering naval education, naval con- 
struction, warship administration, ammunition supply, naval general 
staff, and naval stations. 

In other words, every effort is to be made to provide an adequate 
naval defense in the situation growing out of the Washington 
conference. 

40211—23 2 



12 
JAPAN. 

PROSPECTIVE CHANGE OF CABINET. 

March, 1923. 

It now looks as though the present cabinet, headed by Admiral 
Baron T. Kato as premier, would not last very long after the pres- 
ent session of the Diet comes to a close. 

It is said that he has been a political disappointment to the un- 
official political forces instrumental in selecting him for his present 
post. It is not thought that the attitude of the Kato government has 
had anything to do with the increasing political dissatisfaction with 
the cabinet. 

The composition of the new cabinet is most uncertain, but it is 
unlikely that it will include Admiral Kato as minister of marine or 
Vice Admiral Ide as minister or vice minister. 



JAPAN. 

RELATIONS WITH UNITED STATES. 

February, 1923. 

During the last two months the tone of the Japanese press would 
seem to indicate on the part of the Japanese people that there is 
still considerable dissatisfaction over relations with America. While 
still acknowledging the beneficial results of the Washington Con- 
ference, it is remarked that many important matters affecting 
America-Japan relations were not discussed at this conference. 

This attitude is very frankly expressed in a long article that ap- 
peared in the Osaka Mainichi over the name of Viscount Kentaro 
Kaneko, who is a member of the Privy Council and as such not with- 
out a certain amount of influence, and one thoroughly in touch with 
the official attitude. In this article Kaneko says : " The Washington 
Conference did not take up any questions dealing with the internal 
affairs of the United States nor any of the internal policies of any 
of the individual States, and as a consequence the questions which 
have been pending between this country (Japan) and America for 
long years were not brought into the discussion." 

Then these questions are enumerated as : " The antialien land 
legislation, which is anti-Japanese, the law prohibiting the inter- 



13 

marriage of Japanese and whites, the problem of Japanese-American 
agrarian economy, the Japanese school question, and the question 
of religion, the matter of immigration and naturalization, and many 
others." These are characterized as the real problems at issue be- 
tween the two countries, and the opinion is advanced that they must 
be investigated and settled with due regard for the fears of the 
United States and the desires of Japan. 

Kaneko finally proposes that a joint high commission be ap- 
pointed to study and adjust these questions. 

While admitting that the questions are internal for the United 
States, and at the same time proposing that they be taken up by a 
joint America-Japan commission, the dangerous possibilities of 
serious disagreement in them is foreshadowed if the Japanese Gover- 
ment ever takes a similar attitude. 

At a large dinner given recently by the America-Japan society 
to Mr. Warren, retiring American ambassador to Japan, and Mr. 
Hanihara, newly appointed Japanese ambassador to America, Vis- 
count Kaneko, president of the society, said in effect that until these 
questions (those enumerated above) are settled, there can be no real 
friendship between America and Japan. This from the lips of a 
privy concillor seems to have been putting it rather strong. 

The recent decision of the United States Supreme Court denying 
the right of naturalization to Japanese was followed by a large 
number of anti-American editorials, as was to be expected, and more 
recently the introduction in the' United States House of Represent- 
atives of the bill to restrict immigration has brought forth another 
outburst. Unfortunately, many of these editorials not only condemn 
the specific action under discussion, but seriously question the bona 
fides of America in her role of friend to Japan. 

During the present session of the Diet, the Government has re- 
peatedly been subjected to very severe criticism by the opposition on 
account of its attitude toward America. This attitude has been 
called weak and prompted only by a desire to curry favor with 
America. How much of this will be remembered after the present 
cabinet falls, and is succeeded by another, it is impossible to say. 

There is no reason to suppose that the present cabinet has in any 
way changed its policy of friendship and sincerity toward America, 
but it is believed that the attitude of the public is influenced by the 
various factors enumerated above to retain a suspicious and even un- 
friendly feeling toward America, and therefore, all Japanese matters 
should be observed in America now and for some time to come with 
the same degree of attention and care as obtained prior to the Wash- 
ington Conference. 



14 
JAPAN. 

SOME OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE POSSIBLE VISIT TO JAPAN 

OF MR. JOFFE. 

February, 1923. 

Note. — Mr. Adolph Abramovitch Joffe was one of the Russian emissaries to 
the conference which framed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Subsequent to that he 
went to Germany, but was expelled from that country for propaganda activity 
distasteful to the German Government. He next appeared in the Far East, 
arriving at Chan-Chung in August, 1922, directly from Moscow, as the chief 
Russian delegate to discuss with the Japanese the terms of their evacuation 
from Siberia. That discussion ended without any agreement being arrived at 
(in the 25th of Septmber, 1922, whereupon Mr. Joffe went to Peking as the un- 
official ambassador of the Soviet Government. He has since been concerned 
in a number of negotiations with the Chinese relating to the return of Mongolia 
to China, navigation rights on the Amur River, and the disposition of the 
Chinese Eastern Railway. He was received with great favor upon his arrival, 
but he has since adopted so truculent and irritating a tone in dealing with the 
ministry of foreign affairs at Peking that the original esteem in which he was 
held has been dispelled. Lately there have been various rumors of his ill health. 

In January, 1923, he proceeded to Shanghai, and after a consultation there 
with Dr. Sun Yat Sen he sailed for Tokyo at the unofficial invitation of Baron 
Kato, the former minister of foreign affairs in Japan and at present the mayor 
of Tokyo. The Japanese Government disclaimed any official color to his visit, 
but he has been consulted by various important members of the Government 
and also of the opposition party in the Diet since his arrival. There is no 
information as to his having arranged or executed any understanding with the 
Japanese Government regarding the matters pending between them and the 
Soviets. 

The following observations upon this subject by a well-informed 
source in Peking are of interest: 

The discussion aroused by Mr. A. A. Joffe's departure from Pe- 
king a short time ago, ostensibly for the south, was as nothing com- 
pared with that which his reported intent to visit Japan has in- 
spired in both Chinese and foreign circles here There is, of course, 
a good deal of pure guesswork on the part of idle gossips, but there 
is also shrewd surmising being done by well informed persons. 
Everyone with a head on him has long since realized that the Man- 
churian situation is a mine of possible troubles, worthy of the at- 
tention of all the powers, great and small. If Mr. Joffe goes to 
Japan now, his visit will be viewed in all circles in Peking as having 
a direct bearing upon the Manchurian situation and the Chinese 
Eastern Railway question and will be watched with the most in- 
tense interest. This view in Peking is prompted by several important 
considerations. 



15 

In the first place those who have been following translations from 
the Japanese press carefully have noted that in the speeches and 
writings of many prominent Japanese, the failure of the Dairen and 
Changchun conference has been loudly deplored. This is interpreted 
to mean that Japanese officialdom is preparing the public mind for 
the announcement of a third conference. 

In the second place Mr. Kawakami, once Japanese consul in Har- 
bin, lately Japanese minister to Poland, who speaks Russian as well 
as any Russian, was recently recalled to Tokyo with orders to travel 
via Moscow, where he is known to have spent some time. He has 
just passed through Harbin and by the time this article sees the light 
of day he will be in Japan. 

In the third place it is asserted in quarters usually responsible 
that Mr. Joff'e did not solicit permission to go to Japan but received 
an invitation to visit that country and convalesce, from no less a 
person than Mr. Kato. 

In the fourth place it is well known that the Japanese are very 
anxious about their fishing rights off the North Siberian coast. In 
recent years these rights have been renewed annually by the Vladi- 
vostok Government. While Japan controlled policy in Vladivostok 
and held the mouth of the Amur, as well as other points on the 
Siberian littoral, these rights were easy enough to obtain and it 
would not have been a matter of very profound concern if they had 
been withheld. The case is different now. The Siberian ports are 
held by the Reds and unless Japan is prepared to reverse her policy 
and reassume an aggressive attitude toward Siberia, replace her 
garrisons and make much play with gunboats, she will have to renew 
her fishing rights this season through negotiation with the Red 
authorities. Everyone knows that the fish supply from the Kam- 
chatka coast is vital to Japan. The season begins in the early spring 
and the agreement will have to be renewed before March 1. These 
circumstances in themselves explain why Japan might now be eager 
to come to an understanding with the soviet in the very near future 
and why the high civil officials in Japan might be preparing the 
public mind for a third conference with the soviet envoys. It 
would also seem to explain Mr. KaAvakami's visit to Moscow. 

If these surmises are anywhere near correct and if Mr. Joffe goes 
to Japan to confer with the Japanese Government, it is obvious that 
the danger of a Red descent upon the Chinese Eastern Railway is 
not immediate. The soviet also has something to ask. It will not 
yield the fishing rights without a liberal quid pro quo. As soon as 
the Japanese say " fish," Mr. Joffe will say " Saghalien." It is not 
the practice in diplomacy to ask for less than you want and comrade 
Joffe is not backward about expressing his desires, so it is more than 
likely that in addition to asking for the retrocession of the northern 



16 

half of the island of Saghalien he will try to exact in return for 
the renewal of the fishing rights, and perhaps for other trading con- 
cessions, a free hand in the Chinese Eastern Kailway zone. 

Putting aside for a moment this latter supposition, it is easy to 
see why Mr. Jo fie would be only too pleased to go to Japan and 
talk things over. The soviet folk want a working trade agreement 
with Japan since they are eager to recover trade in Vladivostok and 
the Siberian ports. They want to recover Russia's sovereignty over 
the Russia half of Saghalien, not only because the soviet has devel- 
oped imperialistic ambitions and is coming closer at every step to 
the policy of the Czarist regime, but also because the Red Government 
is eager to win American recognition. The development of the min- 
eral resources of northern Saghalien has already been pledged to 
an American mining company backed by a strong financial group. 
If Saghalien is recovered and the oil and coal concessions in Sag- 
halien actually pass in American hands, the soviet leaders imagine 
that in a group of influential New York financiers they will have 
powerful friends at court. The recovery of Saghalien would there- 
fore kill several birds with one stone. This is another reason for 
believing that the seizure of the Chinese Eastern Railway will not 
be attempted while there is a possibility of negotiating with Japan 
and while the American deal is pending. New York financiers can 
not be supposed to have any great interest in the fate of the Chinese 
Eastern Railway, but the American Government has, and the Soviet 
did not grant mineral concessions in Saghalien to please a New York 
mining company, but for the sole purpose of obtaining a lien upon 
the good will of the American Government. The chances of obtain- 
ing this lien they are not likely to sacrifice by a premature act of 
violence in Manchuria. 

This is the soviet side of the picture, which is not difficult to un- 
understand. Why the Japanese Government should accede to a de- 
mand for the restitution may not be so apparent. The answer which 
covers most ground is " fish." As everyone knows, fish plays a huge 
part in the domestic economy of the Japanese people, In the Orient 
it is just as commonly known that the Siberian fisheries contribute 
very largely indeed to Japan's supply of fish, not to mention that 
they provide employment and profit for thousands of sailors, ship 
owners, importers, dealers, and exporters. The loss of this trade 
would be a stupendous blow which would effect eventually every 
household in Japan. The right to carry on this trade, failing suc- 
cessful negotiations with the Soviet Government, can only be guaran- 
teed by a reversal of the policy of the Japanese civil government, by 
the reoccupation of Siberian ports — that is, by a considerable outlay 
for military expenses— and by naval protection. 



17 

This is an alternative which the officials of the Japanese civil 
government would do anything within reason to avoid. At home 
the military expenditure would be unpopular and it would mean 
the resurrection of the waning influence of the military caste in 
all government departments, which from the new Japanese point 
of view would be retrogression. Abroad the reopening of hostilities 
with Siberia over a question of fish would be regarded with the 
most profound suspicion. Since the cancellation of the Anglo- 
Japanese alliance, Japan has very obviously felt her isolation and 
has made marked efforts to cultivate the confidence of her best 
market, America. Whatever America may think of the Soviet — and 
no country thinks less of that institution — Japan's withdrawal from 
Siberia has undoubtedly boosted her moral credit in America 
enormously. This the civil government in Japan would be loth 
to sacrifice. Long before there was any question of American con- 
cessions in Saghalien, the American Government expressed its 
disapproval of the Japanese occupation of the Russian half of the 
island. If Japan were now to refuse to get out gracefully when 
opportunity offered and were then to take aggressive measures in 
Siberia again over what would appear abroad as such a trifling 
matter as fish, the Japanese Government would be stormed with 
pompous announcements from Washington and with rabid denun- 
ciations from the whole American press. 

Moved by these various considerations, the Japanese civil govern- 
ment might very possibly agree to trade northern Saghalien for a 
renewal of the Siberian fishing rights and for other commercial 
considerations. 

Another element which would not make for success in any negotia- 
tions which Comrade Joffe might carry on with the Japanese 
Government, is the Joffe conception of diplomacy. If insolence and 
abuse lost him ground with every element in Peking and if it is im- 
possible for him to change his tone, he will be given short shrift in 
Japan. Tact is not his forte, as the Chinese and residents of Peking 
of all nationalities can readily testify. His lack of tact borders on 
sheer stupidity. This will not help him to win the favor of the 
Japanese Government in the first place, nor help the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to override the opposition of the militarists should it at- 
tempt to do so. 

Few persons outside of Peking realize how much Joffe has sacri- 
ficed in Peking. When he arrived here, as we all know, both the 
Chinese intellectuals and the Chinese Government were kindly dis- 
posed. The field in this quarter was fertile and well prepared. It 
is not so generally known that the legations were not averse to deal- 
ing with him and were prepared in several cases to discuss out- 



18 

standing questions with him. It is probably still less known that 
the administration of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the Russo- 
Asiatic bank were fully prepared to negotiate with him and to offer 
him compromises. This tendency to good will Joffe has scorned 
and rebuffed in every quarter. He has abused the Chinese and tried 
to bully them until his Government is regarded as a greater im- 
perialistic menace to the peace and integrity of China than the 
Japanese. He has abused the legations until no diplomat with any 
sense of self-respect could possibly receive him. To the administra- 
tion of the Chinese Eastern Railway he has said that he had only 
one message for them : " Get out." The Reds in Siberia and Man- 
churia, fully informed of the favorable auspices under which he ar- 
rived in China, have been puzzled (according to very reliable infor- 
mation) to know why he did not make more headway. 

No one doubts any longer that the Reds are fully intent upon 
seizing and controlling the Chinese Eastern Railway in one fashion 
or another. There is plenty of evidence which at this late date it is 
futile to review. The Captain Allen from Siberia, who was recently 
interviewed by a representative of the North China Daily News, gave 
a very glowing account of conditions in Eastern Siberia but made 
the flat statement that the Reds would seize the Chinese Eastern 
Railway within six months. This opinion is confirmed by every com- 
petent observer having first-hand knowledge of the Soviet's plans. 
The impression given by Chinese press reports from Manchuria that 
the Reds are all prepared to make an immediate descent is all that 
the soundest information would warrant us in correcting. The 
most competent Chinese military authorities in northern Manchuria 
say that the Reds have made no adequate military preparation. They 
are observing the movements of Red troops carefully, and say that 
on the whole frontier, from Pogranitchnais on the east around the 
Amur to Manchuli on the west, there are now less than 25,000 troops, 
with a few field batteries and very few machine guns. This means a 
very thin distribution over such a long frontier, while sufficient forces 
could easily be brought to the two termini of the Chinese line within 
a week or so to push the Chinese back and seize Harbin. The evidence 
is that the Reds are by no means prepared to bring in enough men 
in the near future to face the Chinese, supported by the existing 
Japanese forces in Manchuria and by the rearmed whites under Die- 
trichs. These facts are also quoted in support of the conviction here 
that Russo-Japanese negotiations are pending. No one is willing to 
.assume, however, that the Red attempt upon the railway will be long 
postponed, whatever the results of these hypothetical negotiations 
may be. 



19 

It is not too early to attempt to appreciate the dangerous possi- 
bilities which are bound up in this question of the Chinese Eastern 
Railway — dangerous from the point of view of China's integrity and 
from the point of view of international complications as well. 



JAPAN. 

VESSELS LAUNCHED AND COMMISSIONED. 
February-March, 1923. 

The Japanese light cruiser Yubari was launched at Sasebo on 4 
March, 1923. The Yubari is reported as being the fastest ship in the 
Japanese Navy. Her length is 435 feet, beam 39 feet 6 inches. 

The second class destroyer No. /+ of 850 tons displacement has 
been completed by the Kawasaki Dockyard, Kobe, and turned over 
to the navy at Kure. 

Destroyer No. 6 of 850 tons displacement was launched at Uraga 
Dockyard on February 15, 1923. 



FRANCE. 

NEW 18-INCH 45-CALIBER GUN. 
March, 1923. 

The Schneider Works at Le Creusot were visited on 6 March, 1923. 
Part of the information previously reported was verified from ob- 
servation and discussion. The only change noted is that each hoop 
and the tube is expanded separately, and then the complete assembly 
of tube and three hoops is expanded to final dimensions. 

Three hydraulic pumps, operated electrically by two 220-volt, 12- 
horse power Schneider motors and one 220-volt, 25-horsepower motor, 
supply the pressure. A multiplier is introduced in each line which 
multiplies the pressure 100 times. After leaving the multipliers, 
the pipe lines from the two smaller pumps are then combined and 
are connected to a nozzle which passes through the stopper in one 
end of the cylinder. A similar nozzle through the same stopper 
received a separate pipe line from the larger pump. The pressure 
is introduced into the cylinder through these two nozzles. A steel 
rod connects the two stoppers, each of which is fitted with two 
annular packing rings, one ring of steel and the other of a rubber 
composition called "Dermatine ". The steel ring is fitted with a 
" tongue " which fits in a " groove " in the rubber ring and the 
greater the pressure applied upon the steel ring the tighter the joint 



20 

becomes. Water and air are permitted to leak past the joints un- 
til all the air is expelled from the cylinder. 

A pressure of 2,700-3,300 kilograms per square centimeter is 
applied in expanding the tube. The pressure in expanding the 
complete assembly is slightly greater. 

One tube and two hoops had been expanded. The tube and hoops 
for the gun being built at Kuelle were forged at Le Creusot also. 
Two hoops cracked while being expanded. The rear hoop cracked 
its entire length completely through the metal. Three old 10-inch 
armor plates are installed to protect the installation and personnel 
from such accidents. Great difficulty has been experienced in ob- 
taining large forgings of homogeneous metal. The failures due 
to defective forgings, it is estimated, will make the cost of these 
two experimental guns about 50 per cent greater than ordinary 
built